nep-neu New Economics Papers
on Neuroeconomics
Issue of 2015‒03‒27
five papers chosen by

  1. The Implications of Daylight Saving Time: A Field Experiment on Cognitive Performance and Risk Taking By Markus Schaffner; Jayanta Sarkar; Benno Torgler; Uwe Dulleck
  2. Secular Changes in Late-Life Cognition and Well-Being: Towards a Long Bright Future with a Short Brisk Ending? By Denis Gerstorf; Gizem Hülür; Johanna Drewelies; Peter Eibich; Sandra Duezel; Ilja Demuth; Paolo Ghisletta Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen; Gert G. Wagner; Ulman Lindenberger
  3. The Impact of Psychological Traits on Judgments Related to Ethics By Agarwalla, Sobhesh Kumar; Desai, Naman; Tripathy, Arindam
  4. The impact of formal institutions on social trust formation: A social-cognitive approach By Tamilina, Larysa; Tamilina, Natalya
  5. Surveying relationship of Emotional Intelligence and mental health with achievement motivation in university students By Hossein Fakorihajiyar; Alireza Homayouni; Hossein Daeezadeh; Babak Hosseinzadeh

  1. By: Markus Schaffner; Jayanta Sarkar; Benno Torgler; Uwe Dulleck
    Abstract: To explore the effects of daylights saving time (DST) transition on cognitive performance and risk-taking behaviour immediately before and one week after the shift to DST, this study examines two Australian populations living in similar geographic surroundings who experience either no DST transition (Queensland) or a one-hour DST desynchronization (New South Wales). This exogenous variation creates natural control (QLD) and treatment (NSW) groups that enable isolation and identification of the DST transition’s effect on the two outcome variables. Proximity to the border ensures similar socio-demographic and socio-economic conditions and thus permits comparison of the cognitive performance and risk-taking behaviour of affected versus unaffected individuals. The results suggest that exposure to the DST transition has no significant impact on either cognitive performance or risk-taking behaviour.
    Keywords: Daylight Saving Time; Risk-Taking Behaviour; Cognitive Performance; Field Experiment
    JEL: D81 C93 C21 I1
    Date: 2015–03
  2. By: Denis Gerstorf; Gizem Hülür; Johanna Drewelies; Peter Eibich; Sandra Duezel; Ilja Demuth; Paolo Ghisletta Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen; Gert G. Wagner; Ulman Lindenberger
    Abstract: How socio-cultural contexts shape individual functioning is of prime interest for psychological inquiry. Secular increases favoring later-born cohorts in fluid intelligence measures are widely documented for young adults. In the current study, we quantify such trends in old age using data from highly comparable participants living in a narrowly defined geographical area and examine whether these trends generalize to quality of life indicators. To do so, we compared data obtained 20 years apart in the Berlin Aging Study (in 1990–93) and the Berlin Aging Study II (in 2013–14), applied a case-matched control design (per cohort, n = 161, Mage = 75), quantified sample selection using a nationally representative sample as the reference, and controlled for number of physical diseases. The later cohort performed better on the fluid intelligence measure (d = .85) and reported higher morale, less negative affect, and more positive affect (ds > .39) than the earlier cohort. We conclude that secular advances have resulted in better cognitive performance and perceived quality of life among older adults and discuss when and how advantages of later cohorts reach their limits.
    Keywords: Cohort, cognitive ability, well-being, sociocultural factors, individual differences
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Agarwalla, Sobhesh Kumar; Desai, Naman; Tripathy, Arindam
    Abstract: This paper examines how two contradictory psychological traits, self-deception (SD) and professional skepticism (PS), affect managers and auditors assessments of the ethicality of various earnings management choices. Whereas, self-deception allows individuals to reduce cognitive dissonance (Festinger 1957) arising from their self-serving behavior which could be unethical (Audi 1988; Sanford 1988), professional skepticism or trait skepticism (Hurtt 2010) would force individuals to question such self-serving behavior and, as a result, could make them less likely to act unethically. The results indicate that SD, PS and participant type (Chartered Accountant (CA) versus Manager) had a significant effect on the ethicality ratings. Managers exhibiting high (low) SD and low (high) PS view the earnings management techniques that were generally considered to be unethical, as relatively more (less) ethical. For CAs, the SD and PS scores are not significantly related to their ethicality ratings. This result appears to be driven by the fact that CAs tend to have greater exposure information that emphasizes ethics such as their standards and education and hence psychological traits did not affect their ethicality ratings.
  4. By: Tamilina, Larysa; Tamilina, Natalya
    Abstract: While formal institutions are recognized as having an effect on trust formation, no theoretical or empirical models exist to formalize this relationship. This study introduces a new conceptual framework to explain trust building by individuals and the role that formal rules and laws may play in this process. Drawing on a social-cognitive theory of psychology, we present trust as composed of personal, interpersonal, and intrapersonal components with the latter encompassing formal institutions. We further demonstrate that there are three mechanisms – sanction, legitimacy, and autonomy – through which formal institutions may affect trust levels either directly or indirectly. In addition, our empirical analysis furnishes evidence of heterogeneity in institutional effects on trust, suggesting that the autonomy dimension of the institutional framework is particularly important for trust formation processes.
    Keywords: Interpersonal trust, trust formation processes, formal institutions, social-cognitive psychology
    JEL: K4
    Date: 2014–05–01
  5. By: Hossein Fakorihajiyar (Department of Education, Azadshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Azadshahr, Iran); Alireza Homayouni (Department of Psychology, Bandargaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandargaz, Iran); Hossein Daeezadeh (Department of Education, Bandargaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandargaz, Iran); Babak Hosseinzadeh (Department of Education, Babol Branch, Islamic Azad University, Babol, Iran)
    Abstract: Introduction & Aim: Emotional intelligence (EQ) is the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage emotions in positive ways to relieve stress, communicate effectively, empathize with others, overcome challenges, and defuse conflict. Emotional intelligence impacts many different aspects of your daily life, such as the way you behave and the way you interact with others. So, the present research investigated the relationship of emotional intelligence and mental health with achievement motivation in university students. Method: The sample comprised of 382 university students was taken from the university. Participants completed validated measures of Shutte self report emotional intelligence test (SSREIT), Goldberg general health questionnaire (GHQ) and Kamkar & Bahari achievement motivation scale. Results: Findings revealed positive significant correlation between emotional intelligence with achievement motivation. Although, there is correlation between mental health with achievement motivation, but the correlation was not significant. Conclusion: It means that increasing of emotional intelligence increase achievement motivation. Findings of the present research can have important psychological implications in the area of student counseling, adolescent and youth counseling, and personality development. Helping students and youth in regarding of emotional intelligence can improve their emotional competencies, decrease mental illness and help improving their quality of life and academic achievement.
    Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, mental health, achievement motivation, university students
    Date: 2014–05

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