nep-opm New Economics Papers
on Open MacroEconomics
Issue of 2008‒07‒05
eight papers chosen by
Martin Berka
Massey University

  1. The Long or Short of it: Determinants of Foreign Currency Exposure in External Balance Sheets By Lane, Philip R.; Shambaugh, Jay C
  2. The Continuing Puzzle of Short Horizon Exchange Rate Forecasting By Kenneth S. Rogoff; Vania Stavrakeva
  3. Openness, Bureaucratic Corruption and Public Policy in an Endogenous Growth Model By Rangan Gupta; Emmanuel Ziramba
  4. Exchange Rate Regimes and the Extensive Margin of Trade By Paul R. Bergin; Ching-Yi Lin
  5. Global Trade and the Maritime Transport Revolution By David S. Jacks; Krishna Pendakur
  6. Capital Flows and Exchange Rates An empirical Analysis By Gregorios Siourounis
  7. Persistent Real Exchange Rates By Alok Johri; Amartya Lahiri
  8. On Choosing an Exchange Rate Regimes in Emerging Economies By Adamcik, Santiago

  1. By: Lane, Philip R.; Shambaugh, Jay C
    Abstract: Recently, there have been numerous advances in modelling optimal international portfolio allocations in macroeconomic models. A major focus of this literature has been on the role of currency movements in determining portfolio returns that may hedge various macroeconomic shocks. However, there is little empirical evidence on the foreign currency exposures that are embedded in international balance sheets. Using a new database, we provide stylized facts concerning the cross-country and time-series variation in aggregate foreign currency exposure and its various subcomponents. In panel estimation, we find that richer, more open economies take longer foreign-currency positions. In addition, we find that an increase in the propensity for a currency to depreciate during bad times is associated with a longer position in foreign currencies, providing a hedge against domestic output fluctuations. We view these new stylized facts as informative in their own right and also potentially useful to the burgeoning theoretical literature on the macroeconomics of international portfolios.
    Keywords: exchange rates; Financial globalization; international portfolios
    JEL: F31 F32
    Date: 2008–06
  2. By: Kenneth S. Rogoff; Vania Stavrakeva
    Abstract: Are structural models getting closer to being able to forecast exchange rates at short horizons? Here we argue that over-reliance on asymptotic test statistics in out-of-sample comparisons, misinterpretation of some tests, and failure to sufficiently check robustness to alternative time windows has led many studies to overstate even the relatively thin positive results that have been found. We find that by allowing for common cross-country shocks in our panel forecasting specification, we are able to generate some improvement, but even that improvement is not entirely robust to the forecast window, and much of the gain appears to come from non-structural rather than structural factors.
    JEL: C52 C53 F31 F47
    Date: 2008–06
  3. By: Rangan Gupta (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria); Emmanuel Ziramba (Department of Economics, University of South Africa)
    Abstract: In this paper, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium overlapping generations monetary endogenous growth model of a financially repressed small open economy characterized by bureaucratic corruption, and, in turn, analyze optimal policy decisions of the government following an increase in the degree of corruption. Unlike as suggested in the empirical literature, we find that increases in the degree of corruption should ideally result in a fall in seigniorage, as an optimal response of the benevolent government. In addition, higher degrees of corruption should also be accompanied with lower levels of financial repression.
    Keywords: Bureaucratic Corruption, Macroeconomic Policy, Openness
    JEL: D73 E63 F43
    Date: 2008–06
  4. By: Paul R. Bergin; Ching-Yi Lin
    Abstract: This paper finds that currency unions and direct exchange rate pegs raise trade through distinct channels. Panel data analysis of the period 1973-2000 indicates that currency unions have raised trade predominantly at the extensive margin, the entry of new firms or products. In contrast, direct pegs have worked almost entirely at the intensive margin, increased trade of existing products. A stochastic general equilibrium model is developed to understand this result, featuring price stickiness and firm entry under uncertainty. Because both regimes tend to reliably provide exchange rate stability over the horizon of a year or so, which is the horizon of price setting, they both lead to lower export prices and greater demand for exports. But because currency unions historically are more durable over a longer horizon than pegs, they encourage firms to make the longer-term investment needed to enter a new market. The model predicts that when exchange rate uncertainty is completely and permanently eliminated, all of the adjustment in trade should occur at the extensive margin.
    JEL: F4
    Date: 2008–06
  5. By: David S. Jacks; Krishna Pendakur
    Abstract: What is the role of transport improvements in globalization? We argue that the nineteenth century is the ideal testing ground for this question: freight rates fell on average by 50% while global trade increased 400% from 1870 to 1913. We estimate the first indices of bilateral freight rates for the period and directly incorporate these into a standard gravity model. We also take the endogeneity of bilateral trade and freight rates seriously and propose an instrumental variables approach. The results are striking as we find no evidence that the maritime transport revolution was the primary driver of the late nineteenth century global trade boom. Rather, the most powerful forces driving the boom were those of income growth and convergence.
    JEL: F15 F40 N70
    Date: 2008–06
  6. By: Gregorios Siourounis
    Abstract: This paper investigates the empirical relationship between capital flows and nominal ex-change rates for five major countries. It is well known that no theory based on current account or interest rates has ever been shown to work empirically at short to medium horizons. Recent international finance theory, however, suggests that currencies are influenced by capital flows as much as by current account balances and log-term interest rates. Using unrestricted VAR's we document the following: a) Incorporating net cross-border equity flows into linear exchange rate models can improve their in-sample performance. Using net cross-border bond flows, however, has no such effect; b) Positive shocks to home equity returns (relative to foreign markets) are associated with short-run home currency appreciation and equity inflow. Positive shocks to home interest rates (relative to foreign countries) cause currency movements that are not consistent with uncovered interest rate parity (UIP); c) An equity-augmented linear model supports exchange rate predictability and outperforms a random walk in several cases. Such superior forecast performance, however, depends on the exchange rate and the forecast horizon.
    Keywords: Net equity flows, net bond flows, equity returns, interest rates, and nominal exchange rates.
    Date: 2008
  7. By: Alok Johri; Amartya Lahiri
    Abstract: Three well known facts that characterize exchange rate data are: (a) the high correlation between bilateral nominal and real exchange rates; (b) the high degree of persistence in real exchange rate movements; and (c) the high volatility of real exchange rates. This paper attempts a joint, albeit partial, rationalization of these facts in an environment with no staggered contracts and where prices are preset for only one quarter. There are two key innovations in the paper. First, we augment a standard two-country open economy model with learning-by-doing in production at the firm level. This induces monopolistically competitive firms to endogeneize the productivity effect of their price setting behavior. Specifically, firms endogenously choose not to adjust prices by the full proportion of a positive monetary shock in order to take advantage of the productivity benefits of higher production. Second, we introduce habits in leisure. This makes the labor supply decision dynamic and adds an additional source of propagation. We show that the calibrated model can quantitatively reproduce significant fractions of the aforementioned facts. Moreover, as in the data, the model also produces a positive correlation between the terms of trade and the nominal exchange rate.
    Keywords: Real exchange rate movements, endogenous price stickiness, learning-by-doing
    JEL: F1 F2
    Date: 2008–06
  8. By: Adamcik, Santiago
    Abstract: This paper discusses that a lot of the debate on selecting an exchange rate regime misses the time. It begins explaining the standard theory of choice between exchange rate regimes, and then explores the fragilities in this theory, specifically when this is applied to emerging economies. Next presents a extent of institutional characteristics that might have influence upon a country to choose either fixed or floating rates , and then turns to the converse question of whether the selection of exchange rate regime may make for the development of some helpful institutional traits. The conclusion is that the election of exchange rate regime is likely to be of second order significance to the development of good fiscal, financial, and monetary institutions in causing macroeconomic achievement in emerging market. A greater dedication in strong institution's development instead of focalizing in the exchange rate regimes could make economies healthier and less propense to the crises, as was observed of late years.
    Keywords: Regimenes de Tipo de Cambio; Economias Emergentes; Inflacion;Currency Board; Soft Pegs; Hard Pegs
    JEL: F4 F3 E5 E4
    Date: 2008–01

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