nep-mkt New Economics Papers
on Marketing
Issue of 2019‒07‒22
two papers chosen by
Marco Novarese
Università del Piemonte Orientale

  1. French Consumer Co-operatives: Pioneers of French Modern Distribution By Magali Boespflug; Bruno Mazières
  2. Towards diversification of the economy of Kazakhstan via information support for the tourism industry By Anna Shevyakova; Eleonorа Munsh; Malika Arystan

  1. By: Magali Boespflug (CE.RE.GE - CEntre de REcherche en GEstion - ULR - Université de La Rochelle - IAE Poitiers - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Poitiers - Université de Poitiers - Université de Poitiers); Bruno Mazières (CREOP - Centre de Recherches sur l'Entreprise, les Organisations et le Patrimoine - IR SHS UNILIM - Institut Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société - UNILIM - Université de Limoges)
    Abstract: Purpose This research aims at explaining how consumer cooperatives have been pioneers of modern distribution in France. These companies issued from the 19 th century socialist utopia provided the basis for both modern marketing and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) principles. Using an historical approach, we will introduce the different cooperative innovations that were finally adopted by the main actors of the French distribution sector. The case: French consumer cooperatives The choice of this specific type of company has been motivated by different reasons. First, it is a very old form of distribution. Indeed, even if it has been developed on a larger scale and on a sustainable way by the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers in England during the 19 th century, the very first one was developed in Lyon (France) in 1835 by the "Canuts" [silk industry workers]. This form of cooperative originated in social movements led by unsatisfied customers. Then, its legal status is original for a consumer cooperative belongs to its customers (the so-called members or co-operators) in charge of marketing goods at a fair price and ensuring the sustainability of the cooperative. Lastly, consumer cooperatives have been leaders of the French distribution sector from the 19 th century to the 1980s. Methodology Data collection was based on both primary and secondary sources. Relevant information was taken from literature about the cooperative sector and the French distribution industry. We also had access to the archives of Coop Atlantique (the most important remaining French consumer cooperative) and public archives. This documentary research work was completed by several semi-directive individual interviews and focus groups with different consumer cooperative stakeholders, such as customers, co-operators, employees, and managers (active and retired). We also organized and were part of seminars on cooperatives , which gave us the opportunity to interact with both professional (co-operative managers or members of cooperative federations) and academic (researchers in History, Economy, Marketing and Semiology) stakeholders. Consumer cooperatives as pioneers We were able to identify two fields in which French consumer cooperatives could be considered as pioneers in France: marketing practices and societal orientation. Consumer cooperatives as pioneers in marketing practices Consumer cooperatives are behind numerous marketing innovations regarding price, product, distribution or promotion policies. In terms of price, a first idea came directly from the roots of consumer cooperatives. Indeed, first members were workers unable to buy food items made too expensive by the industrialization of France and its effect on the reduction of food-crop production.
    Date: 2019–05
  2. By: Anna Shevyakova (LLP "Rational solutions"); Eleonorа Munsh (EPAM Kazakhstan); Malika Arystan (Karaganda Economic University of Kazpotrebsouz)
    Abstract: Raising awareness of tourism players requires improving the comfort of the information environment of their activities. In tourism practices, information support of tourist activities that ensures the comfort of tourist services and the attractiveness of the tourist region strengthens the motivation of consumers to visit this territory. The development of tourism demand, caused by tourists 'awareness, and at the same time demographic changes, accelerate the segmentation and the creation of new types of proposals. Recent advances in telecommunications, networking organizations, creation, and processing of databases and electronic marketing provide new business opportunities in the tourism sector and a significant impact on the model of traditional business. Therefore, the main sphere of changes and innovations in tourism is related to the use of information and communication technologies. Kazakhstan with its unique natural resources and original culture of the nomadic people has a huge untapped potential for tourism development in the international and regional markets. The tourism industry in the Republic of Kazakhstan is recognized as one of the priority branches of the economy at the state level. For example, in the implementation of the provisions of industrial-innovative development of the country's economy, the leading role belongs to the cluster system, in particular to the tourism cluster. Modern trends in the development of this industry are that tourists who have studied the most famous resorts in the world well are striving to those countries where the tourism sector is just beginning to develop. At the present stage of tourism development, Kazakhstan is becoming a more attractive country for extreme holiday lovers and people interested in history and the present of the countries located on the Great Silk Road. From this perspective, the attractiveness of Kazakhstan 139 is growing. The tourist potential of recreational resources and historical and cultural heritage allows the Republic to harmoniously integrate into the international tourism market and achieve intensive development of tourism in the country. This will ensure sustainable employment and income growth, stimulate the development of related industries and increase of investment flows in the national economy.
    Keywords: diversification,Kazakhstan,Kazakhstan's economic sectors,pre-employment,tourism,non-governmental organizations,information technologies and support,computer networks
    Date: 2019–06–30

This nep-mkt issue is ©2019 by Marco Novarese. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.