nep-neu New Economics Papers
on Neuroeconomics
Issue of 2015‒06‒05
three papers chosen by

  1. Identities and ideals: Psychoanalytic dialogues of self and leadership By Gazi Islam
  2. Stress Reactions Cannot Explain the Gender Gap in Willingness to Compete By Buser, Thomas; Dreber, Anna; Mollerstrom, Johanna

  1. By: Gazi Islam (MC - Management et Comportement - Grenoble École de Management (GEM))
    Abstract: The author contextualizes recent developments in socio-cognitive approaches to leadership by drawing on psychoanalytic conceptions of self-identity. It is argued that psychoanalytic views of the self are complementary to contemporary social-cognitive approaches, although historical divergences in these literatures have impeded mutual dialogue. This initiative at dialogue examines charismatic, schema, and self- identity theories of leadership within a psychoanalytic framework, arguing that when self-identity is viewed broadly, convergences between these approaches become apparent. A broad view of the self makes notions of authority central to the construction of personal identities, underscores the ambivalence and relationality of self-processes, and highlights the normative assumptions underlying followership that may be difficult to theorize with contemporary socio-cognitive approaches.
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Buser, Thomas (School of Economics); Dreber, Anna (Department of Economics); Mollerstrom, Johanna (Interdisciplinary Center for Economics Science (ICES))
    Abstract: Women are often less willing than men to compete, even in tasks where there is no gender gap in performance. Also, many people experience competitive contexts as stressful and previous research has documented that men and women sometimes react differently to acute stressors. We use two laboratory experiments to investigate whether factors related to stress can help explain the gender gap in competitiveness. Experiment 1 studies whether stress responses (measured with salivary cortisol and through self-assessment) to taking part in a mandatory competition predict individual willingness to participate in a voluntary competition. We find that while the mandatory competition does increase stress levels, there is no gender difference in this reaction. Cortisol response does not predict willingness to compete for men but is positively and significantly correlated with choosing to enter the voluntary competition for women. In Experiment 2 we exogenously induce stress using the cold-pressor task. We find no causal effect of stress on competitiveness for the sample as a whole and only tentative evidence of a positive effect for women. In summary, even though there are some gender differences in the relation between stress responses and the decision to enter a competition or not, these cannot explain the general gender gap in willingness to compete that is generally found in the literature and which we replicate.
    Keywords: Gender differences; Competitiveness; Experiment; Cortisol; Stress
    JEL: C90 C91 J16 J71
    Date: 2015–06–01
  3. By: Mandeep Kaur; Manpreet Singh
    Abstract: The present study examines the role of personality dimensions in occurrence of Organizational Citizenship Behavior at workplace. Three hundred middle level managers from various multi-national companies situated in northern India (Chandigarh, Ludhiana, Patiala, and New Delhi) were included in this study. Their age ranged between 25-45 years. Only those employees were taken in this study who had served more than five years in that organization. Correlation was used to determine the significant relationships between personality dimensions and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. The results revealed that Neuroticism dimension of personality was negatively correlated with Organizational Citizenship Behavior. As far as Conscientiousness, Openness to experience, Agreeableness and Extraversion were concerned; all these dimensions were positively correlated with Organizational Citizenship Behavior. As far as Gender differences were concerned, the ‘t’ value did not attain the level of significance. The study has major implications for organizations as they can recruit employees on the bases of their personality i.e. less neurotic individuals, highly agreeable, highly conscientious individuals would be preferred as they would be influential in increasing productivity and efficiency of the organization in the future. Key words: personality impetus, managerial OCB, correlational analysis
    Date: 2014–03

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