nep-net New Economics Papers
on Network Economics
Issue of 2011‒12‒05
four papers chosen by
Yi-Nung Yang
Chung Yuan Christian University

  1. Do birds of a feather flock together? Proximities and inter-clusters network By Sylvain Amisse; Paul Muller; Caroline Hussler; Patrick Rondé
  4. The significance of neighborhood in Istanbul By E.Umran Topcu

  1. By: Sylvain Amisse; Paul Muller; Caroline Hussler; Patrick Rondé
    Abstract: The present contribution develops on the analysis of clusters in terms of proximities by exploring the issue of distant inter-cluster collaborations. We mobilize different forms of proximity (geographic, cognitive, social) discussed in the literature in order to identify their respective influence on intercluster collaboration by taking the example of French Pôles de Compétitivité. Our results echo previous results applied to intra-cluster collaborations since inter-cluster collaboration mostly relies on a form of social capital due to the key roles played by relational and cognitive proximity. Finally, our results exhibit a negative influence of geographic distance on collaboration. JEL: C45, R12, R58 Keywords: clusters, network analysis, proximities, intercluster collaboration
    Date: 2011–09
  2. By: Luís Martínez-Cháfer; Josep Capó-Vicedo; F. Xavier Molina-Morales
    Abstract: In recent times, the international competitive panorama has undergone intense rapid change, due especially to the presence of new competitors, new technology and new markets. These changes and their repercussions have had a significant impact on many industrial districts, which has left many of these agglomerations in critical condition. When facing these new circumstances, the function of local institutions takes on a much greater importance in how these districts adapt to the new competitive context, connecting companies with external networks which give access to new sources of information and knowledge. Furthermore, the role of local institutions will always be conditioned by the context in which they are found. For instance, there are significant differences between traditional or low-tech districts and high-tech districts which offer technologically more advanced products and services. Thus, while for the second category there is a great deal of theoretical and academic evidence that supports the idea that institutions act as leader actors in processes of innovation and improvement, in districts which operate in traditional sectors there is a shortage of research that analyzes the role played by institutions in these low-tech districts. To fill this gap in the literature, we aim with this work to analyze the links established by the companies of two industrial districts, with different levels of innovation activity, with local institutions. We especially analyze the intermediary and pollinating function that these institutions can have within these districts. We have applied Social Network Analysis techniques, analyzing the structure and properties of networks in the district as well as the role played by institutions. Our aim is to contribute to the debate by establishing a way to measure the flows of information and knowledge between companies and local institutions in two different districts through a social network analysis. The results obtained are of particular interest and are in contrast with the more traditional view that assumes a positive association between the companies’ opportunities for learning and the cohesion of the network.
    Date: 2011–09
  3. By: Emanuele Fabbri; Luciana Lazzeretti
    Abstract: Recently at the European level the theme of innovation has been further fostered with the Smart Specialization Strategy underlined within the COM(2010) 553 “Regional policy contributing to smart growth in Europe 2020â€. The aim of this study is to investigate the co-evolutive dynamics of the technological transfer processes at regional level, and in particular the issue of transversality and bases of knowledge between networks according to an evolutionary perspective. Transversality is analysed considering networks’ differences and proximities in terms of industry of application, applied technology, and local dimensions of relationships. In order to analyze these phenomena, we apply the Social Network Analysis to investigate the structural features of the space of relations and relational flows, and to roles and attributes of the universe of the co-funded actors. The structural analysis of the relations’ system (centrality, closeness, betweenness, local dimension) has been analyzed across five regional initiatives, studying over 150 networks and over 1300 co-funded actors. Relations between and within networks have been normalized and the role of specific agents has been underlined with regards to transversality dynamics. As conclusion, policy implications can be drawn, in particular as far as supply-led and demand-led innovation policy. The study is structured as follows. After the introduction describing the context of regional innovation policies over the last Regional Planning period (SPD 2000-2006), the first paragraph describes the main characteristics of the concept of transversality, with connections to RIS model and innovation networks. The second paragraph describes the Social Networks Analysis methodology used to study the evolutionary process of agglomeration with regards to bases of knowledge and transversality. The third paragraph deals with the results of the analysis and the fourth paragraph presents conclusive remarks on policy implication in terms of industrial policies.
    Date: 2011–09
  4. By: E.Umran Topcu
    Abstract: Abstract The neighborhood is prominent in contemporary urban studies. One reason for choosing neighborhood as a unit of action is that the neighborhood provides an efficient scale within which to measure any change in target population’s circumstances. Neighborhood here is defined as the bundle of spatially based attributes associated with clusters of residences. This bundle of attributes is multidimensional consisting of everything from topography and structures and demography to social interactions. For most people, residence and the context in which it exists, that is to say neighborhood, is the largest consumption item of a lifetime. How much an individual’s needs and aspirations are met by his neighborhood is a concern for researchers and planners. This study expresses a belief in the value of the concept of place as part of the neighborhood question. There are now many established ways of looking at the neighborhood, as place, as network, as image, as property and as administrative unit. These all have something to offer individually and deserve continuing attention to help counteract some of the deficiencies of our contemporary society. In this study respondents from two districts of Istanbul are asked for their subjective assessments of a set of domains associated with neighborhood satisfaction. The neighborhoods are chosen to be one traditional and one modern context. The results indicate significant differences among the residents of traditional and modern neighborhoods. Keywords: Neighborhood satisfaction, context, subjective assessment, traditional, modern
    Date: 2011–09

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