New Economics Papers
on Market Microstructure
Issue of 2012‒07‒01
four papers chosen by
Thanos Verousis

  1. Effective Trade Execution By Cesari, Riccardo; Marzo, Massimiliano; Zagaglia, Paolo
  2. High-frequency market-making with inventory constraints and directional bets By Pietro Fodra; Mauricio Labadie
  3. A No-Arbitrage Model of Liquidity in Financial Markets involving Brownian Sheets By David German; Henry Schellhorn
  4. Terrorism Induced Cross-Market Transmission of Shocks: A Case Study Using Intraday Data By Christos Kollias; Stephanos Papadamou; Costas Siriopoulos

  1. By: Cesari, Riccardo; Marzo, Massimiliano; Zagaglia, Paolo
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of algorithmic trading in modern financial markets. Additionally, order types, characteristics, and special features of algorithmic trading are described under the lens provided by the large development of high frequency trading technology. Special order types are examined together with an intuitive description of the implied dynamics of the order book conditional to special orders (iceberg and hidden). The chapter provides an analysis of the transaction costs associated with trading activity and examines the most common trading strategy employed in the market. It also examines optimal execution strategy with the description of the Efficient Trading Frontier. These concepts represent the tools needed to understand the most recent innovations in financial markets and the most recent advances in microstructures research.
    Keywords: order book; price impact; execution strategy; high frequency trading
    JEL: G14 G12 G19
    Date: 2012–06
  2. By: Pietro Fodra; Mauricio Labadie
    Abstract: In this paper we extend the market-making models with inventory constraints of Avellaneda and Stoikov ("High-frequency trading in a limit-order book", Quantitative Finance Vol.8 No.3 2008) and Gueant, Lehalle and Fernandez-Tapia ("Dealing with inventory risk", Preprint 2011) to the case of a rather general class of mid-price processes, under either exponential or linear PNL utility functions, and we add an inventory-risk-aversion parameter that penalises the marker-maker if she finishes her day with a non-zero inventory. This general, non-martingale framework allows a market-maker to make directional bets on market trends whilst keeping under control her inventory risk. In order to achieve this, the marker-maker places non-symmetric limit orders that favour market orders to hit her bid (resp. ask) quotes if she expects that prices will go up (resp. down). With this inventory-risk-aversion parameter, the market-maker has not only direct control on her inventory risk but she also has indirect control on the moments of her PNL distribution. Therefore, this parameter can be seen as a fine-tuning of the marker-maker's risk-reward profile. In the case of a mean-reverting mid-price, we show numerically that the inventory-risk-aversion parameter gives the market-maker enough room to tailor her risk-reward profile, depending on her risk budgets in inventory and PNL distribution (especially variance, skewness, kurtosis and VaR). For example, when compared to the martingale benchmark, a market can choose to either increase her average PNL by more than 15% and carry a huge risk, on inventory and PNL, or either give up 5% of her benchmark PNL to increase her control on inventory and PNL, as well as increasing her Sharpe ratio by a factor bigger than 2.
    Date: 2012–06
  3. By: David German; Henry Schellhorn
    Abstract: We consider a dynamic market model where buyers and sellers submit limit orders. If at a given moment in time, the buyer is unable to complete his entire order due to the shortage of sell orders at the required limit price, the unmatched part of the order is recorded in the order book. Subsequently these buy unmatched orders may be matched with new incoming sell orders. The resulting demand curve constitutes the sole input to our model. The clearing price is then mechanically calculated using the market clearing condition. We use a Brownian sheet to model the demand curve, and provide some theoretical assumptions under which such a model is justified. Our main result is the proof that if there exists a unique equivalent martingale measure for the clearing price, then under some mild assumptions there is no arbitrage. We use the Ito- Wentzell formula to obtain that result, and also to characterize the dynamics of the demand curve and of the clearing price in the equivalent measure. We find that the volatility of the clearing price is (up to a stochastic factor) inversely proportional to the sum of buy and sell order flow density (evaluated at the clearing price), which confirms the intuition that volatility is inversely proportional to volume. We also demonstrate that our approach is implementable. We use real order book data and simulate option prices under a particularly simple parameterization of our model. The no-arbitrage conditions we obtain are applicable to a wide class of models, in the same way that the Heath-Jarrow-Morton conditions apply to a wide class of interest rate models.
    Date: 2012–06
  4. By: Christos Kollias; Stephanos Papadamou; Costas Siriopoulos
    Abstract: Terrorist incidents exert a negative, albeit generally short-lived, impact on markets and equity returns. Given the integration of global financial markets, mega-terrorist events also have a high contagion potential with their shock waves being transmitted across countries and markets. This paper investigates the cross-market transmission of the London Stock Exchange's reaction to the terrorist attacks of 2005. It focuses on how this reaction was transmitted to two other major European stock exchanges: Frankfurt and Paris. To this effect, high frequency data are used and multivariate GARCH models are employed. Findings reported herein indicate that the volatility of stock market returns is increased in all three cases.
    Keywords: terrorism, capital markets, contagion, multivariate GARCH
    JEL: H56 G1 G15
    Date: 2012

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