nep-opm New Economics Papers
on Open Economy Macroeconomics
Issue of 2015‒05‒22
nine papers chosen by
Martin Berka
University of Auckland

  1. Macroeconomic Volatility and External Imbalances By Fogli, Alessandra; Perri, Fabrizio
  2. Financial Flows and the International Monetary System By Evgenia Passari; Hélène Rey
  3. News Shocks in Open Economies: Evidence from Giant Oil Discoveries By Rabah Arezki; Valerie A Ramey; Liugang Sheng
  4. Coordination and Crisis in Monetary Unions By Aguiar, Mark; Amador, Manuel; Farhi, Emmanuel; Gopinath, Gita
  5. Dilemma not Trilemma: The global Financial Cycle and Monetary Policy Independence By Hélène Rey
  6. Global and country-specific factors in real effective exchange rates By Nagayasu, Jun
  7. Trade finance and international currency By Liu, Tao
  8. Dutch Disease and the Mitigation Effect of Migration: Evidence from Canadian Provinces By Michel Beine; Serge Coulombe; Wessel Vermeulen
  9. Exchange Rate Pass-Through in an Emerging Market: The Case of the Czech Republic By Jan Hájek; Roman Horváth

  1. By: Fogli, Alessandra (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis); Perri, Fabrizio (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis)
    Abstract: Does macroeconomic volatility/uncertainty affect accumulation of net foreign assets? In OECD economies over the period 1970-2012, changes in country specific aggregate volatility are, after controlling for a wide array of factors, significantly positively associated with net foreign asset position. An increase in volatility (measured as the standard deviation of GDP growth) of 0.5% over period of 10 years is associated with an increase in the net foreign assets of around 8% of GDP. A standard open economy model with time varying aggregate uncertainty can quantitatively account for this relationship. The key mechanism is precautionary motive: more uncertainty induces residents to save more, and higher savings are in part channeled into foreign assets. We conclude that both data and theory suggest uncertainty/volatility is an important determinant of the medium/long run evolution of external imbalances in developed countries.
    Keywords: Business cycles; Current account; Global imbalances; Precautionary saving; Uncertainty
    JEL: F32 F34 F41
    Date: 2015–05–11
  2. By: Evgenia Passari; Hélène Rey
    Abstract: We review the findings of the literature on the benefits of international financial flows and find that they are quantitatively elusive. We then present evidence on the existence of a global cycle in gross cross border flows, asset prices and leverage and discuss its impact on monetary policy autonomy across different exchange rate regimes. We focus in particular on the effect of US monetary policy shocks on the UK's financial conditions.
    JEL: E5 F3
    Date: 2015–05
  3. By: Rabah Arezki; Valerie A Ramey; Liugang Sheng
    Abstract: This paper explores the effect of news shocks on the current account and other macroeconomic variables using worldwide giant oil discoveries as a directly observable measure of news shocks about future output ̶ the delay between a discovery and production is on average 4 to 6 years. We first present a two-sector small open economy model in order to predict the responses of macroeconomic aggregates to news of an oil discovery. We then estimate the effects of giant oil discoveries on a large panel of countries. Our empirical estimates are consistent with the predictions of the model. After an oil discovery, the current account and saving rate decline for the first 5 years and then rise sharply during the ensuing years. Investment rises robustly soon after the news arrives, while GDP does not increase until after 5 years. Employment rates fall slightly for a sustained period of time.
    Keywords: news shocks, current account, saving, investment, employment, oil, discovery
    JEL: E00 F3 F4
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Aguiar, Mark (Princeton University); Amador, Manuel (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis); Farhi, Emmanuel (Harvard University); Gopinath, Gita (Harvard University)
    Abstract: We study fiscal and monetary policy in a monetary union with the potential for rollover crises in sovereign debt markets. Member-country fiscal authorities lack commitment to repay their debt and choose fiscal policy independently. A common monetary authority chooses inflation for the union, also without commitment. We first describe the existence of a fiscal externality that arises in the presence of limited commitment and leads countries to over-borrow; this externality rationalizes the imposition of debt ceilings in a monetary union. We then investigate the impact of the composition of debt in a monetary union, that is the fraction of high-debt versus low-debt members, on the occurrence of self-fulfilling debt crises. We demonstrate that a high-debt country may be less vulnerable to crises and have higher welfare when it belongs to a union with an intermediate mix of high- and low-debt members, than one where all other members are low-debt. This contrasts with the conventional wisdom that all countries should prefer a union with low-debt members, as such a union can credibly deliver low inflation. These findings shed new light on the criteria for an optimal currency area in the presence of rollover crises.
    Keywords: Debt crisis; Coordination failures; Monetary union; Fiscal policy
    JEL: E40 E50 F30 F40
    Date: 2015–05–11
  5. By: Hélène Rey
    Abstract: There is a global financial cycle in capital flows, asset prices and in credit growth. This cycle co‐moves with the VIX, a measure of uncertainty and risk aversion of the markets. Asset markets in countries with more credit inflows are more sensitive to the global cycle. The global financial cycle is not aligned with countries’ specific macroeconomic conditions. Symptoms can go from benign to large asset price bubbles and excess credit creation, which are among the best predictors of financial crises. A VAR analysis suggests that one of the determinants of the global financial cycle is monetary policy in the centre country, which affects leverage of global banks, capital flows and credit growth in the international financial system. Whenever capital is freely mobile, the global financial cycle constrains national monetary policies regardless of the exchange rate regime. For the past few decades, international macroeconomics has postulated the “trilemma”: with free capital mobility, independent monetary policies are feasible if and only if exchange rates are floating. The global financial cycle transforms the trilemma into a “dilemma” or an “irreconcilable duo”: independent monetary policies are possible if and only if the capital account is managed. So should policy restrict capital mobility? Gains to international capital flows have proved elusive whether in calibrated models or in the data. Large gross flows disrupt asset markets and financial intermediation, so the costs may be very large. To deal with the global financial cycle and the “dilemma”, we have the following policy options: ( a) targeted capital controls; (b) acting on one of the sources of the financial cycle itself, the monetary policy of the Fed and other main central banks; (c) acting on the transmission channel cyclically by limiting credit growth and leverage during the upturn of the cycle, using national macroprudential policies; (d) acting on the transmission channel structurally by imposing stricter limits on leverage for all financial intermediaries.
    JEL: E5 F02 F33 G15
    Date: 2015–05
  6. By: Nagayasu, Jun
    Abstract: Using the Bayesian factor model, we decompose movements in real effective exchange rates, which can be considered a measure of external competitiveness, into global and country-specific factors. In data from a number of developed and developing countries, we find a particular global trend in these rates, but a substantial proportion of the variation in these rates is found to be country-specific. In addition, consistent with economic theory, this global factor is closely related to a trend in the global interest rate, while country-specific factors to idiosyncratic movements in countries’ own interest rates.
    Keywords: Real effective exchange rates, factor model, variance decomposition, external competitiveness
    JEL: F01 F31
    Date: 2015–05–01
  7. By: Liu, Tao
    Abstract: The determinants of international currency received a lot of academic attention since great recession, especially given China's intention to internationalize RMB. Recent empirical studies in history and international economics confi�rmed the importance of �nancial market development in this process. To provide micro-foundation for such observation, I built a two-country monetary search model with �nancial friction. Trade takes a long time, and the lack of trust makes importer and exporter rely on bank-intermediated �nance. The choice of international currency is related with terms of trade, monetary policy, and �nancial market development. The eff�ect of monetary policy on international trade di�ffers according to currency regime. Related topic such as size eff�ect and capital account liberalization is also discussed.
    Keywords: International currency; RMB internationalization; monetary search
    JEL: E42 F33 F41
    Date: 2015–05–14
  8. By: Michel Beine; Serge Coulombe; Wessel Vermeulen
    Abstract: This paper evaluates whether immigration can mitigate the Dutch disease effects associated with booms in natural resource sectors. We derive predicted changes in the size of the non-tradable sector from a small general-equilibrium model `a la Obstfeld-Rogoff. Using data for Canadian provinces, we find evidence that aggregate immigration mitigates the increase in the size of the non-tradable sector in booming regions. The mitigation effect is due mostly to interprovincial migration and temporary foreign workers. There is no evidence of such an effect for permanent international immigration. Interprovincial migration also results in a spreading effect of Dutch disease from booming to non-booming provinces.
    Keywords: Natural Resources, Dutch Disease, Immigration, Mitigation Effect
    JEL: F22 O15 R11 R15
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Jan Hájek (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague, Smetanovo nábreží 6, 111 01 Prague 1, Czech Republic); Roman Horváth (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague, Smetanovo nábreží 6, 111 01 Prague 1, Czech Republic; Institute for East and Southeast European Studies, Regensburg, Germany)
    Abstract: We examine exchange rate pass-through, or how domestic prices respond to exchange rate shocks, in the Czech Republic from 1998 to 2013 by employing vector autoregression models. Using the aggregate consumer price index and its sub-components, we find that the degree of passthrough is incomplete except for food prices. The peak response occurs between 9 and 13 months after the exchange rate shock. The long-term pass-through is approximately 50% at the aggregate level. The degree of pass-through is greater for tradables than for non-tradables. The results also suggest that the exchange rate pass-through becomes slower but more complete during the financial crisis experienced in period considered.
    Keywords: exchange rate pass-through, Czech Republic, inflation, vector autoregression
    JEL: E31 E52 E58 F31
    Date: 2015–04

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