nep-mst New Economics Papers
on Market Microstructure
Issue of 2022‒09‒26
five papers chosen by
Thanos Verousis

  1. High-frequency financial market simulation and flash crash scenarios analysis: an agent-based modelling approach By Kang Gao; Perukrishnen Vytelingum; Stephen Weston; Wayne Luk; Ce Guo
  2. How and When are High-Frequency Stock Returns Predictable? By Yacine Aït-Sahalia; Jianqing Fan; Lirong Xue; Yifeng Zhou
  3. Deep Reinforcement Learning Approach for Trading Automation in The Stock Market By Taylan Kabbani; Ekrem Duman
  4. Understanding intra-day price formation process by agent-based financial market simulation: calibrating the extended chiarella model By Kang Gao; Perukrishnen Vytelingum; Stephen Weston; Wayne Luk; Ce Guo
  5. Pricing Stocks with Trading Volumes By Ben Duan; Yutian Li; Dawei Lu; Yang Lu; Ran Zhang

  1. By: Kang Gao; Perukrishnen Vytelingum; Stephen Weston; Wayne Luk; Ce Guo
    Abstract: This paper describes simulations and analysis of flash crash scenarios in an agent-based modelling framework. We design, implement, and assess a novel high-frequency agent-based financial market simulator that generates realistic millisecond-level financial price time series for the E-Mini S&P 500 futures market. Specifically, a microstructure model of a single security traded on a central limit order book is provided, where different types of traders follow different behavioural rules. The model is calibrated using the machine learning surrogate modelling approach. Statistical test and moment coverage ratio results show that the model has excellent capability of reproducing realistic stylised facts in financial markets. By introducing an institutional trader that mimics the real-world Sell Algorithm on May 6th, 2010, the proposed high-frequency agent-based financial market simulator is used to simulate the Flash Crash that took place that day. We scrutinise the market dynamics during the simulated flash crash and show that the simulated dynamics are consistent with what happened in historical flash crash scenarios. With the help of Monte Carlo simulations, we discover functional relationships between the amplitude of the simulated 2010 Flash Crash and three conditions: the percentage of volume of the Sell Algorithm, the market maker inventory limit, and the trading frequency of fundamental traders. Similar analyses are carried out for mini flash crash events. An innovative "Spiking Trader" is introduced to the model, aiming at precipitating mini flash crash events. We analyse the market dynamics during the course of a typical simulated mini flash crash event and study the conditions affecting its characteristics. The proposed model can be used for testing resiliency and robustness of trading algorithms and providing advice for policymakers.
    Date: 2022–08
  2. By: Yacine Aït-Sahalia; Jianqing Fan; Lirong Xue; Yifeng Zhou
    Abstract: This paper studies the predictability of ultra high-frequency stock returns and durations to relevant price, volume and transactions events, using machine learning methods. We find that, contrary to low frequency and long horizon returns, where predictability is rare and inconsistent, predictability in high frequency returns and durations is large, systematic and pervasive over short horizons. We identify the relevant predictors constructed from trades and quotes data and examine what determines the variation in predictability across different stock's own characteristics and market environments. Next, we compute how the predictability improves with the timeliness of the data on a scale of milliseconds, providing a valuation of each millisecond gained. Finally, we simulate the impact of getting an (imperfect) peek at the incoming order flow, a look ahead ability that is often attributed to the fastest high frequency traders, in terms of improving the predictability of the following returns and durations.
    JEL: C45 C53 C58 G12 G14 G17
    Date: 2022–08
  3. By: Taylan Kabbani; Ekrem Duman
    Abstract: Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) algorithms can scale to previously intractable problems. The automation of profit generation in the stock market is possible using DRL, by combining the financial assets price "prediction" step and the "allocation" step of the portfolio in one unified process to produce fully autonomous systems capable of interacting with their environment to make optimal decisions through trial and error. This work represents a DRL model to generate profitable trades in the stock market, effectively overcoming the limitations of supervised learning approaches. We formulate the trading problem as a Partially Observed Markov Decision Process (POMDP) model, considering the constraints imposed by the stock market, such as liquidity and transaction costs. We then solve the formulated POMDP problem using the Twin Delayed Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (TD3) algorithm reporting a 2.68 Sharpe Ratio on unseen data set (test data). From the point of view of stock market forecasting and the intelligent decision-making mechanism, this paper demonstrates the superiority of DRL in financial markets over other types of machine learning and proves its credibility and advantages of strategic decision-making.
    Date: 2022–07
  4. By: Kang Gao; Perukrishnen Vytelingum; Stephen Weston; Wayne Luk; Ce Guo
    Abstract: This article presents XGB-Chiarella, a powerful new approach for deploying agent-based models to generate realistic intra-day artificial financial price data. This approach is based on agent-based models, calibrated by XGBoost machine learning surrogate. Following the Extended Chiarella model, three types of trading agents are introduced in this agent-based model: fundamental traders, momentum traders, and noise traders. In particular, XGB-Chiarella focuses on configuring the simulation to accurately reflect real market behaviours. Instead of using the original Expectation-Maximisation algorithm for parameter estimation, the agent-based Extended Chiarella model is calibrated using XGBoost machine learning surrogate. It is shown that the machine learning surrogate learned in the proposed method is an accurate proxy of the true agent-based market simulation. The proposed calibration method is superior to the original Expectation-Maximisation parameter estimation in terms of the distance between historical and simulated stylised facts. With the same underlying model, the proposed methodology is capable of generating realistic price time series in various stocks listed at three different exchanges, which indicates the universality of intra-day price formation process. For the time scale (minutes) chosen in this paper, one agent per category is shown to be sufficient to capture the intra-day price formation process. The proposed XGB-Chiarella approach provides insights that the price formation process is comprised of the interactions between momentum traders, fundamental traders, and noise traders. It can also be used to enhance risk management by practitioners.
    Date: 2022–08
  5. By: Ben Duan; Yutian Li; Dawei Lu; Yang Lu; Ran Zhang
    Abstract: The present paper proposes a new framework for describing the stock price dynamics. In the traditional geometric Brownian motion model and its variants, volatility plays a vital role. The modern studies of asset pricing expand around volatility, trying to improve the understanding of it and remove the gap between the theory and market data. Unlike this, we propose to replace volatility with trading volume in stock pricing models. This pricing strategy is based on two hypotheses: a price-volume relation with an idea borrowed from fluid flows and a white-noise hypothesis for the price rate of change (ROC) that is verified via statistic testing on actual market data. The new framework can be easily adopted to local volume and stochastic volume models for the option pricing problem, which will point out a new possible direction for this central problem in quantitative finance.
    Date: 2022–08

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