nep-net New Economics Papers
on Network Economics
Issue of 2014‒12‒19
seven papers chosen by
Yi-Nung Yang
Chung Yuan Christian University

  1. Fixed broadband deployment in the Netherlands: Success and failure in policy and technology or the paradox of successful competition By van Eijk, Nico; Doorenspleet, Henk
  2. Clash of TV platforms: How broadcasters and distributors build platform leadership By Evens, Tom
  3. The role of social networks in an imperfect market for agricultural technology products: Evidence on Bt cotton adoption in Pakistan By Ma, Xingliang; Spielman, David J.; Nazli, Hina; Zambrano, Patricia; Zaidi, Fatima; Kouser, Shahzad
  4. A network analysis of the evolution of the German interbank market By Roukny, Tarik; Georg, Co-Pierre; Battiston, Stefano
  5. A Model of the Topology of the Bank-Firm Credit Network and Its Role as Channel of Contagion By Lux, Thomas
  6. The International Olive Oil Trade A network analysis By Casieri, Arturo; De Gennaro, Bernardo; Medicamento, Umberto
  7. Homophily, Group Size, and the Diffusion of Political Information in Social Networks: Evidence from Twitter By Yosh Halberstam; Brian Knight

  1. By: van Eijk, Nico; Doorenspleet, Henk
    Abstract: This paper describes the underlying policy and technological/market framework that created this situation of two competing local networks. We will explain why and how the present strong fixed infrastructure competition could develop by using an integrated multi-disciplinary approach. On the one hand technological developments have changed the market situation of two non-competing networks (POTS versus CATV, both servicing unique functions) into competing networks (by using technology innovation). Historical policy decisions created the basis for this (both networks were built before issues such as government subsidies/ownership and unauthorized state aid started to become relevant). However, combined with the European/national general policy choices to liberalize and privatise the telecommunications market (as formulated and put into place in the early nineties, strong incentives were created for market driven competition (instead of detailed regulatory intervention being the main driver). The paper shows that the impact of both technological/policy created market convergence and the creation of a 'triple play'-product have resulted in a disruptive situation where vacancy rates in both networks are increasing. We estimate that more than 40% of the local loops is no longer active.
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Evens, Tom
    Abstract: The TV industry has evolved into a multi-sided market in recent years, with distribution platforms increasingly occupying a central position in the market. Whereas until recently their business models resembled that of utility providers, distributors start playing a multi-sided role, liaising with third-party content providers, advertisers and viewers. As a result, we might expect a struggle for platform leadership between TV broadcasters and distributors. This struggle is further intensified by the rise of over-the-top (OTT) TV platforms, which challenge existing power relationships in the TV industry and give rise to conflicts of interests in the media value chain. This paper attempts to provide a deeper understanding of the platformisation in the TV industry, and explore the levers both TV broadcasters and distributors employ in building power to pursue platform leadership.
    Keywords: TV industry,platformisation,business models,power
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Ma, Xingliang; Spielman, David J.; Nazli, Hina; Zambrano, Patricia; Zaidi, Fatima; Kouser, Shahzad
    Abstract: Social networks play an important role in generating learning externalities that can drive the diffusion of innovative, and potentially poverty-reducing, technologies. This is particularly the case in developing countries where rural education, extension, and agricultural information services are underprovided. The recent introduction of genetically modified insect-resistant Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton in Pakistan represents an example where imperfect markets, weak extension services, and information asymmetries limit the ability of farmers to make informed decisions on how to take best advantage of the technology. This study explores the role of social networks and learning externalities in the adoption of Bt cotton in Pakistan. We model how information from social network members influences farmers’ adoption decisions, controlling for farmers’ characteristics, cotton growing conditions, and other possible information sources. We apply our model to a representative sample of 728 cotton-growing households randomly selected in 2012-13 from 52 villages across Punjab and Sindh. We also assess the role of input dealers, progressive farmers, public extension agents, and farmers’ individual characteristics in the uptake of the technology. Results suggest that communication within social networks helps disseminate information about Bt cotton cultivation and has encouraged its adoption.
    Keywords: social networks, Bt cotton, Pakistan, technology adoption, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, International Development, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Roukny, Tarik; Georg, Co-Pierre; Battiston, Stefano
    Abstract: In this paper, we report a descriptive investigation of the structural evolution of two of the most important over-the-counter markets for liquidity in Germany: the interbank market for credit and for derivatives. We use end-of-quarter data from the German large credit register between 2002 and 2012 and characterize the underlying networks. Surprisingly, the data show little or no impact of the 2008 crisis on the structure of credit market. The derivative market however exhibits a peak of concentration in the run up to the crisis. Globally, both markets exhibit high stability for most of the networks metrics and high correlation amongst them.
    Keywords: financial networks,interbank market,credit default swaps,liquidity
    JEL: G2 G21 D85
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Lux, Thomas
    Abstract: This paper proposes a stochastic model of a bipartite credit network between banks and the non-bank corporate sector that encapsulates basic stylized facts found in comprehensive data sets for bank-firm loans for a number of countries. When performing computational experiments with this model, we find that it shows a pronounced non-linear behavior under shocks: The default of a single unit will mostly have practically no knock-on effects, but might lead to an almost full-scale collapse of the entire system in a certain number of cases. The dependency of the overall outcome on firm characteristics like size or number of loans seems fuzzy. Distinguishing between contagion due to interbank credit and due to joint exposures to counterparty risk via loans to firms, the later channel appears more important for contagious spread of defaults.
    Keywords: credit network,contagion,interbank network
    JEL: D85 G21 D83
    Date: 2014
  6. By: Casieri, Arturo; De Gennaro, Bernardo; Medicamento, Umberto
    Abstract: Aim of this paper is to test weather or not the Network Analysis (NA) could possibly help to grasp Country level competitiveness in the International Trade Network (ITN) of a specific commodity. We focus over the positions that each Country occupies within the net of international trade exchanges assuming this could lead to competitive advantage. Starting from Ronald Burt's structural holes theory, we move forward analyzing the whole network evolution in the last years. We apply NA to the world network of valued exchange relationships of virgin olive oils building a 12 years time series of weighted directed networks (WDN).
    Keywords: olive oil, international trade network., Agribusiness, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2013–09
  7. By: Yosh Halberstam; Brian Knight
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate political communications in social networks characterized both by homophily–a tendency to associate with similar individuals–and group size. To generate testable hypotheses, we develop a simple theory of information diffusion in social networks with homophily and two groups: conservatives and liberals. The model predicts that, with homophily, members of the majority group have more network connections and are exposed to more information than the minority group. We also use the model to show that, with homophily and a tendency to produce like-minded information, groups are disproportionately exposed to like-minded information and the information reaches like-minded individuals more quickly than it reaches individuals of opposing ideologies. To test the hypotheses of our model, we analyze nearly 500,000 communications during the 2012 US elections in a social network of 2.2 million politically-engaged Twitter users. Consistent with the model, we find that members of the majority group in each state-level network have more connections and are exposed to more tweets than members of the minority group. Likewise, we find that groups are disproportionately exposed to like-minded information and that information reaches like-minded users more quickly than users of the opposing ideology.
    JEL: D7 D8
    Date: 2014–11

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