nep-net New Economics Papers
on Network Economics
Issue of 2013‒04‒27
twenty papers chosen by
Yi-Nung Yang
Chung Yuan Christian University

  1. Mobile service platform competition By Nikou, Shahrokh; Bouwman, Harry
  2. Do Large Departments Make Academics More Productive? Agglomeration and Peer Effects in Research By Clément Bosquet; Pierre-Philippe Combes
  3. On co-opetition between mobile network operators: Why and how competitors cooperate By Markendahl, Jan; Mölleryd, Bengt G.
  4. Competing or aligning? Assessment for Telecom operator's strategy to address OTT TV By Aidi, Laili; Markendahl, Jan; Tollmar, Konrad; Blennerud, Greger
  5. Open access networks and national broadband plans: Tales from down By Beltrán, Fernando
  6. Access regulation in the next generation access network environment: A comparative study of Hong Kong and Singapore from the transaction cost economics perspectives By Ho, Au Man
  7. Collaborative product development: The case of network operators By Häberle, Robin; Grove, Nico
  8. The effect of on-net By Muck, Johannes
  9. Innovation diffusion in networks: the microeconomics of percolation By Paolo Zeppini; Koen Frenken; Luis R. Izquierdo
  10. Social networking sites users' affective commitment: A combined view By Zhang, Nan; Wang, Chong; Xu, Yan
  11. Expanding mobile wireless capacity: The challenges presented by technology and economics By Clarke, Richard N.
  12. Convergence in action: A case study of the Norwegian internet By Hallingby, Hanne Kristine; Hartviksen, Gjermund; Elaluf-Calderwood, Silvia; Sørensen, Carsten
  13. Value network orchestration of a cognitive radio platform By Taparia, Ankit; Basaure, Arturo; Casey, Thomas R.
  14. Estimating switching costs of changing social networking sites By Nakamura, Akihiro
  15. Patterns of Innovation in SaaS Networks: Trend Analysis of Node Centralities By Kibae Kim; Wool-Rim Lee; Jorn Altmann
  16. High-definition content and file sharing networks By Potgieter, Petrus H.
  17. Predictors of mobile internet usage in 10 African countries By Calandro, Enrico; Wang, Rong
  18. Municipal driven fiber access network rollout By Van Ooteghem, Jan; Casier, Koen; Verbrugge, Sofie; Colle, Didier; Pickavet, Mario; De Heyn, Luc; Meersman, Raf; Rosseau, Bart
  19. Who talks to whom in African agricultural research information networks? The Malawi case By Droppelmann, Klaus; Mapila, Mariam A. T. J.; Mazunda, John; Thangata, Paul; Yauney, Jason
  20. At the core of the international financial system By Valentina Feroldi; Edoardo Gaffeo

  1. By: Nikou, Shahrokh; Bouwman, Harry
    Abstract: Mobile service platforms are becoming particularly important as play a significant role in consumers' decisions to accept, adopt and use mobile services and applications. Literature on mobile service platforms focuses mainly on strategic issues in managing multi-sided platforms and economic issues of two sided markets, still literature is highly conceptual and empirical research on the awareness and preferences of consumers is lacking. Yet, there is a lack of empirical research on platforms developed by mobile network operators. By making use of conjoint analysis, 62 Finnish respondents participated in an empirical study. The conjoint analysis results show that application costs and type of operating system are the most important criteria to make a decision and the provider of the service platform is not of the concern. However, consumers value issues such as security and privacy arrangement which are often guaranteed by network operators. Our findings have three suggestions to mobile network operators: (1), they settle for becoming a bit-pipe provider, (2), open their platforms, and (3), let other market competitors such as Apple, Google, Facebook be responsible for providing mobile services and applications. --
    Keywords: Mobile Service Platforms,Device Manufacturers,Service Provide-Centric Platform,Operator-Centric Platform,Application Cost
    Date: 2012
  2. By: Clément Bosquet (AMSE - Aix-Marseille School of Economics - Aix-Marseille Univ. - Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - Ecole Centrale Marseille (ECM), SERC - Spatial Economic Research Center - London School of Economics and Political Science); Pierre-Philippe Combes (AMSE - Aix-Marseille School of Economics - Aix-Marseille Univ. - Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - Ecole Centrale Marseille (ECM), CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research)
    Abstract: We study the effect of a large set of department characteristics on individual publication records. We control for many individual time-varying characteristics, individual fixed-effects and reverse causality. Department characteristics have an explanatory power that can be as high as that of individual characteristics. The departments that generate most externalities are those where academics are homogeneous in terms of publication performance and have diverse research fields, and, to a lesser extent, large departments, with more women, older academics, star academics and foreign co-authors. Department specialisation in a field also favours publication in that field. More students per academic does not penalise publication. At the individual level, women and older academics publish less, while the average publication quality increases with average number of authors per paper, individual field diversity, number of published papers and foreign co-authors.
    Keywords: research productivity determinants; economic geography; networks; economics of science; selection and endogeneity
    Date: 2013–04
  3. By: Markendahl, Jan; Mölleryd, Bengt G.
    Abstract: This paper address issues about cooperation among and competition between mobile network operators. The starting point is to examine why and how operators share infrastructure for mobile communication services, so called network sharing. The paper analyzes drivers, benefits and obstacles of network cooperation. We also analyze how roles and responsibilities are distributed for the network related functions while concurrently operators compete for customers and have separate functionality for service provisioning, marketing, customer relation management, charging and billing. Next, we analyze how network sharing as such and strategies for network sharing have changed in Sweden from the year 2000 when the 3G licenses were awarded and up to the year 2010. Moreover, network sharing in Sweden is compared with India where the market situation is different, as the number of operators is four times more and the cooperation is organized in another way, with separate tower companies, which provides base stations sites where operators are tenants. Finally, we compare the network sharing cases with how mobile operators organize cooperation for mobile payments services. From our empirical data we can identify four different types of co-opetition among mobile operators. 1. A co-operative spirit with focus on working practices and/or principles that will facilitate the common use of resources or solutions. 2. Infrastructure cooperation through a third party, e.g. a tower company or a SMS aggregator with the main objective to reduce costs or to provide a common solution. The operators have agreements with a third party but not with each other. 3. Infrastructure cooperation through a joint venture that is responsible for network deployment and operation. The driver is to achieve cost-savings. The operators have their own service provisioning, billing, customer relations management and compete for end-users. 4. Service and infrastructure cooperation through a joint venture that is fully responsible for providing the end-user service, in our case mobile payments. The main driver is to offer a payment solution common for all operators in order to complement or compete with solutions provided by banks or payment service providers. --
    Date: 2012
  4. By: Aidi, Laili; Markendahl, Jan; Tollmar, Konrad; Blennerud, Greger
    Abstract: Up until recently, it was rarely direct competition between telecom operators, cable and satellite Pay-TV providers in digital TV/Video, as their business area were different and value chain was well established. However, technology advance has altered digital TV/Video landscape, made these Communication Service Providers (CSPs) cross other's area and opened door for new actor (OTT player) to enter the market. This triggers second change in the landscape, as it potentially bypasses CSP's role in digital media value chain. There are generic potential options for telecom operator to address OTT service's treat, where the trend shows gradual shifts toward allowing or promoting. This study assesses telecom operator's reaction strategies to react to this digital TV/Video convergence trend. Our analysis reveals two typical relation patterns in the value network, used by telecom operators based on strategy options above, which are point-to-point and point-to-multipoint relation model. We explore the underlining motivations that based these strategies, as well as analysis of the eco-systems: actors identification, business roles and distributed responsibilities among them, where we use ARA (Actors, Resource, Activities) point of view to model these value networks. --
    Keywords: digital TV/Video,multimedia services,mobile broadband,business model
    Date: 2012
  5. By: Beltrán, Fernando
    Abstract: Recently, governments in many countries have acknowledged the higher complexity involved in finding the more efficient path towards a so-called broadband ecosystem. The governments of Australia and New Zealand are leading the deployment of national fibre-based broadband infrastructures through Public-Private-Partnerships (PPP). The paper is on the approach followed by New Zealand and Australia to developing Next-Generation broadband infrastructure, their broadband policies and strategies for network deployment. It also contributes an economic analysis that allows understanding the economics of those country-wide broadband platforms.The paper critically analyses the short history of each experience, including the political process, the reasons exhibited that justify the governments' involvement in infrastructure deployment, and the institutional arrangements introduced to manage the PPP. The paper's main goal is to contribute analytical tools to the understanding of the economic effects of a purpose-made infrastructure on the markets that, according to every government's declared expectation, will be propelled by the combined effect of policy decisions, regulations and technology deployment. The paper analyses the effect of network design principles such as open access and regulated wholesale tariffs on the efficiency of service markets to be deployed on the fibre-based next-generation platform. --
    Date: 2012
  6. By: Ho, Au Man
    Abstract: Hong Kong and Singapore have adopted two different models in the regulation of the next generation access (NGA) networks. In Hong Kong, the government has decided that access regulation will not be applied to fibre-based access networks and its strategy will be to rely on facilities-based competition to promote investment in the NGA networks. Singapore, on the other hand, has promoted access/services-based competition over a next generation broadband infrastructure subsidised by public funding and operated on an open accessbasis. This paper applies the theories of transaction cost economics (TCE) to analyse the two different regulatory models adopted in Hong Kong and Singapore for the NGA networks. Transaction cost economics is concerned with the study of governance structures. Governance structures operate within the relationship between transacting parties for the purpose of dealing with contractual hazards. Market, firms, regulation, public franchise and public ownership are alternative governance structures operating in the NGA environment. Governance structures aim to minimise transaction costs caused by contractual hazards. --
    Date: 2012
  7. By: Häberle, Robin; Grove, Nico
    Abstract: The goal of this paper is to evaluate the importance of cloud services for Integrated Service Providers and how collaborative product development could strengthen their position within the Cloud Industry. The global cloud market is growing rapidly and gaining daily more momentum. The German Bitkom estimates B2B cloud revenues to exceed 10 bn Euro in Germany by 2016, five times its revenue in 2011. Telecommunication Services - home market to Integrated Service Providers (ISPs) - on the contrary are mostly past their booming years. Even so ISPs are playing a crucial part in the cloud - basically connecting production and consumption - they are typically not mentioned amongst the main Cloud providers. This is puzzling as an integrated network is able to deliver significant unique value in areas such as SLA management, locality, security and inter-cloud connectivity. --
    Keywords: Integrated Service Provider,Network Operator,Cloud Services,Product Development,Cloud Value Chain
    Date: 2012
  8. By: Muck, Johannes
    Abstract: I explore the effects of on-net / off-net differentiation on network sizes in mobile telecommunications when both rational and non-rational consumers coexist in the market. In particular, three different types of consumers are modeled: (1) fully informed rational (FIR) consumers who are perfectly informed about the true market shares of all networks and choose the network with the lowest expected cost of a call; (2) partly informed rational (PIR) consumers who only observe market shares within a circular sensing field and choose the network with the lowest expected cost of a call based on these observed market shares; and (3) non-rational (NR) consumers who choose the network with the highest market share among their immediate neighbors. Using an agent-based simulation approach and by systematical variation of four key parameters of the model, three key results emerge. First, if the share of FIR consumers is too high, all consumers will eventually join the initially larger network A. Second, if their share in the population is sufficiently large, NR consumers can prevent the growth of clusters of consumers subscribed to network B. Third, if the share of PIR consumers is high, clusters of consumers subscribed to network B can grow, thereby increasing network B's market share, provided that the radius of their circular sensing field is small enough for the cluster size. --
    Date: 2012
  9. By: Paolo Zeppini; Koen Frenken; Luis R. Izquierdo
    Abstract: We implement a diffusion model for an innovative product in a market with a structure of social relationships. Diffusion is described with a percolation approach in the price space. Percolation shows a phase transition from a diffusion to a no-diffusion regime. This has strong implications for market demand and pricing. We study the effect of network structure on market diffusion efficiency by considering a number of cases, such as one-dimensional and two-dimensional lattices, small worlds, Poisson networks and Scale-free networks. We consider two measures of diffusion efficiency: the size of diffusion and the diffusion time-length. We find that network connectivity “spreading” is the most important factor for the size of diffusion. Clustering is ineffective. This means that societies with higher dimensionality are better markets for diffusion. This result is most evident for the size of diffusion, while a short average path-length is more important for the speed of diffusion. Endogenous learning curves shift the percolation threshold to higher prices, and constitute an endogenous mechanism of price discrimination. The best market strategy of innovation diffusion is to start with high price and allow for a learning curve.
    Keywords: critical transition, demand, learning curves, market efficiency, social networks
    JEL: C63 D42 O33
    Date: 2013–02
  10. By: Zhang, Nan; Wang, Chong; Xu, Yan
    Abstract: Social networking site has become ubiquitous in just a few years. Their success depends on users' intention to adopt and willingness to continue investing their time and attention in this media in the absence of formal contract. This study investigates the formation of people's affective commitment toward their online communities. Drawing on commitment theory and social network theory, I argue that the users' social network structure, specifically, online offline network overlapping, can influence the formation of their affective commitment toward the online community. Researchers seeking to understand users' behaviors on social networking sites can benefit from this study by considering the effect of network structure in their studies. Sites managers may also use our results to develop better functions for their users. --
    Keywords: social networking site,social media,affective commitment,network overlapping
    Date: 2012
  11. By: Clarke, Richard N.
    Abstract: As demand for mobile broadband services continues to explode, mobile wireless networks must expand greatly their capacities. This paper describes and quantifies the economic and technical challenges associated with deepening wireless networks to meet this exploding demand. Methods of capacity expansion divide into three general categories: the deployment of more radio spectrum; more intensive geographic reuse of spectrum; and increasing the throughput capacity of each MHz of spectrum within a given geographic area. The paper first provides a brief technical background on mobile wireless networks and these basic methods to deepen their capacity. It goes on to measure the contribution of each of these methods to historical capacity growth within U.S. networks. The paper then describes the capabilities of 4G LTE wireless technology, and further innovations off of it, to increase network capacity. The capacity expansion capability of LTE-Advanced along with traditional spectrum reuse are quantified, and are compared to forecasts of future demand to evaluate the ability of U.S. networks to match this future demand. We find that without significantly increased allocations of spectrum, wireless capacity expansion will be wholly inadequate to accommodate expected demand growth. This conclusion is in contrast to those that claim that the U.S. faces no spectrum shortage. --
    Date: 2012
  12. By: Hallingby, Hanne Kristine; Hartviksen, Gjermund; Elaluf-Calderwood, Silvia; Sørensen, Carsten
    Abstract: The conceptual framework for understanding the logical Internet is based on the construction of a horizontal, layered architecture, which differentiates between physical-, data link-, network-, transport-, and application layers (1). This is different from the telecommunication networks model where a new service traditionally used to require a new network architecture to be established (2). However, the digitalization of services and products offered over the telecom infrastructure allows us to observe an emergent phenomenon of increased vertical integration on the Internet as well as the creation of further service specialization opportunities for telecom operators and users (3). We propose in this paper that this development and change in the way services are provided, leads to a new type of Internet - an addition to the current best effort Internet. This paper presents the case study of the Internet in Norway, analysing 166 of the approximately 40.000 independent AS numbers registered worldwide as catering for end-to-end services. The paper categorizes the Norwegian AS numbers according to size and type of services. Through our analyses two major groups of actors can be identified, each of them seeking to gain strategic advantage from the current Internet traffic growth: 1) Content providers and hosts seek to have a highly reliable network access with a minimal set of traffic or transmission costs. One action is to acquire AS numbers and use settlement-free peering agreements for distribution of their traffic, which is possible in traffic exchange regimes rooted in symmetry, slowly becoming asymmetric; 2) Internet access providers (IAPs) seek to take control over incoming traffic growth by hosting content within their own network and thereby to rebalance traffic and create new revenue streams with content hosting and premium end-to-end connection on-net. Our findings support the hypothesis that Internet is becoming both more vertically integrated and converged, and more specialized or modularized (4). --
    Keywords: convergence,modularity,Internet,Internet outsourcing,Norway,autonomous systems
    Date: 2012
  13. By: Taparia, Ankit; Basaure, Arturo; Casey, Thomas R.
    Abstract: Mobile communication industry has taken over path of platformisation in terms of service provisioning leading to emergence of different platforms. These service oriented platforms have opened up otherwise closed and vertically integrated mobile industry. However in terms of spectrum licensing and usage market structure is still relatively closed and cognitive radio (CR) technology is expected to be at forefront to solve these issues. With development of CR technologies new stakeholders are expected to emerge and join existing market players resulting in the development of a multi-sided platform. In this paper we introduce spectrum database driven CR platform as an integral part of CR ecosystem. We visualize its architecture in form of set of layered and interconnected platforms. Higher layer platform for services catering to end-users, lower layer platform for different CR access technologies and a generic CR protocol in between binding these layered platforms. In order to understand how to orchestrate the value network for different stakeholders to participate in this CR platform, we conducted interviews and identified that stakeholders are in principle willing to move out of their silos and think holistically in terms of CR platform. However political uncertainties and regulatory indecision happens to be major cause of concern hampering stakeholders to make required investments. Also observed that regulators are in position to orchestrate CR market place since their actions influence market, market participants and technology. Thus regulators are required to take steps in direction which promotes harmonization of CR technologies and prevent a fragmented scenario where none of CR solutions attain required critical mass. --
    Date: 2012
  14. By: Nakamura, Akihiro
    Abstract: This study's empirical analysis shows that the consumers' switching costs when changing SNS are less than that when changing BB service. SNS switching cost is estimated at JPY 944, while that in BB service is estimated at JPY 2864 (JPY 80 = USD 1 on 21st May 2012). According to these results, the switching cost of the former is approximately one-third of that of the latter. One of the reasons why SNS switching costs are smaller could be because of the current small number of friends on SNS. In this survey, approximately half of the respondents stated that their number of friends on SNS was less than 10. --
    Keywords: Social Networking Sites (SNS),Switching Costs,Layers,Network Effects,Market Power
    Date: 2012
  15. By: Kibae Kim (Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University); Wool-Rim Lee (Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University); Jorn Altmann (Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University)
    Abstract: As software vendors provide their software as a service (SaaS) and allow users to access the software functions via open interfaces, the innovation style has shifted from local innovation of a software user, to collective innovation of an entire system of users and software. This new innovation trend directs the innovation research to the structural and evolutionary patterns of SaaS networks, in which a node represents a software service and a link the combined use of two software services for provisioning a new service. However, prior research concentrates only on the static properties of network structure and the position of nodes in the network, but misses the dynamics in the evolution context. In this paper, we close this gap by investigating the trend of centralities of five representative software services in a SaaS network. The data has been obtained from Our results suggest that each software service of a SaaS network follows the typical life cycle from growth to decline. In addition to this, the innovation trend shifts from image services to social networking services, involving a transition of network structure. Our results also show the necessity of innovation studies that investigate the changing patterns of evolving innovation networks.
    Keywords: Open Innovation, Centralities, Composite Services, Software-as-a-Service.
    JEL: D85 L86 O33
    Date: 2013–01
  16. By: Potgieter, Petrus H.
    Abstract: File sharing, typically involving video or audio material in which copyright may persist and using peer-to-peer (P2P) networks like BitTorrent, has been reported to make up the bulk of Internet traffic (Pouwelse et al., 2008; Kryczka et al., 2011). The free-riding problem appears in this digital gift economy but its users exhibit rational behaviour (Becker and Clement, 2006), subject to the characteristics of the particular network (Feldman et al., 2006). The high demand for the Internet as a delivery channel for entertainment (Alleman and Rappoport, 2009) underlines the importance of understanding the dynamics of this market, especially when considering possible business models for future pricing or licensing regimes (Gervais, 2004) and for the provisioning of network capacity to support future services... --
    Date: 2012
  17. By: Calandro, Enrico; Wang, Rong
    Abstract: Mobile phones and Internet use can enable human capabilities that can contribute to positive developmental outcomes (Smith, Spencer, & Rashid, 2011; Ndung'u & Waema, 2011; Agüero, de Silva & Kang, 2011; Sen, 1999). Communication networks, in Africa particularly mobile phones, have been recognised as an important component for social mobilisation (Castells, 2009). Reports have focused on the role of mobile phones in organising social protests and political mobilization (Comninos, 2011) such as the food protest in Mozambique in 2007/08, and violent ethnic mobilisation in Kenya in 2009 and around the world. Further, since the Arab Spring, the use of the mobile phone for social mobilization has become an increasing focus of research. As part of this research which seeks to explore the role of ICTs in contemporary social and political engagement, this paper presents an empirical assessment of predominant social and demographic factors that are predictors of mobile Internet usage. It is based on nationally representative ICT household survey data collected by Research ICT Africa in 2011 and 2012 across 10 African countries. This study draws on previous studies on technology adoption, and tests on the effect of social factors and demographic variables on mobile Internet usage. Also, it presents descriptive data on network exposure. It poses the following research questions: what are the social aspects and demographic factors influencing mobile Internet usage in selected African countries? To what extent does belonging to specific civic affiliations such as religious, recreational or political groups impact on mobile Internet usage? The odd of using mobile Internet is assessed against demographic factors such as age, gender, income and level of education, among others. The impact of mobile Internet usage for social mobilisation is evaluated against belonging to specific social affiliations such as religious, recreational or political organisations. Other predictors include affiliation with certain social groups and the closeness of the local community. Network exposure was measured in the ICT household surveys, by asking respondents to list how many people out of their top five contacts are users of mobile phones and social network sites. Further, the analysis includes also an assessment of whether the use of the mobile phone increased or decreased contacts with specific social groups. What activities users got involved in through the mobile are also included into the analysis. The study concludes with policy implications on mobile Internet usage in African countries in particular related to democracy, empowerment and capability development. Furthermore, since it investigates whether mobile Internet usage enhances contacts with different social groups such as family, friends, religious or political groups, this study seeks to assess the potential of the technology to mobilise different networks in selected African countries. --
    Keywords: ICT indicators,Access,Mobile Internet,Social Media,ICT Household Survey,ICTD
    Date: 2012
  18. By: Van Ooteghem, Jan; Casier, Koen; Verbrugge, Sofie; Colle, Didier; Pickavet, Mario; De Heyn, Luc; Meersman, Raf; Rosseau, Bart
    Abstract: A citywide fiber to the home network would certainly bring about a lot of advantages for the municipality. Still the operators tend to hold off, partly because of the very high deployment costs and often also because there is a medium high bandwidth network available. This is also the case for the city of Ghent in which an FTTH network is not available and does not seem to be planned in the near future. In this paper we investigate to which degree the municipality can play a role in triggering the rollout of FTTH or less extensive a fiber to the business rollout by initiating the first steps in the deployment. If a city plans to connect its own public buildings first, such as governmental offices and city services and in extension hospitals, schools, museums and other public care or recreational centers, it could already open up some of the advantages of an FTTH network to its citizens. One step further, the city could take a more foresighted deployment scenario into account, in which more ducts and feeders are deployed and some detours are allowed, to enable a faster and cheaper rollout towards businesses and/or residential customers. In this paper we investigate three rollout scenarios with varying focus and amount of foresight: sequential (noncoupled) rollouts; optimized for municipal, public and business areas; fully optimized network for all buildings in the city. The final scenario targets thus a future proof network topology for the whole city. The results of this study shows a much lower final cost when considering a full optimal rollout plan from the start for all buildings in your city. The potential value will also be higher, as the cost for furthermore rolling out towards a business and full FTTH network for inhabitants will be much lower. In addition a geomarketing methodology should be used selecting the most optimal areas focusing first on connecting municipal and other public buildings. --
    Keywords: Techno-economics,network dimensioning,municipal network,geomarketing
    Date: 2012
  19. By: Droppelmann, Klaus; Mapila, Mariam A. T. J.; Mazunda, John; Thangata, Paul; Yauney, Jason
    Abstract: The sector-wide approach currently dominates as the strategy for developing the agricultural sector of many African countries. Although it is recognized that agricultural research plays a vital role in ensuring success of sectorwide agricultural development strategies, there has been little or no effort to explicitly link the research strategies of the National Agricultural Research System (NARS) in African countries to the research agenda that is articulated in sectorwide agricultural development strategies. This study fills that gap by analyzing the readiness of Malawi’s NARS to respond to the research needs of the national agricultural sector development strategy, namely the Agriculture Sector Wide Approach (ASWAp) program. Results of a social network analysis demonstrate that public agricultural research departments play a central coordinating role in facilitating information sharing, with other actors remaining on the periphery. However, that analysis also shows the important role other actors play in relaying information to a wider network of stakeholders. These secondary information pathways can play a crucial role in ensuring successful implementation of the national agricultural research agenda. Policymakers and managers of public research programs are called upon to integrate other research actors into the mainstream national agricultural research information network. This is vital as other research actors are, at the global level, increasingly taking up a greater role in financing and disseminating research and research results, and in enhancing the scaling up and out of new agricultural technologies.
    Keywords: Framework for African Agricultural Productivity, National Agricultural Research System (NARS), sector-wide approach, Social network analysis, Africa, Africa south of Sahara, East Africa, Malawi
    Date: 2013
  20. By: Valentina Feroldi; Edoardo Gaffeo
    Abstract: This paper o¤ers additional evidence on the structure of the international financial network as emerging from the Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey (CPIS) dataset collected by the IMF. Making use of blockmodeling techniques which allow us to …t a given community partition to real data, we show that the system is characterized by the presence of a particular type of meso-scale structure known as core-periphery, in which a densely connected subset of nodes (core) coexists with a sparsely connected partition (periphery), while the members of the core act as intermediaries between members of the periphery. The composition of the core - whose constituents are identi…ed as the set of systemically- important international …nancial centers - is rather small and remains stable over time. In addition to very large economies playing host to well-known global …nancial centers, the core comprises several o¤-shore …nancial markets.
    Keywords: International financial system, intermediation, network analysis
    JEL: F36 G15 E44
    Date: 2013

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