
on Market Microstructure 
By:  Kovaleva, P.; Iori, G. 
Abstract:  We study the optimal execution strategy of selling a security. In a continuous time diffusion framework, a riskaverse trader faces the choice of selling the security promptly or placing a limit order and hence delaying the transaction in order to sell at a more favorable price. We introduce a random delay parameter, which defers limit order execution and characterizes market liquidity. The distribution of expected timetofill of limit orders conforms to the empirically observed exponential distribution of trading times, and its variance decreases with liquidity. We obtain a closedform solution and demonstrate that the presence of the lag factor linearizes the impact of other market parameters on the optimal limit price. Finally, two more stylized facts are rationalized in our model: the equilibrium bidask spread decreases with liquidity, but increases with agents risk aversion. 
Keywords:  order submission; execution delay; first passage time; risk aversion; liquidity traders 
Date:  2012 
URL:  http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cty:dpaper:12/05&r=mst 
By:  Flavia Barsotti (ISFA, University Lyon 1, France); Simona Sanfelici (Dipartimento di Economia, Universita' di Parma) 
Abstract:  Equity returns and firm's default probability are strictly interrelated financial measures capturing the credit risk profile of a firm. Following the idea proposed in [20] we use highfrequency equity prices in order to estimate the volatility risk component of a firm within Merton [17] structural model. Differently from [20] we consider a more general framework by introducing market microstructure noise as a direct effect of using noisy highfrequency data and propose the use of non parametric estimation techniques in order to estimate equity volatility. We conduct a simulation analysis to compare the performance of different nonparametric volatil ity estimators in their capability of i) filtering out the market microstructure noise, ii) extracting the (unobservable) true underlying asset volatility level, iii) predicting default probabilies calibrated from Merton [17] model. 
Keywords:  market microstructure noise, highfrequency data, nonparametric volatility estimation, Merton model, default probabilities, volatility risk 
Date:  2012–10 
URL:  http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:flo:wpaper:201205&r=mst 
By:  Mark Podolskij (Heidelberg University and CREATES); Christian Schmidt (Heidelberg University); Johanna Fasciati Ziegel (University of Bern) 
Abstract:  This paper presents the asymptotic theory for nondegenerate Ustatistics of high frequency observations of continuous Itô semimartingales. We prove uniform convergence in probability and show a functional stable central limit theorem for the standardized version of the Ustatistic. The limiting process in the central limit theorem turns out to be conditionally Gaussian with mean zero. Finally, we indicate potential statistical applications of our probabilistic results. 
Keywords:  High frequency data, Limit theorems, Semimartingales, Stable convergence, Ustatistics 
JEL:  C10 C13 C14 
Date:  2012–10–02 
URL:  http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aah:create:201240&r=mst 
By:  Rama Cont; Arseniy Kukanov 
Abstract:  To execute a trade, participants in electronic equity markets may choose to submit limit orders or market orders across various exchanges where a stock is traded. This decision is influenced by the characteristics of the order flow and queue sizes in each limit order book, as well as the structure of transaction fees and rebates across exchanges. We propose a quantitative framework for studying this order placement problem by formulating it as a convex optimization problem. This formulation allows to study how the interplay between the state of order books, the fee structure, order flow properties and preferences of a trader determine the optimal placement decision. In the case of a single exchange, we derive an explicit solution for the optimal split between limit and market orders. For the general problem of order placement across multiple exchanges, we propose a stochastic algorithm for computing the optimal policy and study the sensitivity of the solution to various parameters using a numerical implementation of the algorithm. 
Date:  2012–10 
URL:  http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:1210.1625&r=mst 
By:  Peter Christoffersen; Bruno Feunou; Kris Jacobs; Nour Meddahi 
Abstract:  Many studies have documented that daily realized volatility estimates based on intraday returns provide volatility forecasts that are superior to forecasts constructed from daily returns only. We investigate whether these forecasting improvements translate into economic value added. To do so we develop a new class of affine discretetime option valuation models that use daily returns as well as realized volatility. We derive convenient closedform option valuation formulas and we assess the option valuation properties using S&P500 return and option data. We find that realized volatility reduces the pricing errors of the benchmark model significantly across moneyness, maturity and volatility levels. 
Keywords:  Asset pricing; Econometric and statistical methods 
JEL:  G13 
Date:  2012 
URL:  http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bca:bocawp:1234&r=mst 
By:  Diego Moreno; John Wooders 
Abstract:  The inefficiency of competitive markets for lemons raises fundamental questions about market performance and the role of policy intervention. We study the performance of dynamic markets, and show that when the time horizon is finite decentralized markets perform better and high quality is more liquid than centralized ones. When frictions are small, decentralized markets become completely illiquid at all but the first and the last date. When the time horizon is infinite, decentralized markets yield the static competitive surplus, whereas centralized markets have separating equilibria that yield a greater surplus. Subsidizing low quality or taxing high quality tends to increase surplus in both decentralized and centralized markets. 
Keywords:  Decentralized dynamic market for lemons, Adverse selection, Efficiency, Liquidity, Policy intervention 
Date:  2012–09 
URL:  http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cte:werepe:we1226&r=mst 