nep-net New Economics Papers
on Network Economics
Issue of 2021‒12‒13
four papers chosen by
Alfonso Rosa García
Universidad de Murcia

  1. Urban gravity in the global container shipping network By César Ducruet; Hidekazu Itoh; Justin Berli
  2. Trading information goods on a network: An experiment By Nobuyuki Hanaki; Yutaka Kayaba; Jun Maekawa; Hitoshi Matsushima
  3. Opinion Dynamics with Conflicting Interests By Patrick Mellacher
  4. Bike-Sharing: Network Efficiency and Demand Profiles By Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Gracia-Lazaro, Carlos; Molina, José Alberto

  1. By: César Ducruet (EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, GC (UMR_8504) - Géographie-cités - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP - Université de Paris); Hidekazu Itoh (Kwansei Gakuin University); Justin Berli (GC (UMR_8504) - Géographie-cités - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP - Université de Paris)
    Abstract: While the spatial and functional relationships between ports and cities have been put in question in the last decades, the continued importance of urbanization and maritime transport in global socio-economic development motivates deeper research on their interaction. The global trade network is often studied at the country level and all transport modes included, concluding that distance remains a strong counterforce to exchange. This article wishes to detect whether the global container shipping network obeys similar properties at the city level. More than 2 million inter-port vessel movements between 1977 and 2016 are assigned to about 9000 ports and 4600 cities to run a gravity model on two different network topologies. Gravitational properties are found, as larger cities connect more with each other but less at distance. The degree of distance effects negatively expanded in 40 years, confirming the "puzzling" or reinforcing effect of distance, yet it varies greatly depending on node aggregation and network topology. We conclude that ports and cities continue to share important interdependencies, but these often rest on a detrimental physical transformation. A discussion is proposed about the underlying operational and theoretical mechanisms at stake. Keywords container shipping; gravity model; maritime trade; port cities; spatial interaction; world city networks.
    Keywords: globalization,container shipping,complex networks,ACL,PARIS team,world city networks,urban systems,spatial interaction,port cities,maritime trade,gravity model,graph theory
    Date: 2020–05
  2. By: Nobuyuki Hanaki; Yutaka Kayaba; Jun Maekawa; Hitoshi Matsushima
    Abstract: We experimentally examine the impact of a cycle path on the trading of a copyable information good in networks. A cycle path in a network permits a buyer to become a reseller that can compete against existing sellers by replicating the good. Theory predicts that the price of the information good, even with the first transaction where there is not yet a reseller competing with the original seller, will be lower in networks with a cycle path than otherwise. However, our experiment reveals that the observed price for the first transaction is significantly higher in networks with a cycle path.
    Date: 2021–12
  3. By: Patrick Mellacher
    Abstract: I develop a rather simple agent-based model to capture a co-evolution of opinion formation, political decision making and economic outcomes. I use this model to study how societies form opinions if their members have opposing interests. Agents are connected in a social network and exchange opinions, but differ with regard to their interests and ability to gain information about them. I show that inequality in information and economic resources can have a drastic impact on aggregated opinion. In particular, my model illustrates how a tiny, but well-informed minority can influence group decisions to their favor. This effect is amplified if these agents are able to command more economic resources to advertise their views and if they can target their advertisements efficiently, as made possible by the rise of information technology. My results contribute to the understanding of pressing questions such as climate change denial and highlight the dangers that economic and information inequality can pose for democracies.
    Date: 2021–11
  4. By: Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio (University of Zaragoza); Gracia-Lazaro, Carlos (University of Zaragoza); Molina, José Alberto (University of Zaragoza)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes a bike-sharing service from both network efficiency and demand profiles perspectives. Specifically, it focuses on the BIZI service in the city of Zaragoza (Spain), which was launched in May 2008 with the aim of increasing the use of the bicycle in the city. Since then, the number of users has increased smoothly, and the service currently constitutes an integrated transport mode as an alternative to the use of cars and public transport in the city. The paper analyzes the evolution of the use of the BIZI service, using network analysis to show that efficiency increased rapidly over time until reaching an optimum value after two years. Furthermore, using regression models the paper characterizes the groups that most use this service, and relates service demand to factors such as weather conditions, number of bike lanes, and service extensions. This analysis will allow us to characterize the demand for this service, which can be of great importance when developing integrated transport payment systems.
    Keywords: BIZI service, efficiency, weather conditions, socio-demographic characteristics, bike lanes, bike stations
    JEL: R40 C45
    Date: 2021–10

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