nep-neu New Economics Papers
on Neuroeconomics
Issue of 2022‒09‒05
four papers chosen by

  1. Looming Large or Seeming Small? Attitudes Towards Losses in a Representative Sample By Jonathan Chapman; Erik Snowberg; Stephanie W. Wang; Colin Camerer
  2. Is the intergenerational transmission of overweight 'gender assortative'? By Costa-Font, Joan; Jofre-Bonet, Mireia
  3. Simple models predict behavior at least as well as behavioral scientists By Dillon Bowen
  4. Relationship between Extracurricular Activities in Elementary School and Academics, Non-cognitive Ability, and Future Achievements: Focusing on choice of physical activity or music activity (Japanese) By KUME Koichi; TSURU Kotaro; SANO Shinpei; YASUI Kengo

  1. By: Jonathan Chapman; Erik Snowberg; Stephanie W. Wang; Colin Camerer
    Abstract: We measure individual-level loss aversion using three incentivized, representative surveys of the U.S. population (combined N=3,000). We find that around 50% of the U.S. population is loss tolerant, with many participants accepting negative-expected-value gambles. This is counter to earlier findings—which mostly come from lab/student samples—and expert predictions that 70-90% of participants are loss averse. Consistent with the difference between our study and the prior literature, loss aversion is more prevalent in people with high cognitive ability. Loss-tolerant individuals are more likely to report recent gambling and to have experienced financial shocks. These results support the general hypothesis that individuals value gains and losses differently, although the tendency in a large proportion of the population to emphasize gains over losses is an overlooked behavioral phenomenon.
    JEL: C81 C9 D03 D81 D9
    Date: 2022–07
  2. By: Costa-Font, Joan; Jofre-Bonet, Mireia
    Abstract: Using almost two decades worth of data from the Health Survey for England, that contain representative records of clinically measured weight and height, this paper studies whether parents and children's overweight (including obesity) is ‘gender assortative’. Our findings suggest that the intergenerational transmission of parent's overweight differs by children's sex and is statistically different for fathers and mothers. Gender assortative overweight is stronger among pre-school age and school-aged children. The parent-child associations are large and precisely estimated, heterogeneous by children's age and sex and stronger among white children and children of older parents. These results suggest there is a gender assortative intergenerational association of overweight.
    Keywords: Gender-assortative transmission; Gender assortative; Child obesity; Child overweight; Role models; Inter-generational transmission
    JEL: I18
    Date: 2020–12–01
  3. By: Dillon Bowen
    Abstract: How accurately can behavioral scientists predict behavior? To answer this question, we analyzed data from five studies in which 640 professional behavioral scientists predicted the results of one or more behavioral science experiments. We compared the behavioral scientists' predictions to random chance, linear models, and simple heuristics like "behavioral interventions have no effect" and "all published psychology research is false." We find that behavioral scientists are consistently no better than - and often worse than - these simple heuristics and models. Behavioral scientists' predictions are not only noisy but also biased. They systematically overestimate how well behavioral science "works": overestimating the effectiveness of behavioral interventions, the impact of psychological phenomena like time discounting, and the replicability of published psychology research.
    Date: 2022–08
  4. By: KUME Koichi; TSURU Kotaro; SANO Shinpei; YASUI Kengo
    Abstract: This paper empirically analyzes the factors and outcomes related to the choice of extracurricular activities in elementary school. Specifically, we analyzed the experience of physical and musical activities by gender. A father's education level has particularly influence on his child's participation in physical and musical activities. The choice of physical activity is related to social capital such as strength of friendship and participation in local events, and the choice of musical activity is related to cultural capital, which includes lifestyle and experiences such as going to concerts with family and reading books. In terms of academic performance, non-cognitive ability, educational background, and wages, the group who chose either physical or musical activity was more successful than the group who neither did physical nor musical activity. In addition, physical activity and musical activity were associated with different outcomes depending on gender and achievement measures. For example, wages were higher in the group who chose physical activity for both men and women, but the academic performance in elementary school was better in the group who chose musical activity for both men and women. Regarding non-cognitive abilities, the result suggests that women who chose physical activity had a higher extroversion and preference for competition than those who chose musical activity, both of which may be linked to effects on current wages. We also confirmed that those who chose both physical activity and musical activity had a higher workload, which may result in lower achievement scores than that of those who chose only one of the two activities.
    Date: 2022–08

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