New Economics Papers
on Neuroeconomics
Issue of 2011‒10‒01
four papers chosen by

  1. Cognitive effort in the Beauty Contest Game By Pablo Brañas-Garza; Teresa García-Muño; Roberto Hernán
  2. More than Meets the Eye: an Eye-tracking Experiment on the Beauty Contest Game By Müller, Julia; Schwieren, Christiane
  3. May I continue or should I stop? the effects of regulatory focus and message framings on video game players’ self-control By Ho, Shu-Hsun; Putthiwanit, Chutinon; Lin, Chia-Yin
  4. Non-cognitive Skills and the Gender Disparities in Test Scores and Teacher Assessments: Evidence from Primary School By Cornwell, Christopher; Mustard, David B.; Van Parys, Jessica

  1. By: Pablo Brañas-Garza (Universidad de Granada, Spain); Teresa García-Muño (Universidad de Granada, Spain); Roberto Hernán (Economic Science Institute, Chapman University, USA)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes cognitive effort in 6 different one-shot p-beauty games. We use both Raven and Cognitive Reflection tests to identify subjects' abilities. We find that the Raven test does not provide any insight on beauty contest game playing but CRT does: subjects with higher scores on this test are more prone to play dominant strategies.
    Keywords: Beauty Contest Game, Raven, Cognitive Reflection Test
    Date: 2011
  2. By: Müller, Julia; Schwieren, Christiane
    Abstract: The beauty contest game has been used to analyze how many steps of reasoning subjects are able to perform. A common finding is that a majority seem to have low levels of reasoning. We use eye-tracking to investigate not only the number chosen in the game, but also the strategies in use and the numbers contemplated. We can show that not all cases that are seemingly level-1 or level-2 thinking indeed are {they might be highly sophisticated adaptations to beliefs about other people's limited reasoning abilities.
    Keywords: beauty contest game; levels of reasoning; level-k model; strategic reason ing; cognitive hierarchy
    Date: 2011–09–22
  3. By: Ho, Shu-Hsun; Putthiwanit, Chutinon; Lin, Chia-Yin
    Abstract: Two types of motivations exist in terms of regulatory focus: a promotion orientation concerned with advancement and achievement and a prevention orientation concerned with safety and security. The central premise of this research is that promotion-focused and prevention-focused players differ in their sensitivity to message frames and therefore respond with different levels of self-control. This study adopted a 2 (message frames: positive vs. negative) × 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) between-subjects design; the results confirmed the hypotheses that, for promotion-focused players, negative messages are significantly effective in preventing them from becoming addicted to the games; meanwhile, for prevention-focused players, positive messages significantly influenced players, leading them to become addicted. Hence, video games’ negative and addiction-related messages should be enhanced whereas positive messages should be cautiously released.
    Keywords: Regulatory focus; regulatory fit; message frames; self-control; video game
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2011–06–22
  4. By: Cornwell, Christopher (University of Georgia); Mustard, David B. (University of Georgia); Van Parys, Jessica (Columbia University)
    Abstract: We extend the analysis of early-emerging gender differences in academic achievement to include both (objective) test scores and (subjective) teacher assessments. Using data from the 1998-99 ECLS-K cohort, we show that the grades awarded by teachers are not aligned with test scores, with the disparities in grading exceeding those in testing outcomes and uniformly favoring girls, and that the misalignment of grades and test scores can be linked to gender differences in non-cognitive development. Girls in every racial category outperform boys on reading tests and the differences are statistically significant in every case except for black fifth-graders. Boys score at least as well on math and science tests as girls, with the strongest evidence of a gender gap appearing among whites. However, boys in all racial categories across all subject areas are not represented in grade distributions where their test scores would predict. Even those boys who perform equally as well as girls on reading, math and science tests are nevertheless graded less favorably by their teachers, but this less favorable treatment essentially vanishes when non-cognitive skills are taken into account. White boys who perform on par with white girls on these subject-area tests and exhibit the same non-cognitive skill level are graded similarly. For some specifications there is evidence of a grade "bonus" for white boys with test scores and behavior like their girl counterparts. While the evidence is a little weaker for blacks and Hispanics, the message is essentially the same.
    Keywords: gender differences, test scores, grades, educational attainment
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2011–09

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