nep-neu New Economics Papers
on Neuroeconomics
Issue of 2015‒05‒16
six papers chosen by

  2. The Sound of Others: Surprising Evidence of Conformist Behavior By Crosetto, Paolo; Filippin, Antonio
  3. Prenatal Testosterone Exposure Predicts Mindfulness – Does This Mediate Its Effect on Happiness? By Levent Neyse; Patrick Ring; Steven Bosworth
  4. The Ubiquitous Infusion Thinking (UIT) Strategy: Weaving Cognitive and Affective Thinking into Organizational Theories for Innovative Problem-Solving By Renée L. Cambiano; Dr. Pamela Carter Speaks; Ronald M. Cambiano; Carl Farinelli
  5. Who can predict their own Demise? Accuracy of Longevity Expectations by Education and Cognition By Teresa Bago d'Uva; Esen Erdogan Ciftci; Owen O'Donnell; Eddy van Doorslaer
  6. Cognitive Mapping as a Methodology to Study Individual and Collective Cognition By Rannah Hetherington

  1. By: Neslihan Lok (Akdeniz University, Nursing Faculty, Psychiatric Nursing Department); Sefa Lok (Selcuk University, School of Physical Education and Sports, Coaching Education Department)
    Abstract: Introduction: Mild cognitive impairment is the pathological case in which the individual is between dementia and healthy. Therefore, especially in the protection, it is necessary to maintain and protect the cognitive functions. The physical activities exercised by the old people are crucial in increasing the cognitive functions or in maintenance of the present condition.Aim: In this research, the aim is to analyse the effects of the physical activities on the cognitive functions of the old people with mild cognitive impairment.Methods: The research was organized within the order of pretest-posttest design as experimental type using control groups. For the experiment, 25 old people with mild cognitive impairment who were convenient for physical activities were selected with regard to the doctors’ advice. For the control group, a group of old people with mild cognitive impairment was listed. For the old people in the experimental group, a physical activity programme was applied including 30 minutes walk and 30 minutes regular exercise three days in a week which had continued for four weeks. Nothing was applied on the control group. Sociodemographic form and Standardized Mini Mental Test were applied on the old people both before and after the activity. The data has been analysed using Mann Whitney U test and percentage distributions.Results: The average age of the experimental group is 71.3±3.6and the control group is 70.2±42. The average mini mental test point of the old people in the experimental group before the activity (20.6±2.4) increased considerably after the activity (24.3±3.6) and the difference is significant statistically (p<0.05). When the mini mental test points of the experimental and control group was compared after the activity, it was found out that the experimental group has higher points compared to the experimental group and the difference is significant (p<0.05).Conclusions: Regular and a three-day week physical activity program improved the cognitive functions of the old people with mild cognitive impairment.
    Keywords: Elderly, Mild cognitive impairment, Physical activity, Cognitive functions
    JEL: I19
  2. By: Crosetto, Paolo (Université de Grenoble); Filippin, Antonio (University of Milan)
    Abstract: It has been shown that subjects tend to follow others' behavior even when the external signals are uninformative. In this paper we go one step further, showing that conformism occurs even when the choices of others are not even presented to the subjects, but just indirectly perceived. We use the "Click" version of the Bomb Risk Elicitation Task, in which subjects can infer the behavior of others only from the mass of clicks heard. This signal is payoff-irrelevant and largely uninformative about the actual choices of the other participants. Moreover, it is never mentioned in the instructions and therefore it must be spontaneously (and possibly unconsciously) perceived in order to be used. We control the exposure of subjects to clicks by implementing treatments with and without earmuffs. Moreover, we test whether the introduction of a minimal form of commonality, i.e., facing a common rather than individual resolution of uncertainty, makes conformism more likely to emerge. We find strong evidence of conformist behavior even in such an adverse environment. Simply hearing the others clicking affects subjects' behavior. Introducing a common random draw results in a further dramatic shift of the average choices, in particular by women.
    Keywords: conformism, risk attitude, experiment
    JEL: C81 C91 D81
    Date: 2015–04
  3. By: Levent Neyse; Patrick Ring; Steven Bosworth
    Abstract: This study investigates the connection between mindfulness and prenatal testosterone exposure and explores whether this is related to the relationship between mindfulness and human well-being as captured by three separate measures. In a sample of 90 German student participants, we find that subjects’ digit ratio – a reliable indicator for exposure to prenatal testosterone – predicts their Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) scores. Respondents with moderate levels of testosterone exposure have the highest MAAS scores. We additionally elicit participants’ self-reported general life satisfaction and current happiness levels as well as their estimates about others’ general life satisfaction. We find that MAAS strongly predicts absolute and relative life satisfaction and also current happiness levels, but digit ratios do not mediate the relationship between human well-being and mindfulness
    Keywords: Mindfulness; Digit ratio (2D:4D); Prenatal Testosterone; Life Satisfaction; Happiness
    JEL: L8 O5
    Date: 2015–04
  4. By: Renée L. Cambiano (Northeastern State University); Dr. Pamela Carter Speaks (Northeastern State University); Ronald M. Cambiano (Northeastern State University); Carl Farinelli (Northeastern State University)
    Abstract: In organizations where people interact with each other, there are many opportunities for reflection on internal and external issues that arise. In most cases, past experiences influence and impact how we approach these issues. Naturally, we have our own biases that direct our attention and lend to a directive approach to problem solving. In today’s society, problem-solving is key to the success of many organizations. Yet, historically organizations use the same models to approach these key issues. “These are the times of paradigm shift. But as Thomas Kuhn says somewhere, you often don't know the paradigm has shifted until well after people have begun to do their work and conduct their inquiries on the new basis. The old models are too deeply engraved in people's thinking. It takes time to understand at a conceptual level the kinds of intuitive insights change consultants have been having for the last couple of decades” (Olson & Eoyang, 2001 p. 1) .In this presentation, the authors will discuss the Ubiquitous Infusion Thinking (UIT) strategy as a paradigm shift approach to problem solving. “The Ubiquitous Infusion Thinking (UIT) strategy is an innovative action strategy evidenced by the weaving of cognitive and affective thinking into organizational theories that serve to shape the understanding of multidimensional threads and themes that emerge in the problem solving analysis of complex problems, situations and/or dilemmas used in a multidimensional case study perspective” (Cambiano, Speaks & Cambiano, 2014). It is through a focus - refocus - focus - visualize – interpret technique, which allows individuals to step out of the emotional situation and allow solutions to emerge for current problems. There are four phases to the UIT strategy: (1) Ubiquitous Investigation, (2) Shaping One’s Understanding, (3) Building the Backstory, and (4) Action. For the most part, we as humans follow this process naturally, it is the authors’ intent to provide structure to the process.
    Keywords: Ubiquitous Infusion Thinking (UIT)
  5. By: Teresa Bago d'Uva (Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands); Esen Erdogan Ciftci (Novartis, Turkey); Owen O'Donnell (Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands, University of Macedonia, Greece); Eddy van Doorslaer (Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands)
    Abstract: Biased longevity expectations will lead to suboptimal decisions regarding saving, retirement, annuitization and health, with consequences for wellbeing in old age. Systematic differences in the accuracy of longevity expectations may partly explain heterogeneity in economic behaviour by education and cognitive functioning. Analysis of eight waves of the US Health and Retirement Study reveals that individuals with lower levels of education and cognitive functioning report survival probabilities that are less accurate in predicting their in-sample mortality. There is little evidence that the gradients in the veracity of expectations are due to the less educated and cognitively able responding less to changes in objective mortality risks. However, high school dropouts and the least cognitively able report survival probabilities that are less stable and display greater un explained variability. These disadvantaged groups appear to be less confident in their longevity beliefs, which is justified given that their expectations are less accurate.
    Keywords: Expectations; Mortality; Health; Cognition; Education
    JEL: D83 D84 I12 J14
    Date: 2015–05–07
  6. By: Rannah Hetherington (The University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: The practicum is accepted as being mutually beneficial. Relationships between all members in the supervisory set are a significant component of the pre-service teacher practicum experience. The strength of these relationships supports social justice for pre-service teachers.This qualitative study explores the epistemological beliefs of a group of university based supervisors to determine their perceptions of professional reciprocal relationships. As a newly emerging qualitative methodology, in educational research, cognitive mapping was used to explore and challenge individual and collective perceptions of relationships developed in the practicum. Data derived through the mapping activity represents a subjective ‘collective’ view of what constitutes a professional reciprocal relationship and how these relationships can better support pre-service teacher development, university-school partnerships and inform systemic policy.
    Keywords: Cognitive Mapping, professional relationships, teacher education, practicum
    JEL: I29 I23

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