nep-net New Economics Papers
on Network Economics
Issue of 2021‒12‒06
ten papers chosen by
Alfonso Rosa García
Universidad de Murcia

  1. Models of Peer Effects in Education By Wennberg, Karl; Norgren, Axel
  2. The geography of maritime networks: A critical review By César Ducruet
  3. Port specialization and connectivity in the global maritime network By César Ducruet
  4. Social Networks and Renewable Energy Technology Adoption: Empirical Evidence from Biogas Adoption in China By He Pan; Stefania Lovo; Marcella Veronesi
  5. Bitcoin Adoption and Beliefs in Canada By Daniela Balutel; Christopher Henry; Jorge Vásquez; Marcel Voia
  6. Financial Flows Centrality: Empirical Evidence using Bilateral Capital Flows By Rogelio Mercado Jr.; Shanty Noviantie
  7. The Role of Out-group Network in the Choice of Migration Destination: Evidence from Turkey By Filiz Künüroğlu; Ali Sina Önder
  8. Social incentive factors in interventions promoting sustainable behaviors: A meta-analysis By Phu Nguyen Van; Anne Stenger; Tuyen Tiet
  9. Exposure to Socially Influential Peer Parents: Cadres and Randomization Evidence in China By Liwen Chen; Bobby Chung; Guanghua Wang
  10. Banking Diversity, Financial Complexity and Resilience to Financial Shocks: Evidence From Italian Provinces By Beniamino Pisicoli

  1. By: Wennberg, Karl (Stockholm School of Economics); Norgren, Axel (Stockholm School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper summarizes the current state of research on peer effects in education. Focusing on specific models of peer effects and their underlying theoretical rationales, we review empirical evidence for these models and their implications for future research and discuss potential implications for educational policy. Our review highlights evidence for various types of peer effects to be sensitive to research design, data and study context. We propose a broader utilization of models testing various types of peer effects in specific datasets, attention to methodological issues beyond identifying cause- and effect, and further scrutiny of the theoretical mechanisms underlying identified peer effects in educational settings.
    Keywords: Peer effects; Literature review
    Date: 2021–11–30
  2. By: César Ducruet (EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, GC (UMR_8504) - Géographie-cités - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP - Université de Paris)
    Abstract: Despite early cartographical and graph-theoretical analyses of maritime flows in the 1940s and 1960s, it is only from the 2000s onwards that maritime network analysis had grown apace, backed by newly available shipping data, increased computational power, and renewed conceptual frameworks to study networks in general. The evolution of maritime network analysis, in geography and other sciences, is marked by a wide diversity of methods and themes, which we classify into three main parts. We first present studies looking at maritime flows in an abstract space, focusing on operational, statistical, or managerial aspects where navigation, graph structure, and firms' strategies are the key concerns. Second, we review researches where maritime flows and networks are markers and vectors of wider geo-economic structures and dynamics, such as regional inequalities and areas of dominance. Lastly, maritime networks have also been considered as integral parts of territories and wider chained systems, such as urban networks, regional networks, and coupled networks. We conclude that network analysis and maritime transport still share many uncovered areas and discuss potential research pathways for future works.
    Keywords: Transport networks,Network science,Ports,ACL,Complex networks,Flows,Graph theory,Maritime transport,PARIS team
    Date: 2020–10
  3. By: César Ducruet (GC (UMR_8504) - Géographie-cités - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPD7 - Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7, EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: While ports of the world are more or less diversified, the influence of traffic diversity on the global port hierarchy and maritime network is not yet well understood. This research uses a complex network approach to analyze the interplay between no less than 20 shipping traffic types connecting more than 1,600 ports. A database covering about 155000 daily movements of 24000 vessels in 2008 is used to construct a global matrix of inter-port shipping flows. Main results show that the global network is highly dependent on more diversified nodes, which in turn catch the most traffic and exhibit higher connectivity. It also underlines the role and nature of specific shipping segments as layers of an all-encompassing maritime system.
    Keywords: complex networks,connectivity,maritime transport,port hierarchy
    Date: 2021
  4. By: He Pan (The West Center for Economics Research, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, Chengdu, China); Stefania Lovo (Department of Economics, University of Reading); Marcella Veronesi (Department of Technology, Management and Economics, Technical University of Denmark, and Department of Economics, University of Verona, Italy)
    Abstract: We provide novel empirical evidence on the association between social networks and the adoption of renewable energy technology. We distinguish between two main transmission mechanisms through which social networks can affect renewable energy technology adoption: information diffusion and social influence. Using data primarily collected from rural China on biogas adoption, we find that both mechanisms are at work. In addition, we find that information spreads through trusted network members, such as friends and family, while social influence is mainly exercised by government officials. Government officials are more likely to promote the adoption of technology by leading by example rather than by spreading information.
    Keywords: Social networks, social influence, information diffusion, renewable energy, biogas, China
    JEL: O13 O33 Q16 Q42 Q55 Q56
    Date: 2021–11–09
  5. By: Daniela Balutel; Christopher Henry; Jorge Vásquez; Marcel Voia
    Abstract: We develop a tractable model of Bitcoin adoption with network effects and social learning, which we then connect to unique data from the Bank of Canada’s Bitcoin Omnibus Survey for the years 2017 and 2018. The model determines how the probability of Bitcoin adoption depends on (1) network effects; (2) individual learning effects; and (3) social learning effects. After accounting for the endogeneity of beliefs, we find that both network effects and individual learning effects have a positive and significant direct impact on Bitcoin adoption, whereas the role of social learning is to ameliorate the marginal effect of the network size on the likelihood of adoption. In particular, in 2017 and 2018, a one percentage point increase in the network size increased the probability of adoption by 0.45 and 0.32 percentage points, respectively. Similarly, a one percentage point increase in Bitcoin beliefs increased the probability of adoption by 0.43 and 0.72 percentage points. Our results suggest that network effects, individual learning, and social learning were important drivers of Bitcoin adoption in 2017 and 2018 in Canada.
    Keywords: Digital currencies and fintech; Econometric and statistical methods; Economic models
    JEL: D83 O33
    Date: 2021–11
  6. By: Rogelio Mercado Jr. (South East Asian Central Banks (SEACEN) Research and Training Centre); Shanty Noviantie (South East Asian Central Banks (SEACEN) Research and Training Centre)
    Abstract: This paper uses a dataset on bilateral capital flows to construct a financial centrality measure for 64 advanced and emerging economies from 2000-16 to capture an economy’s importance within the global financial flows network. The results highlight the varying significance of network systemic and idiosyncratic factors in explaining financial centrality across different types of investments and residency of investors. Most notably, the findings show that financial centres have deeper and more developed financial system, implying their importance in global financial intermediation.
    Keywords: financial centrality, financial depth, network analysis
    JEL: D85 F21 F36 G15
    Date: 2019–12
  7. By: Filiz Künüroğlu (Izmir Katip Çelebi University); Ali Sina Önder (University of Portsmouth)
    Abstract: We analyse the association between cultural contact and international migration decision drawing on the inter-group contact hypothesis. Using data on Turkish migrant stock in 22 countries and immigration from these countries to Turkey between 2000 and 2015, we find strong association between the size of the Turkish community and migration flow of host country nationals to Turkey. Our results are robust to country-specific and year-specific effects as well as to exclusion of different channels of cultural contact. Our research brings a new perspective to the importance of networks in migration destination as most research focuses on the presence of in-group national community in the target country. Our findings contribute to the improvement of extant theories of international migration providing insight in the role of cultural contact with the out-group in the choice of migration destination.
    Keywords: International migration; network migration, contact hypothesis
    Date: 2021–11–25
  8. By: Phu Nguyen Van; Anne Stenger; Tuyen Tiet
    Abstract: Based on a meta-analysis, this paper highlights the strength and relevance of several social incentive factors concerning pro-environmental behaviors, including social influence, network factors (like network size, network connection and leadership), trust in others, and trust in institutions. Firstly, our results suggest that social influence is necessary for the emergence of pro-environmental behaviors. More specifically, an internal social influence (i.e., motivating people to change their perceptions and attitudes) is essential to promote pro-environmental behaviors. Secondly, network connection encourages pro-environmental behaviors, meaning that the effectiveness of a conservation policy can be improved if connections among individuals are increased. Finally, trust in institutions can dictate individual behaviors to shape policy design and generate desired policy outcomes.
    Keywords: Meta-analysis; Network; Pro-environmental behavior; Social influence; Social incentive; Trust
    JEL: D91 Q50
    Date: 2021
  9. By: Liwen Chen (East China Normal University); Bobby Chung (St Bonaventure University); Guanghua Wang (Nanjing Audit University)
    Abstract: Parents are a crucial input into the education production function, both for their children and children's friends. This paper studies the effect of socially influential peer parents on students. Utilizing random classroom assignments in China middle schools, we probe the effect of parents who are cadres (government officials) on the educational outcome of their children's classmates. Because cadres in China have broad local influences in resource allocation, their presence elicits responses by surrounding students, parents, and teachers. We find that increased exposure to peer parents who are cadres raises a student's test score. We identify changes in parental behaviors and increased parent-teacher interaction as plausible channels. Cadre spillover is stronger in rural areas and schools with more government support, consistent with the variation in the local influence of cadres. The spillover concentrates on students who have good relationships with parents, echoing the role of parents in driving the spillover.
    Keywords: cadres, peer effects, parental investments, peer parent, early-life development
    JEL: D91 I25 J62 O53 P36
    Date: 2021–11
  10. By: Beniamino Pisicoli (DEF, University of Rome "Tor Vergata")
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate the influence of banking and financial diversity on stability. We compute an index of banking diversity for Italian provinces and, drawing from network theory, we propose a measure of the diversity and development of the overall provincial financial sector. Our results show that diversity in the banking and financial markets promotes greater stability. Such beneficial effects are particularly evident during periods of financial distress. We ascribe our findings to the better diversification achieved by more diverse financial systems, as documented by lower loans concentration and higher loans diversification in terms of economic destination and borrower category.
    Keywords: financial diversity; financial stability; non-performing loans; financial complexity; financial crises; banking diversity
    JEL: G01 G20 P34
    Date: 2021–11–09

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