nep-net New Economics Papers
on Network Economics
Issue of 2006‒04‒29
eleven papers chosen by
Yi-Nung Yang
Chung Yuan Christian University

  1. Network Competition and Regulation of Connectivity. By D. Lanzi
  2. Expectations, Network Effects and Timing of Technology Adoption: Some Empirical Evidence from a Sample of SMEs in Italy By Nicoletta Corrocher; Roberto Fontana
  3. What Determines Technological Spillovers of Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from China By Galina Hale; Cheryl Long
  4. Strategic complementarity in multi-stage games By Vives, Xavier
  5. Economies of Density, Network Size and Spatial Scope in the European Airline Industry By Hugo Salgado; Manuel Romero-Hernández
  6. Reciprocity and Network Coordination: Evidence from Japanese Banks By Zekeriya Eser; Joe Peek
  7. The topology of interbank payment flows By Kimmo Soramaki; Morten L. Bech; Jeffrey Arnold; Robert J. Glass; Walter Beyeler
  8. Being generous within social networks By Pablo Brañas-Garza; María Paz Espinosa
  9. A survey of trust, control and information in networks By Jakobsen, Morten
  10. Technological agglomeration and the emergence of clusters and networks in nanotechnology By Robinson, D.K.R.; Rip, A.; Mangematin, V.
  11. Network Analysis, Creative System Modelling and Decision Support: The NetSyMoD Approach By Carlo Giupponi; R. Camera; A. Fassio; A. Lasut; J. Mysiak; A. Sgobbi

  1. By: D. Lanzi
  2. By: Nicoletta Corrocher (CESPRI, Bocconi University); Roberto Fontana (University of Pavia and CESPRI)
    Abstract: We provide evidence on the influence of expectations and network effects on the timing of technological adoption. By considering a sample of SMEs operating in Italy we focus on the determinants of their decision to adopt Fast Ethernet, a communication standard for Local Area Networks (LANs). We find that both expectations and network effects significantly affect the timing of adoption. In particular, price expectations generally tend to delay adoption and (indirect) network effects in the form of backward compatibility as well as informational spillovers tend to foster adoption. Firm size also matters.
    Keywords: diffusion, network effects, expectations, LAN equipment, SMEs
    JEL: O33 L63
    Date: 2006–04–19
  3. By: Galina Hale (Economic Growth Center, Yale University); Cheryl Long (Colgate University)
    Abstract: Using the World Bank survey of 1500 firms in five Chinese cities, we study whether the presence of foreign firms produces technology spillovers on domestic firms operating in the same city and industry. We find positive spillovers for more backward firms. We analyze the channels of such spillovers and find that the transfer of technology occurs through movement of high-skilled workers from FDI firms to domestic firms as well as through network externalities among high-skilled workers. Moreover, these two channels fully account for the spillover effects we find, which demonstrate the importance of well-functioning labor market in facilitating FDI spillovers. Insofar as our results can be generalized to other countries, they reconcile conflicting evidence found in other studies.
    Keywords: Foreign direct investment, technological spillovers, labor mobility, network externalities, China
    JEL: F2 O1 O3 J2 J6
  4. By: Vives, Xavier (IESE Business School)
    Abstract: We provide sufficient conditions in finite-horizon multi-stage games for the value function of each player, associated to extremal Markov perfect equilibria, to display strategic complementarities and for the contemporaneous equilibrium to be increasing in the state variables.
    Keywords: Markov game; supermodularity; two-stage game; adjustment costs; learning curve; network effects;
    Date: 2006–03–21
  5. By: Hugo Salgado; Manuel Romero-Hernández
    Abstract: In this article we use four different indices to measure cost performance of the European Airline Industry. By using the number of routes as an indicator of Network Size, we are able to estimate indicators of Economies of Density, Network Size and Spatial Scope. By estimating total and variable cost functions we are also able to calculate an index of the excess capacity of the firms. For this purpose, we use data from the years 1984 to 1998, a period during which several deregulation measures were imposed on the European airline industry. Our results suggest that in the year 1998, almost all the firms had Economics of Density in their existing networks, while several of the firms also had Economies of Network Size and Economies of Spatial Scope. These results support our hypothesis that fusion, alliance, and merger strategies followed by the principal European airlines after 1998 are not just explained by marketing strategies, but also by the cost structure of the industry.
  6. By: Zekeriya Eser; Joe Peek
    Date: 2006–03
  7. By: Kimmo Soramaki; Morten L. Bech; Jeffrey Arnold; Robert J. Glass; Walter Beyeler
    Abstract: We explore the network topology of the interbank payments transferred between commercial banks over the Fedwirer Funds Service. We find that the network is compact despite low connectivity. The network includes a tightly connected core of money-center banks to which all other banks connect. The degree distribution is scale-free over a substantial range. We find that the properties of the network changed considerably in the immediate aftermath of the attacks of September 11, 2001.
    Keywords: Fedwire ; Payment systems ; Electronic funds transfers ; Banking structure
    Date: 2006
  8. By: Pablo Brañas-Garza (Department of Economic Theory and Economic History, University of Granada.); María Paz Espinosa (Universidad del País Vasco)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the determinants of giving within a social network. We find two main explanatory variables for previous experimental results, both related to the level of social integration. The first is the level of social capital, which has a positive impact on giving. The second variable is strategic and it is based on reciprocity, the possibility of ex-post favors. While the former is associated to reciprocity in the long term, the later might be interpreted as reciprocity in a second stage of the game. The econometric analysis shows that both variables play a positive (and significant) role.
    Keywords: giving, social networks, reciprocity, social capital.
    JEL: C91 D64 Z13
    Date: 2006–04–24
  9. By: Jakobsen, Morten (Department of Business Studies)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on which characteristics managers take into account when they choose <p> and evaluate business partners, and the interrelationship between the constructs trust, control <p> and information. The paper is based on a survey which includes 101 small and middle-sized <p> manufacturing companies in Denmark. The results show that managers frequently express <p> that trust is an important aspect of a good relationship. Also product-related attributes and <p> relational attributes have a bearing in a network setting. On the other hand, no significant <p> correlation between neither trust and control nor trust and information is found. The findings <p> indicate that the three constructs are relevant, and the level of embeddedness is found to <p> influence both the absolute and the relative importance of the three constructs, and thereby <p> the role of management accounting at different development stages of relationships
    Keywords: Trust; management of networks; embeddedness; survey
    Date: 2006–04–26
  10. By: Robinson, D.K.R.; Rip, A.; Mangematin, V.
    Abstract: Based on the analysis of two clusters in nanotechnologies (MESA+ in the Netherlands and Minatec in Grenoble in France), the paper examines the emergence and effects of technological agglomeration. The social and technical arrangements of a regional centre for nanotechnology both enable and constrain the ongoing activities and research lines that can be followed. Technology platforms and their co-location are a pre-requisite for nanotechnology research and agglomeration of such platforms are both a means and outcome for institutional entrepreneurs to mobilise resources, build networks and construct regional centres of excellence in nanotechnology. Technological agglomeration shapes the networks that evolve and leads to the convergence of scientific disciplines.
    JEL: M13
    Date: 2006
  11. By: Carlo Giupponi (Universita' degli Studi di Milano); R. Camera (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); A. Fassio (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); A. Lasut (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); J. Mysiak (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); A. Sgobbi (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)
    Abstract: This paper presents the NetSyMoD approach – where NetSyMod stands for Network Analysis – Creative System Modelling – Decision Support. It represents the outcome of several years of research at FEEM in the field of natural resources management, environmental evaluation and decision-making, within the Natural Resources Management Research Programme. NetSyMoD is a flexible and comprehensive methodological framework, which uses a suite of support tools, aimed at facilitating the involvement of stakeholders or experts in decision-making processes. The main phases envisaged for the process are: (i) the identification of relevant actors, (ii) the analysis of social networks, (iii) the creative system modelling and modelling of the reality being considered (i.e. the local socio-economic and environmental system), and (iv) the analysis of alternative options available for the management of the specific case (e.g. alternative projects, plans, strategies). The strategies for participation are necessarily context-dependent, and thus not all the NetSyMod phases may be needed in every application. Furthermore, the practical solutions for their implementation may significantly differ from one case to another, depending not only on the context, but also on the available resources (human and financial). The various applications of NetSyMoD have nonetheless in common the same approach for problem analysis and communication within a group of actors, based upon the use of creative thinking techniques, the formalisation of human-environment relationships through the DPSIR framework, and the use of multi-criteria analysis through the mDSS software.
    Keywords: Social Network, Integrated Analysis, Participatory Modelling, Decision Support
    JEL: Q01 Q25 Q28 Q5
    Date: 2006–03

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