nep-neu New Economics Papers
on Neuroeconomics
Issue of 2020‒09‒28
five papers chosen by

  1. The links between intelligence, personality, and theory of mind in an adult sample By Svenson, Alexander; Guillen, Pablo
  2. Intergenerational Effects of Early-Life Advantage: Lessons from a Primate Study By Amanda Dettmer; James J. Heckman; Juan Pantano; Victor Ronda; Stephen Suomi
  3. Time of Day, Cognitive Tasks and Efficiency Gains By Gaggero, Alessio; Tommasi, Denni
  4. Locus Of Control, Self Efficacy And Self Esteem On Nurses Performance At Hasanuddin Damrah Hospital Manna By Onsardi, Onsardi; , Agung
  5. Educational Gender Gaps By Lundberg, Shelly

  1. By: Svenson, Alexander; Guillen, Pablo
    Abstract: The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET; Baron-Cohen, Jolliffe, Mortimore, & Robertson, 1997; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001) is a commonly used test of theory of mind (ToM). Our aim was to explore intelligence and personality variables that may predict performance on the RMET. Towards this aim, 402 Australian university students were recruited for laboratory sessions where the RMET was administered along with measures of verbal and non-verbal intelligence, and measures of the Five Factor Model of personality (FFM) or Big Five. The perspective that the processes underlying RMET performance are fully implicit, and independent of other abilities or traits, was not supported by our findings. Instead, linear regression models (evaluated at a 5% significance level or lower) revealed that RMET scores were predicted by verbal reasoning ability, particularly vocabulary subtests. Moreover, the Extraversion and Conscientiousness factors had quadratic relationships with RMET scores; Agreeableness, Emotional stability, and Openness factors were positively associated with RMET scores; and Self-monitoring was negatively associated with RMET scores. Our results help address inconsistencies in the literature to date by highlighting the intertwined nature of social cognition with verbal intelligence and personality.
    Keywords: theory of mind, intelligence, personality
    Date: 2020–09
  2. By: Amanda Dettmer (Yale Child Study Center); James J. Heckman (The University of Chicago); Juan Pantano (Center for the Economics of Human Development); Victor Ronda (Aarhus University); Stephen Suomi (National Institute of Child Health & Human Development)
    Abstract: This paper uses three decades of studies with Rhesus monkeys to investigate the intergenerational effects of early life advantage. Monkeys and their offspring were both randomly assigned to be reared together or apart from their mothers. We document significant intergenerational effects of maternal presence. We also estimate, for the first time, the intergenerational complementarity of early life advantage, where the intergenerational effects of maternal rearing are only present for offspring that were mother-reared. This finding suggests that parenting is the primary mechanism driving the intergenerational effects. Our paper demonstrates how studies of primates can inform human development.
    Keywords: maternal influence, animal studies, early-life adversity, intergenerational treatment effects, intergenerational complementarity
    JEL: I12 C21
    Date: 2020–08
  3. By: Gaggero, Alessio (University of Nottingham); Tommasi, Denni (Monash University)
    Abstract: The link between time-of-day and productivity on cognitive tasks is crucial to understand workplace efficiency and welfare. We study the performance of University students taking at most one exam per day in the final two weeks of the semester. Exams are scheduled at different time-of-day in a quasirandom fashion. We find that peak performance occurs around lunchtime (1.30pm), as compared to morning (9am) or late afternoon (4.30pm). This inverse-U shape relationship between time-of-day and performance (i) is not driven by stress or fatigue, (ii) is consistent with the idea that cognitive functioning is an important determinant of productivity and (iii) implies that efficiency gains of up to 0.14 standard deviations can be achieved through simple re-arrangements of the time of exams. While researchers have shown that biological factors influence changes in productivity between day and night shifts, we establish that such relationship is also important within a standard day-light shift. A simple back of the envelope calculation applied to an external context that is likely to benefit from our results, elective surgeries, suggests that a different sorting of the cognitive tasks performed by surgeons may lead to an increase in the number of patients saved.
    Keywords: time-of-day, cognitive tasks, productivity, efficiency gains, circadian rhythm
    JEL: I20 I24 J22 J24
    Date: 2020–09
  4. By: Onsardi, Onsardi; , Agung
    Abstract: This study aims to determine the effect of locus of control, self efficacy and self esteem on nurses' performance at Hasanuddin Damrah Hospital Manna. The sample in this study were 162 nurses who worked at Hasanuddin Damrah Hospital Manna and had become civil servants, because all the population in this study were sampled, the sampling method was taken by census. Data collection techniques using a questionnaire. The analysis technique used is multiple linear regression, coefficient of determination and hypothesis testing. The results showed that from the calculation of multiple linear regression equations it can be seen that X1 (Locus of control), X2 (Self Efficacy) and X3 (Self Esteem) have an influence on Performance (Y), with the results of regression tests: Y = 10.422 + 0.172X1 + 0,257X2 + 0,335 X3. The coefficient of determination of R square is equal to 0324. This means that X1 (Locus of control), X2 (Self Efficacy) and X3 (Self Esteem) affect the Performance (Y) of 32.4% while the remaining 67.6 % is influenced by other causative factors not examined in this study. Based on the results of testing with the t test, the hypothesis is made to prove there is an influence. Variables X1 (Locus of control), X2 (Self Efficacy) and X3 (Self Esteem) show tcount greater than ttable and significance value smaller than 0.05. This means that X1 (Locus of control), X2 (Self Efficacy) and X3 (Self Esteem), have a positive and partially significant effect on the performance (Y) of nurses at Hasanuddin Damrah Manna Hospital. Based on the results of testing the hypothesis with the F test, the value of Fcount> Ftable (25,221> 3.05) and a significant value of 0,000 <0.05 means that there are simultaneous influences from X1 (Locus of control), X2 (Self Efficacy) and X3 (Self Esteem), on the performance (Y) of nurses at RSUD Hasanuddin Damrah Manna Keywords: Locus of Control, Self Efficacy, Self Esteem, Performance
    Date: 2020–08–12
  5. By: Lundberg, Shelly (University of California, Santa Barbara)
    Abstract: Cross-country studies reveal two consistent gender gaps in education—underachievement in school by boys and low rates of participation in STEM studies by girls. Recent economics research has shown the importance of social influences on women's STEM avoidance, but male low achievement has been less-studied and tends to be attributed to behavior problems and deficient non-cognitive skills. I revisit the determinants of the gender gap in U.S. educational attainment with a relatively-advantaged sample of young men and women and find that school behavior and measured skills are not very important drivers of gender differences, particularly in the transition to college. Educational aspirations, on the other hand, are strongly predictive of educational gaps and the gender difference in aspirations cannot be explained, even with rich adolescent data that includes parental expectations and school achievement indicators. These results suggest that gender identity concerns may influence (and damage) the educational prospects of boys as well as girls through norms of masculinity that discourage academic achievement.
    Keywords: education, gender identity, school achievement, gender, aspirations, college graduation
    JEL: I20 J12 J16
    Date: 2020–08

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