nep-neu New Economics Papers
on Neuroeconomics
Issue of 2016‒07‒30
five papers chosen by

  2. Personality, ability, marriage and the gender wage gap: Evidence from Germany By Collischon, Matthias
  3. Height and cognition at older age: Irish evidence By Irene Mosca; Robert E Wright
  4. Does empathy Beget Guile? By Chen, Daniel L.
  5. Retirement and cognitive abilities By Tumino, Alberto

  1. By: Ayse Eliusuk (Konya Necmettin Erbakan University Education Faculty)
    Abstract: The purpose of the present research is determining the relationships between well-being, patience, self - compassion, and five factor personality traits among pre-service teachers, and finding out whether their patience, self - compassion, and five factor personality trait scores predict their well-being scores. Participants of research were university students from Konya Necmettin Erbakan University chosen by random cluster sampling method. Participants were made up of the total of 225 students, 153 of which were female and 72 were male. In order to determine the well-being scores of students, PERMA well-being scale (Kern, 2015), for Self compassion Scale (Deniz Kesici & Sümer, 2008) and for personality scores Five Factor Personality scale (Bacanli, İlhan & Arslan, 2009) were employed. The significance of differentiation between the mean score of the Well-Being and gender, age was tested with t-test. Pearson Moments Multiplier Correlation Coefficient was used to determine of relationship among well-being, patience, self compassion and five factor personality traits significantly predict patience. According to the findings of the present research; there were significant and positive correlations between all dimensions of PERMA well-Being and patience; self- compassion in addition to self compassion, patience and PERMA well-being was seen that self compassion and patience significantly predicts well-being. There were significant and positive correlations between all dimensions of PERMA Well- being and patience, self-compassion. There was a significant negative correlation between the students’ patience scores and neuroticism dimension of five factor personality traits, where as, there were significant positive relations between extraversion, openness to experiences, agreeableness and conscientiousness dimensions.
    Keywords: Well-being, self-compassion, patience, the measurement of well-being, reliability and validity.
    JEL: I30 I30 I30
  2. By: Collischon, Matthias
    Abstract: This study investigates the interplay between personality traits, cognitive ability, marriage and the gender wage gap for West Germany by using data from the GSOEP. The findings indicate that personality traits in the form of the five factors of personality account for 11% of the total gender wage gap, while ability does not have an effect on the wage differential. There also seems to be a strong and significant marriage premium for men. Comparing unmarried men to unmarried women, a gender wage gap of 4.7 log points remains. This study also takes selection into the labor market into account, which hardly changes the results.
    Keywords: gender wage gap,big five,Germany
    JEL: J16 J31
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Irene Mosca (TILDA, Trinity College Dublin); Robert E Wright (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde)
    Abstract: Previous research suggests that taller individuals have greater cognitive ability. The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate whether the relationship between height and cognition holds in later-life using data from the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Seven novel measures of cognition are used. These measures capture important aspects of cognition which are more likely to decline in old age, such as cognitive flexibility, processing speed, concentration and attention. It is found that height is positively and significantly associated with cognition in later-life also when education and early-life indicators are controlled for. The finding that adult height is a marker for nutrition and health environment experienced in early-life is widely accepted in the literature. The findings of this paper suggest that height might have a greater value added, as it appears to be a useful measure of unobserved childhood experiences.
    Keywords: cognition, height, ageing, early-life
    JEL: I1 J0 J1
    Date: 2016–07
  4. By: Chen, Daniel L.
    Abstract: Some theories about the positive impact of markets on morality suggest that competition increases empathy, not between competitors, but between them and third parties. However, empathy may be a necessary evolutionary antecedent to guile, which is when someone knows what the other person wants and intentionally deceives him or her, and deception may have evolved as a means of exploiting empathy. This paper examines how individuals primed for empathy behave towards third parties in a simple economic game of deception. It reports the results of a data entry experiment in an online labor market. Individuals enter data randomized to be a prime for empathy, for guile, or a control. Empathy is then measured using a Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and guile is measured using a simple economic game. Individuals primed for empathy become less deceptive towards third parties. Individuals primed for guile become less likely to perceive that deceiving an individual is unfair in a vignette. These results are robust to a variety of controls and to restricting to workers who entered the prime accurately. These findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that empathy causes guile and suggests that empathy may cause those who are making judgements to become less deceptive.
    Keywords: Normative Commitments, Other-Regarding Preferences, Empathy, Deception, Guile
    JEL: D03 D64 K00
    Date: 2016–07
  5. By: Tumino, Alberto
    Abstract: This paper investigates how retirement influences the cognitive abilities of British older workers. The analysis employs data from Understanding Society and relies on an instrumental variable approach to address endogeneity bias. Consistent with the "use it or lose it" hypothesis, we show that retirement induces cognitive decline, although the relationship is weaker for women employed in routine occupations. Disregarding potentially offsetting effects on other dimensions of health, we conclude that extending the working life has a beneficial effect on the cognitive capital of older workers and that maintaining a mentally engaging and stimulating life-style during retirement contributes to the cognitive health of the mature population.
    Date: 2016–07–01

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