nep-neu New Economics Papers
on Neuroeconomics
Issue of 2021‒03‒08
six papers chosen by
Daniel Houser
George Mason University

  1. Maternal Postpartum Depression Effects on Child's Health By Lucia Schiavon
  2. Maternal depression and child human capital: a genetic instrumental-variable approach By Andrew E. Clark; Conchita D'Ambrosio; Simone Ghislandi; Anthony Lepinteur; Giorgia Menta
  3. Parental Paternalism and Patience By Lukas Kiessling; Shyamal Chowdhury; Hannah Schildberg-Hörisch; Matthias Sutter
  4. Patience, Cognitive Abilities, and Cognitive Effort: Survey and Experimental Evidence from a Developing Country By Stefania Bortolotti; Thomas Dohmen; Hartmut Lehmann; Frauke Meyer; Norberto Pignatti; Karine Torosyan
  5. Gender Gaps in Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills: Roles of SES and Gender Attitudes By Hervé, Justine; Mani, Subha; Behrman, Jere R.; Nandi, Arindam; Sankhil Lamkang, Anjana; Laxminarayan, Ramanan
  6. Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Governance: A cognitive approach By Rania Béji; Ouidad Yousfi; Abdelwahed Omri

  1. By: Lucia Schiavon
    Abstract: Several studies indicate that children, whose mother experienced postpartum depression, are at greater risks of emotional, behavioural, cognitive and interpersonal problems later in life. However, maternal postpartum depression might influence child’s development by affecting his health outcomes. Using data from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK data service), we investigate whether maternal postpartum depression has any impact on early child health development and if differences exist when the child is the first-born. In detail, we study the effects of maternal postpartum depression on a range of potential child health diseases at ages of 3, 5, 7 and 11 years and on the number of injuries or accidents occurred at the child, for which he was taken to the hospital. Our findings show a non-negligible impact of maternal postpartum depression for first-born children on those health issues enhanced by a stressful environment: wheezing (throughout childhood) and hay fever (at early ages). At later ages (7 and 11 years), children with a mother who experienced postpartum depression are also more likely to suffer from asthma. Furthermore, results indicate a significant strong effect of maternal postpartum depression on the accident rate at the ages of 3 and 5 years (the incidence-rate ratios are of 1.205 and 1.289 respectively).
    Keywords: maternal postpartum depression, early childhood development, children health.
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Andrew E. Clark; Conchita D'Ambrosio; Simone Ghislandi; Anthony Lepinteur; Giorgia Menta
    Abstract: We here address the causal relationship between maternal depression and child human capital using UK cohort data. We exploit the conditionally-exogenous variation in mothers' genomes in an instrumental-variable approach, and describe the conditions under which mother's genetic variants can be used as valid instruments. An additional episode of maternal depression between the child's birth up to age nine reduces both their cognitive and non-cognitive skills by 20 to 45% of a SD throughout adolescence. Our results are robust to a battery of sensitivity tests addressing, among others, concerns about pleiotropy and the maternal transmission of genes to her child.
    Keywords: mendelian randomisation, maternal depression, human capital, instrumental variables, ALSPAC
    JEL: I14 J24
    Date: 2021–02
  3. By: Lukas Kiessling (Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods); Shyamal Chowdhury (University of Sydney and IZA); Hannah Schildberg-Hörisch (Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE) and IZA); Matthias Sutter (Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, University of Cologne, University of Innsbruck, IZA, and CESifo)
    Abstract: We study whether and how parents interfere paternalistically in their children’s intertemporal decision-making. Based on experiments with over 2,000 members of 610 families, we find that parents anticipate their children’s present bias and aim to mitigate it. Using a novel method to measure parental interference, we show that more than half of all parents are willing to pay money to override their children’s choices. Parental interference predicts more intensive parenting styles and a lower intergenerational transmission of patience. The latter is driven by interfering parents not transmitting their own present bias, but molding their children’s preferences towards more time-consistent choices.
    Keywords: Parental paternalism, Time preferences, Convex time budgets, Present bias, Intergenerational transmission, Parenting styles, Experiment
    JEL: C90 D1 D91 D64 J13 J24 O12
    Date: 2021–01–07
  4. By: Stefania Bortolotti (University of Bologna, IZA); Thomas Dohmen (University of Bonn, IZA, Maastricht University, ROA, DIW); Hartmut Lehmann (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia, IZA, University of Bologna); Frauke Meyer (Forschungszentrum Julich); Norberto Pignatti (International School of Economics at Tbilisi State University (ISET), Tbilisi; IZA); Karine Torosyan (International School of Economics at Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi (ISET);)
    Abstract: We shed new light on the relationship between cognition and patience, by providing documenting that the correlation between cognitive abilities and delay discounting is weaker for the same group of individuals if choices are incentivized. We conjecture that the exertion of higher cognitive effort, which induces higher involvement of the cognitive system, moderates the relationship between patience and cognition. To test this hypothesis, we analyze the relationship between various measures of cognitive ability, including the cognitive reflection test (CRT), a symbol-correspondence test, a numeracy test, as well as self-reported math ability and the interviewer’s assessment of the respondent’s sharpness and understanding, and di↵erent measures of patience, including incentivized choices between smaller sooner and larger later monetary payments and hypothetical inter-temporal trade-offs, for 107 subjects drawn from the adult population in Tbilisi (Georgia).
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Hervé, Justine (Fordham University); Mani, Subha (Fordham University); Behrman, Jere R. (University of Pennsylvania); Nandi, Arindam (CDDEP); Sankhil Lamkang, Anjana (CDDEP); Laxminarayan, Ramanan (CDDEP)
    Abstract: Gender gaps in skills exist around the world but differ remarkably among the high and low-and-middle income countries. This paper uses a unique data set with more than 20,000 adolescents in rural India to examine whether socioeconomic status and gender attitudes predict gender gaps in cognitive and noncognitive skills. We find steep socioeconomic and attitude gradients in both cognitive and noncognitive skills, with bigger effect sizes for the socioeconomic status (SES) gradients. Our results suggest that a sizable improvement in gender attitudes would yield important gains for females, but substantial gains would come only from large improvements in household socioeconomic status. Overall, the household socioeconomic and cultural environment is significantly associated with the gender gaps in both cognitive and noncognitive skills.
    Keywords: cognitive skills, noncognitive skills, gender attitudes, gender, India, children
    JEL: I21 I25 J13 J16 J24
    Date: 2021–02
  6. By: Rania Béji (UM - Université de Montpellier, MRM - Montpellier Research in Management - UM - Université de Montpellier - Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier (GSCM) - Montpellier Business School - UM1 - Université Montpellier 1 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - UM2 - Université Montpellier 2 - Sciences et Techniques - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3); Ouidad Yousfi (UM - Université de Montpellier, MRM - Montpellier Research in Management - UM - Université de Montpellier - Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier (GSCM) - Montpellier Business School - UM1 - Université Montpellier 1 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - UM2 - Université Montpellier 2 - Sciences et Techniques - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3); Abdelwahed Omri (Université de Tunis)
    Abstract: This chapter aims to critically review the existing literature on the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance features. Drawn on management and corporate governance theories, we develop a theoretical model that makes explicit the links between board diversity, CSR committees' attributes, CSR and financial performance. Particularly, we show that focusing on the cognitive and demographic characteristics of board members could provide more insights on the link between corporate governance and CSR. We also highlight how the functioning and the composition of CSR committees, could be valuable to better understand the relationship between corporate governance and CSR.
    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility,Corporate Governance,Diversity,CSR committees,Corporate Social Responsibility Performance,Financial Performance
    Date: 2020–10–14

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