nep-mkt New Economics Papers
on Marketing
Issue of 2017‒12‒18
eight papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Brand positioning and consumer taste information By Arcan Nalca,; Tamer Boyaci,; Saibal Ray
  2. Understanding the Globally-Mobile, Young Consumers from the Emerging Markets By Wei-Fen Chen
  3. KÖLSCH versus ALT: Erkenntnisse aus konsumentenpsychologischen Experimenten By Quack, Helmut
  4. Quality discrimination in online multi-sided markets By Nestor Duch-Brown
  5. Platforms to business relations in online platform ecosystems By Nestor Duch-Brown
  6. Echo Chambers: Voter-to-Voter Communication and Political Competition By Monica Anna Giovanniello
  7. Barriers to European cross-border E-commerce By Alex Coad; Nestor Duch-Brown
  8. Ecommerce and Firm Performance: Evidence from Korea By Lee, Kyu Yub

  1. By: Arcan Nalca, (Smith School of Business, Queen's University); Tamer Boyaci, (ESMT European School of Management and Technology); Saibal Ray (Desautels Faculty of Management, McGill University)
    Abstract: In this paper, we study how a retailer can benefit from acquiring consumer taste information in the presence of competition between the retailers store brand (SB) and a manufacturers national brand (NB). In our model, there is ex-ante uncertainty about consumer preferences for distinct product features, and the retailer has an advantage in resolving this uncertainty because of his close proximity to consumers. Our focus is on the impact of the retailers information acquisition and disclosure strategy on the positioning of the brands. Our analysis reveals that acquiring taste information allows the retailer to make better SB positioning decisions. Information disclosure, however, enables the manufacturer to make better NB positioning decisions – which in return may benefit or hurt the retailer. For instance, if a particular product feature is quite popular, then it is beneficial for the retailer to incorporate that feature into the SB, and inform the manufacturer so that the NB also includes this feature. Information sharing, in these circumstances, benefits both the retailer and the manufacturer, even though it increases the intensity of competition between the brands. But, there are situations in which the retailer refrains from information sharing so that a potentially poor positioning decision by the NB makes the SB the only provider of the popular feature. The retailer always benefits from acquiring information. However, it is beneficial to the manufacturer only if the retailer does not introduce an SB due to the associated high fixed cost.
    Keywords: supply chain management, uncertain consumer taste, product introduction, product positioning, store brands, national brands, information acquisition, information sharing, vertical difierentiation, horizontal difierentiation
    Date: 2017–01–25
  2. By: Wei-Fen Chen (Post-doctoral Fellow, Institute for Emerging Market Studies, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: Dr Wei-fen Chen, Post-doc Fellow at the Institute, offers insights on business strategy targeting young consumers in emerging markets in light of their social mobility experiences. This Brief discusses the identities and consumption habits of young consumers from China through their continuous interests in pursuing higher degrees overseas, which implies upward as well as outbound mobility.
    Keywords: consumer, emerging market, social mobility, china
    Date: 2017–10
  3. By: Quack, Helmut (Department of Economics of the Duesseldorf University of Applied Sciences)
    Abstract: In konsumentenpsychologischen Experimenten mit 50 Kölnern und 50 Düsseldorfern im Alter von 35 bis 65 Jahren wurde untersucht, ob man Unterschiede zwischen den beiden Biersorten KÖLSCH und ALT erkennen kann. Dazu wurde zunächst in einem Blindtest der Geschmack von KÖLSCH und ALT beurteilt. Die Bewertungen von KÖLSCH und ALT bzgl. der Merkmale „schmeckt mir“ sowie „schmeckt frisch“, „schmeckt mild“, „schmeckt würzig“ waren nahezu gleich. Weiterhin wurde in einem Blindtest untersucht, ob die Versuchspersonen KÖLSCH und ALT überhaupt identifizieren können. Auch hierbei gab es keine signifikanten Unterschiede. Nur zu 55 % wurde das Bier richtig erkannt, was auf Zufalls- bzw. Rateniveau liegt. Später wurde in einem offenen Test nochmals der Geschmack für KÖLSCH und ALT untersucht. Jetzt zeigt sich, dass den Kölnern das KÖLSCH deutlich besser schmeckt als das ALT. Den Düsseldorfern hingegen schmeckt das ALT signifikant besser als das KÖLSCH. Eine Untersuchung der Präferenzen unterstützt diese Ergebnisse: Während in dem Blindtest die Präferenzen bei annähernd 50:50 lagen, veränderten sich diese im separaten offenen Test mit 78:22 zugunsten des Heimatbieres. Diese Ergebnisse sind schon erstaunlich, da einfach nicht zu glauben ist, dass Männer zwischen KÖLSCH und ALT objektiv nicht unterscheiden können. Die Ergebnisse werden ausführlich psychologisch und wissenschaftstheoretisch interpretiert und daraus Erkenntnisse für das Marketing abgeleitet.
    Abstract: In consumer psychological experiments with 50 men of Cologne and 50 men of Dusseldorf between the age of 35 and 65, we examined whether there are recognizable differences between the two beers, KÖLSCH and ALT. Firstly the taste of KÖLSCH and ALT was judged in a blind test. The results of the evaluation of KÖLSCH and ALT regarding the characteristics “tastes good”, “tastes fresh”, “tastes mild” and “tastes aromatic” were nearly equal. A further blind test examined whether the test subjects could actually recognize KÖLSCH and ALT at all. Again there was no significant difference – only 55 % of the beer was identified correctly which is on a random level. Later, the taste of KÖLSCH and ALT was tested again, but in an open test. This time the men of Cologne clearly prefer the taste of KÖLSCH. The men of Dusseldorf, however, find the taste of the ALT significantly better than the taste of KÖLSCH. A study of the preferences supports these findings: Whereas the preferences in the blind test, were nearly 50:50, the preferences in the separate open test changed to 78:22 in favour of the home beer. These results are quite amazing, because it is unbelievable that men cannot differentiate objectively between KÖLSCH and ALT. The results are psychologically and epistomologically interpreted in detail and thus insights can be derived for marketing.
    Keywords: Kölsch, Alt, Bier, Geschmack, Experiment, Biermarketing, beer, taste, beer marketing
    JEL: M31 C83 L66
    Date: 2016–07
  4. By: Nestor Duch-Brown (European Commission – JRC)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explain evidence of unfair practices by online platforms towards business users, particularly SME's. First, using survey data, we show that sellers operating with four different categories of platforms multi-home (marketplaces, app stores, social networks and online advertising). Hence, the appropriate competitive framework is the "competitive bottleneck" model. Second, we develop an empirical model of platform competition adding an additional dimension: service quality. The results indicate that the costs of providing quality to sellers are higher than the costs of providing quality to buyers. These differences may reflect different needs or preferences across groups. While buyers would require simple functionalities sellers would need more sophisticated services. When sellers' multi-home, platforms care more about buyers than sellers and while buyers will get an efficient level of quality, quality to sellers will be "degraded". We argue that this service quality degradation explain unfair trading practices simply because platforms are not willing to invest to take care of sellers.
    Keywords: digital single market, data economy, online platforms, multi-sided markets
    JEL: D23 K11 K12 L86
    Date: 2017–12
  5. By: Nestor Duch-Brown (European Commission – JRC)
    Abstract: This report presents evidence on the relationship between online platforms and businesses using these platforms to reach consumers or conduct their operations. First, we review the literature on vertical relationships both from a classic approach and from a multi-sided market perspective. Second, we use survey data to explain the factors behind firms’ choice of online channel. Third, we explore the results of a survey passed to firms using platforms to understand their concerns about the behaviour of some of these online gatekeepers. Finally, we offer some conclusions.
    Keywords: digital single market, data economy, online platforms, multi-sided markets
    JEL: D23 K11 K12 L86
    Date: 2017–12
  6. By: Monica Anna Giovanniello
    Abstract: I investigate, in a model of informative campaign advertising, how the ability of voters to strategically communicate with each other shapes the advertising strategies of two competing parties. Two main results are put forward. First, information does not travel among voters biased toward different parties even if they are ideologically close â âecho chambersâ arise endogenously. Second, whenever the probability of interaction among like-minded voters is low (low homophily), parties tailor their advertising on their opponentâs supporters rather than on swing or core states voters.
    JEL: D72 D83 M37 P16
    Date: 2017–11–21
  7. By: Alex Coad (European Commission – JRC); Nestor Duch-Brown (European Commission – JRC)
    Abstract: We analyse survey data to investigate the main barriers to European cross-border e-commerce. We investigate the determinants of selling online, as well as the frequency and determinants of cross-border e-commerce, and the role of barriers. Large firms, which are part of a group, are more likely to sell online. Firms generally make most of their online sales to their home country, although EU firms are more likely to engage in cross-border online trade with EU countries than non-EU countries. Firms report that they are facing a variety of barriers to e-commerce. Regulatory barriers are negatively associated with online sales. There is weak evidence that firms which use their own websites are more vulnerable to financial, market and information barriers. Firms that use a large platform experience fewer financial and market barriers. On the positive side, we find that small and young firms do not seem to be more vulnerable to barriers than large or more experienced firms.
    Keywords: digital single market, e-commerce, cross-border trade
    JEL: D23 K11 K12 L86
    Date: 2017–11
  8. By: Lee, Kyu Yub (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy)
    Abstract: Official estimates peg global business-to-business ecommerce at 15 trillion dollars and global business-to-consumer ecommerce at 1.2 trillion dollars in 2013 (UNCTAD 2015). When we turn to official estimates for Korea, it is easy to find that Korea’s business-to-consumer ecommerce market is grow-ing at more than twenty percent per year and has emerged as the third larg-est global ecommerce market in Asia. It is not very much surprising to know the numbers for Korea since Korea is one of the world’s most ad-vanced countries in terms of information and communication technology. However, it is somewhat surprising that we know little about how ecom-merce firms or establishments are distributed in the economy of Korea. In addition, we know little about how ecommerce establishments perform relative to their counterparts of a similar age and size in the same industry. The paper aims to characterize and test performance differences between ecommerce and non-ecommerce firms or establishments. Although the number of ecommerce establishments makes up a small fraction of the economy, ecommerce establishments have a heavier weight in sales, em-ployment, and wage. Due to endogeneity of ecommerce variable, the paper reconstructs the 2010 Korea Census dataset by using Propensity Matching Score and shows that in manufacture ecommerce establishments have, on average, larger sales-per-worker and pay higher wage whereas in services ecommerce ones have higher sales-per-worker but pay no larger wage than their counterparts of a similar age and size in the same industry. It also adds quantile estimates showing that sales-per-worker differences between ecommerce and non-ecommerce establishments in manufacture are positive and statistically significant only at lower quantiles of the distribution. In ser-vices, sales-per-worker differences between them are positive and signifi-cant at most of distribution but turns to be negative, though not significant, at above upper quantile of the distribution.
    Keywords: Ecommerce; Firm Performance; Sales-per-worker; Wage
    JEL: F10
    Date: 2017–12–12

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