nep-net New Economics Papers
on Network Economics
Issue of 2013‒08‒10
six papers chosen by
Yi-Nung Yang
Chung Yuan Christian University

  1. Unveiling correlations between financial variables and topological metrics of trading networks: Evidence from a stock and its warrant By Ming-Xia Li; Zhi-Qiang Jiang; Wen-Jie Xie; Xiong Xiong; Wei Zhang; Wei-Xing Zhou
  2. Network versus portfolio structure in financial systems By Teruyoshi Kobayashi
  3. Networks of innovators within and across borders. Evidence from patent data By Andrea Morescalchi; Fabio Pammolli; Orion Penner; Petersen Alexander M.
  4. Knowledge Networks and Markets By OECD
  5. Causality in the Link Between Road Network Growth and Regional Development By Michael Iacono; David Levinson
  6. Detecting spatial homogeneity in the world trade web with Detrended Fluctuation Analysis By Riccardo Chiarucci; Franco Ruzzenenti; Maria Loffredo

  1. By: Ming-Xia Li (ECUST); Zhi-Qiang Jiang (ECUST); Wen-Jie Xie (ECUST); Xiong Xiong (TJU); Wei Zhang (TJU); Wei-Xing Zhou (ECUST)
    Abstract: Traders adopt different trading strategies to maximize their returns in financial markets. These trading strategies not only results in specific topological structures in trading networks, which connect the traders with the pairwise buy-sell relationships, but also have potential impacts on market dynamics. Here, we present a detailed analysis on how the market behaviors are correlated with the structures of traders in trading networks based on audit trail data for the Baosteel stock and its warrant at the transaction level from 22 August 2005 to 23 August 2006. In our investigation, we divide each trade day into 48 time windows with a length of five minutes, construct a trading network within each window, and obtain a time series of over 1,100 trading networks. We find that there are strongly simultaneous correlations between the topological metrics (including network centralization, assortative index, and average path length) of trading networks that characterize the patterns of order execution and the financial variables (including return, volatility, intertrade duration, and trading volume) for the stock and its warrant. Our analysis may shed new lights on how the microscopic interactions between elements within complex system affect the system's performance.
    Date: 2013–08
  2. By: Teruyoshi Kobayashi
    Abstract: The question of how to stabilize financial systems has attracted considerable attention since the global financial crisis of 2007-2009. Recently, Beale et al. ("Individual versus systemic risk and the regulator's dilemma", Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108: 12647-12652, 2011) demonstrated that higher portfolio diversity among banks would reduce systemic risk by decreasing the risk of simultaneous defaults at the expense of a higher likelihood of individual defaults. In practice, however, a bank default has an externality in that it undermines other banks' balance sheets. This paper explores how each of these different sources of risk, simultaneity risk and externality, contributes to systemic risk. The results show that the allocation of external assets that minimizes systemic risk varies with the topology of the financial network as long as asset returns have negative correlations. In the model, a well-known centrality measure, PageRank, reflects an appropriately defined "infectiveness" of a bank. An important result is that the most infective bank need not always be the safest bank. Under certain circumstances, the most infective node should act as a firewall to prevent large-scale collective defaults. The introduction of a counteractive portfolio structure will significantly reduce systemic risk.
    Date: 2013–08
  3. By: Andrea Morescalchi (IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies); Fabio Pammolli (IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies); Orion Penner (IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies); Petersen Alexander M. (IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies; IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies and Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy and Innovation, K.U. Leuven)
    Abstract: Recent studies on the geography of knowledge networks have documented a negative impact of physical distance and institutional borders upon research and development (R&D) collaborations. Though it is widely recognized that geographic constraints hamper the diffusion of knowledge, less attention has been devoted to the temporal evolution of these constraints. In this study we use data on patents filed with the European Patent Office (EPO) for 50 countries to analyze the impact of physical distance and country borders on inter-regional links in four different networks over the period 1988-2009: (1) co-inventorship, (2) patent citations, (3) inventor mobility and (4) the location of R&D laboratories. We find the constraint imposed by country borders and distance decreased until mid-1990s then started to grow, particularly for distance. The intensity of European cross-country inventor collaborations increased at a higher pace than their non-European counterparts until 2004, with no significant relative progress afterwards. Moreover, when analyzing networks of geographical mobility, multinational R&D activities and patent citations we do not depict any substantial progress in European research integration aside from the influence of common global trends.
    Keywords: Geography of knowledge; Networks of Innovators; European integration; Spatial proximity; Crossborder collaboration; Gravity model
    JEL: O30 R10 R23
    Date: 2013–08
  4. By: OECD
    Abstract: This report aims to shed light on the role of markets and networks for knowledge-based assets. Knowledge Networks and Markets (KNMs) comprise the wide array of mechanisms and institutions facilitating the creation, exchange, dissemination and utilisation of knowledge in its multiple forms. This document provides new evidence on the knowledge-sourcing strategies of firms and their role in shaping innovation activities, according to different characteristics, and their impact on performance. It proposes a conceptual framework for understanding how KNMs support knowledge flows and the transfer of intellectual property (IP) rights, supported by a number of novel examples. It considers more specifically some developments in the market for IP rights, looking in the first instance at the evidence on the size of the market and the role of intermediaries. The role of public policies in the IP marketplace is also considered, with particular emphasis on some new forms of policy interventions such as government-sponsored patent funds. This document briefly reviews some key features of the markets and networks for knowledge originating in public research organisations, as well as the role of intermediaries such as technology transfer offices, whose role has been changing rapidly in recent years. Finally, the analysis of knowledge markets is extended to the market for knowledge embodied in highly skilled employees. The mixed impact of mobility on innovation is noted, considering in particular the use of agreements to restrict the movement of human capital and the potential implications of their enforcement. Some proposals for inclusion in a future measurement agenda are outlined.
    Date: 2013–06–19
  5. By: Michael Iacono; David Levinson (Nexus (Networks, Economics, and Urban Systems) Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between the growth of road networks and regional development. We test for mutual causality between the growth of road networks (which are divided functionally into local roads and highways) and changes in county-level population and employment. We employ a panel data set containing observations of road mileage by type for all Minnesota counties over the period 1988 to 2007 to fit a model describing changes in road networks, population and employment. Results indicate that causality runs in both directions between population and local road networks, while no evidence of causality in either direction is found for networks and local employment. We interpret the findings as evidence of a weakening influence of road networks (and transportation more generally) on location, and suggest methods for refining the empirical approach described herein.
    Keywords: network expansion, economic evaluation, regional growth, rural development, economic development
    JEL: O18 R42 R48
    Date: 2013
  6. By: Riccardo Chiarucci; Franco Ruzzenenti; Maria Loffredo
    Abstract: In a spatially embedded network, that is a network where nodes can be uniquely determined in a system of coordinates, links' weights might be affected by metric distances coupling every pair of nodes (dyads). In order to assess to what extent metric distances affect relationships (link's weights) in a spatially embedded network, we propose a methodology based on DFA (Detrended Fluctuation Analysis). DFA is a well developed methodology to evaluate autocorrelations and estimate long-range behaviour in time series. We argue it can be further extended to spatially ordered series in order to assess autocorrelations in values. A scaling exponent of 0.5 (uncorrelated data) would thereby signal a perfect homogeneous space embedding the network. We apply the proposed methodology to the World Trade Web (WTW) during the years 1949-2000 and we find, in some contrast with predictions of gravity models, a declining influence of distances on trading relationships.
    Date: 2013–08

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