nep-mkt New Economics Papers
on Marketing
Issue of 2017‒09‒24
fifteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Reduced Form Evidence on Belief Updating under Asymmetric Information - The Case of Wine Expert Opinions By Bonnet, Céline; Hilger, James; Villas-Boas, Sofia B.
  2. Social media marketing analytics : a multicultural approach applied to the beauty & cosmetic sector By Hajer Kefi; Sitesh Indra; Talel Abdessalem
  3. Optimize the assessment of client online By Nathalie Audigier; Marie-Agnès De Gail; Luc Derien
  4. When consumers activate persuasion knowledge: Review of antecedents and consequences By Golovacheva, E.
  5. Bundling, consumer retention and entry: evidence from fixed broadband market By Grzybowski, Lukasz; Liang, Julienne; Zulehner, Christine
  6. Competition and vertical/agglomeration effects in media mergers: bagging bundle benefits By Howell, Bronwyn E; Potgieter, Petrus H.
  7. Negative consumer value and loss leading By Caprice, Stéphane; Shekhar, Shiva
  8. Impact of media form on the perceived image of the television news media in the age of media convergence By Cheng, John W.; Mitomo, Hitoshi
  9. A Multi-Country Comparison of User Innovation Behaviors on Smartphone Applications By Yoo, Bosul; Katsumata, Sotaro; Ichikohji, Takeyasu
  10. Balance between Privacy Protecting and Selling User Data of Wearable Devices By Huang, Kuang-Chiu; Hsu, Jung-Fang
  11. How smart products with built in flexibility empower users to self -design the use: A theoretical framework for use generation By Morgane Bénade; Juliette Brun; Ingi Brown; Pascal Le Masson; Benoit Weil; Frank Piller
  12. NPS and online WOM investigating the relationship between customers’ promoter scores and eWOM behavior By Raassens, N.; Haans, Hans
  13. Wine and Food Route as a collective mark for wine tourism product: a sequential game By Sebastiano Patti
  14. Segregation of Digital Game Users: An Empirical Comparison of Smartphones and Gaming Consoles By Katsumata, Sotaro; Ichikohji, Takeyasu
  15. Costs of production and willingness to pay for potato produced with a lower amount of agrochemicals. A case study in Argentina By Rodríguez, Julieta A.; Lupín, Beatriz; Lucca, Ana M. F.

  1. By: Bonnet, Céline; Hilger, James; Villas-Boas, Sofia B.
    Abstract: We estimate the effect of revealing expert opinion labels on wine product purchases by labelling a random subset of wine products within the consumers' retail shelf choice faced in a treated store. We use a detailed weekly product level panel scanner data set for labeled and unlabeled wines in the treated and comparable control stores before and after the implementation of a shelf labeling field experiment. We then combine the scanner data with additional information on the characteristics of each product, such as brand, varietal, region of production, and price point relative to other wines, to estimate the average and heterogeneous effects of the field experiment on wine consumption, shedding light into possible mechanisms behind those effects. First, we find there to be a positive and significant overall average effect and that demand increases more for higher score wines than for lower score wines. Additionally, we find that high scores matter more for prices in the lower quartile of the overall wine price distributions, which does not align with previous beliefs of consumers perceiving low price as signaling high quality. Our findings are instead consistent with pre treatment consumer behavior where consumers infer high quality for high prices, once quality is revealed. We find that demand does not move for these higher priced wine quartiles. We also estimate positive spillover effects of this experimental treatment within brand for untreated wines as the displayed average score of the wine brand increases. However, we find negative spillover effects for untreated wines that belong to intensively treated brands.
    Keywords: Field experiment; Labels; information; expert opinion; wine; product attributes
    JEL: C23 D12 H20
    Date: 2017–08
  2. By: Hajer Kefi (DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, NUS - School of computing [Singapore] - NUS - National University of Singapore, CEDAG - Centre de droit des affaires et de gestion - UPD5 - Université Paris Descartes - Paris 5); Sitesh Indra (NUS - School of computing [Singapore] - NUS - National University of Singapore, LTCI - Laboratoire Traitement et Communication de l'Information - Télécom ParisTech - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IPAL - Image & Pervasive Access Lab - UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6 - NUS - National University of Singapore - MATHEMATIQUES, SCIENCES ET TECHNOLOGIES DE L'INFORMATION ET DE LA COMMUNICATION (UJF) - A*STAR - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institute for Infocomm Research - I²R [Singapore]); Talel Abdessalem (IPAL - Image & Pervasive Access Lab - UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6 - NUS - National University of Singapore - MATHEMATIQUES, SCIENCES ET TECHNOLOGIES DE L'INFORMATION ET DE LA COMMUNICATION (UJF) - A*STAR - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institute for Infocomm Research - I²R [Singapore], LTCI - Laboratoire Traitement et Communication de l'Information - Télécom ParisTech - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, NUS - School of computing [Singapore] - NUS - National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: We present in this paper a multicultural approach to social media marketing analytics, applied in two Facebook brand pages: French (individualistic culture, the country home of the brand) versus Saudi Arabian (collectivistic culture, one of its country hosts), which are published by an international beauty & cosmetics firm. Using social network analysis and content analysis, we identify the most popular posts and the most influential users within these two brand pages and highlight the different communities emerging from brand and users interactions. These communities seem to be culture oriented when they are constructed around socialization branded posts and product-line oriented when advertising branded posts are concerned.
    Keywords: Social Media marketing, Multicultural differences, Social Network analysis, Facebook.
    Date: 2016–06–27
  3. By: Nathalie Audigier (LEGO - Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion de l'Ouest - UBS - Université de Bretagne Sud - UBO - Université de Brest - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - UBL - Université Bretagne Loire - IMT Atlantique - IMT Atlantique Bretagne-Pays de la Loire); Marie-Agnès De Gail (PREFics EA 4246 - Plurilinguismes, Représentations, Expressions Francophones - information, communication, sociolinguistique - UEB - Université européenne de Bretagne - UBS - Université de Bretagne Sud - Université François Rabelais - Tours - UR2 - Université de Rennes 2); Luc Derien (LEGO - Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion de l'Ouest - UBS - Université de Bretagne Sud - UBO - Université de Brest - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - UBL - Université Bretagne Loire - IMT Atlantique - IMT Atlantique Bretagne-Pays de la Loire)
    Abstract: his article proposes an original marketing insight of the customer relationship management by the study of psychosociological variables which are explanatory of the behavior of the e‑consumer. Beyond the simple data collection, ICTS, and more particularly, the on‑line marketing tools (web site, forum, blog...) establish interesting ways to create a link and make the customers actors. How can companies use these supports in a convenient way without a risk of altering the trust of the voluntary participants? And how to value the implication of the customers so that they express their opinion and, involve themselves in the process of co‑creation of the offer, while protecting their feeling of autonomy and free arbitrator? We chose to collect qualitative information, thanks to semi‑directive interviews with marketing managers and with experts in customers relationship. Then with quantitative data, thanks to « Online Sphinx » questionnaires, we studied a cyber‑customers’ representative sample. We were so able to identify applications by which companies can be inspired in order to optimize the means of classical CRM.
    Abstract: En este artículo se propone una iluminación de comercialización inicial de la gestión de relaciones con los clientes a través del estudio de las variables psicosociales explicativos del comportamiento de la dirección de los consumidores. Más allá de la mera recopilación de información, TIC, y en particular, las herramientas de marketing en línea (sitio web, foro, blog...) son interesantes maneras de crear vínculos y hacer que los clientes de los actores. ¿Cómo pueden las empresas utilizar estos medios oportunos y sin riesgo de alterar la confianza de los voluntarios y participantes voluntarios? ¿Y la forma de fomentar la participación de los clientes para dar sus opiniones y participar en el proceso de co‑creación de la oferta, preservando al mismo tiempo su sentido de la autonomía y el libre albedrío? Elegimos para recopilar información cualitativa a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas con funcionarios y expertos en marketing de relaciones y datos cuantitativos a través de cuestionarios « Sphinx en línea », con una muestra representativa de ciber‑ clientes. Hemos sido capaces de identificar la evolución operativa y suposiciones que las empresas pueden aprender a optimizar los dispositivos RCMP convencional.
    Abstract: Cet article propose un éclairage marketing original de la gestion de la relation client par l’étude de variables psychosociologiques explicatives du comportement de l’e-consommateur. Au-delà de la simple récolte d’informations, les TIC, et plus particulièrement, les outils du marketing en ligne (site internet, forum, blog,….) constituent des moyens intéressants pour créer du lien et rendre les clients acteurs. Comment les entreprises peuvent-elles utiliser ces supports de façon opportune sans risque d’altérer la confiance des participants volontaires et bénévoles ? Et comment favoriser l’implication des clients afin qu’ils donnent leur avis et, s’engagent dans le processus de co-création de l’offre tout en préservant leur sentiment d’autonomie et de libre-arbitre ? Nous avons choisi de collecter des informations qualitatives, grâce à des entretiens semi-directifs auprès de responsables et d’experts en marketing relationnel, et des données quantitatives, grâce à des questionnaires Sphinx on-line, auprès d’un échantillon représentatif de cyber-clients. Nous avons ainsi pu identifier des développements et postulats opérationnels dont les entreprises peuvent s’inspirer afin d’optimiser les dispositifs de GRC classiques.
    Keywords: customer relationship,e‑consumer,CRM,relaciones con los clientes,los consumidores,RCMP,GRC, co-création, implication client
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Golovacheva, E.
    Abstract: The article aims to complexly examine the role of persuasion knowledge activation in consumer response. To handle the purpose, the author reviews the related studies published since 1994 when the term †persuasion knowledge“ was introduced to scientific discourse. The literature review shows that persuasion knowledge activation is mainly associated with negative consequences for firms resulting in a more critical assessment of marketing stimuli by consumers, less favorable judgements and behavior in relation to firms and brands. Besides, there is empirical evidence that consumers can activate persuasion knowledge even in the absence of firms’ persuasion intent. Ultimately, the effect of persuasion knowledge activation on consumer response to marketing stimuli is dependent upon a variety of moderating factors and intrinsic characteristics of the phenomenon addressed in a particular study. The study contributes to persuasion knowledge literature by combining conceptual theorizations articulated in the seminal article by Friestad and Wright with empirical evidence appeared afterwards, so the theory is enriched and clarified.
    Keywords: marketing stimuli, influence tactics, persuasion knowledge, consumer response,
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Grzybowski, Lukasz; Liang, Julienne; Zulehner, Christine
    Abstract: This paper answers two empirical questions. First, we analyze how fixed-mobile (quadruple-play) bundling impacts retention of consumers in fixed broadband market. Second, we assess how bundling by the incumbent operator impacts the market share and number of entrants who provide broadband services using incumbent's infrastructure. To address these questions we use a complete database of about 9.5 million subscribers to incumbent fixed broadband operator in a European country between March 2014 and February 2015. This data is combined with information on the market share and number of entrants in about 36,000 municipalities in this country. We find that consumers who bundle fixed and mobile services from the same provider are less likely to churn. Without quadruple-play bundling the annual retention of fixed broadband consumers would increase from 8.4% to 9.2%. Next, we find that the share of consumers having quadruple-play bundles with the incumbent has a negative impact on the market share and number of entrants. In the absence of quadruple- play bundling, the market share of entrants would be higher by about 6.8 percentage points. Quadruple-play bundling has also negative impact on the number of LLU entrants, which is bigger in the case of small LLU operators who cannot provide bundled offers themselves. This suggests that firms which cannot sell fixed-mobile bundles are disadvantaged in competition.
    Keywords: Quadruple-play,Bundling,Consumer retention,Market entry
    JEL: L13 L50 L96
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Howell, Bronwyn E; Potgieter, Petrus H.
    Abstract: Existing frameworks (such as used by the New Zealand Commerce Commission in its recent evaluation of the proposed merger between Sky Television and Vodafone) require, as a first step, the definition of the relevant markets affected by the merger or vertical integration activity. Historic precedents in the telecommunications sector have tended towards finding that vertical agglomeration effects when network operators integrate downstream into the provision of applications and services to end-consumers are harmful to competition. Such Structure-Conduct-Performance methods of evaluating mergers and other aspects of market performance are problematic when the firm(s) concerned supply many different products, both together in various different bundle forms and separately as individual components. Defining the markets for (merger) analysis on the basis of only one of the components in a possible bundle that the (merged) firm may supply risks overlooking the complex interactions that occur on the demand side when consumers make their purchase decisions. This is especially likely to be an issue in the supply of internet applications and content bundled with broadband internet access. Consumers have heterogeneous preferences for different applications and content (hereafter ‘content’), and will purchase (or access) many different content types. Even though ownership of rights to distribute one content may confer a degree of market power in for the owner-provider over those consumers with very strong preferences for this content over all others, it is not axiomatic that the firm will be able to exert this power over consumers whose preferences are more evenly distributed. The more variety there is in the content bundles available, and the more heterogeneous are consumers’ preferences across the various content types, the greater is the number of possible markets in which interaction is likely to occur and the more problematic it becomes to identify the relevant markets for analysis of mergers and antitrust cases. We propose that classic merger and antitrust analysis based on econometric cost-benefit analysis can be augmented by using simulation and numerical analysis of a range of bundle offers expected to be relevant in decision-making. We develop a simple model and use it to demonstrate how this approach could have informed the recent New Zealand Commerce Commission decision about the proposed Sky-Vodafone merger by offering some quantitative estimates of total and consumer welfare and provider profits under the proposed factual (with bundling) and counterfactual (individual component sales) cases. The approach may also inform other analyses, such as the assessment of the effects of two-sided markets and firm pricing decisions.
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Caprice, Stéphane; Shekhar, Shiva
    Abstract: Large retailers competing with smaller stores that carry a narrower range can exercise market power by pricing below cost for some of their products. Below-cost pricing arises as an exploitative device rather than a predatory device (e.g., Chen and Rey, 2012). Unlike standard textbook models, we show that positive consumer value is not required in these frameworks. Large retailers can sell products offering consumers a negative value. We use this insight to revisit some classic issues in vertical relations.
    Keywords: Multi-product retailers; loss-leading; negative consumer value
    JEL: L13 L81
    Date: 2017–08
  8. By: Cheng, John W.; Mitomo, Hitoshi
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of media form on audiences’ perceived image of the television news media. Specifically, it compares the perceived sense of presence between two different media forms –television and smartphone, and examines their effects on the perceived brand personality of a news medium. This study uses NHK –the national public broadcasters– news coverage during the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake over the air and the Internet as a case study. Using a quantitative approach with data collected from an original survey, it is found that television as a media form provides a stronger sense of presence that smartphone, and also has a stronger influence on the perceived brand personality of a news medium, especially on its perceived competence. That being said, it is also found that smartphone can also exert some influence, in particular on the perceived dynamism and sociability of the medium.
    Date: 2017
  9. By: Yoo, Bosul; Katsumata, Sotaro; Ichikohji, Takeyasu
    Abstract: This study examines preceding factors of user innovation behavior using a case of smartphone applications toexamineindirect and direct effects of consumer attitude on user innovation. Specifically, this study focuses ontwo aspects of the user innovation evaluation:quality and quantity. Quality of user innovation in particular has the potentialtocontribute tothe profitability of firms thatprovide social mediaor other community services.This study proposes a structural model to examine the relationship between thesetwo user innovation aspects and preceding attitude factors, involvement, consumer knowledge,and customer orientation.The empirical analysisis based ona consumer survey to examine commonalitiesand differences in two countries: Japan and China. In each country, two services are chosen asrepresentative cases of the user-generated content business modelto measure user innovation behaviors based on the two aspectsmentioned.Byclarifying the preceding factors of user innovation behavior, this study hasimplications for new business models and future innovation research.
    Keywords: User Innovation,Smartphone Applications,UGC (User-Generated Content),Customer Orientation
    JEL: M31 M15 O30
    Date: 2017
  10. By: Huang, Kuang-Chiu; Hsu, Jung-Fang
    Abstract: Smart bracelets are capable of identifying individual data, which can synchronize the step count, mileage, calorie consumption, heart rate, sleeping data and even the pictures users uploaded with the APP. This feature is so convenient on one hand but makes us lose control of our privacy on the other hand. With poor privacy protection mechanism embedded in these wearable devices that hackers can easily invade and steal user data. In addition, most smart bracelet companies have not made a clear declaration of which third parties are able to get users’ data, nor how long will the user's physical and health-related information be stored. These companies understand well that large amount of the user's movement and physiological monitoring data are valuable, because each user's information can be a unique sample. As soon as the smart bracelet companies collect extensive and diverse samples, they can figure out a variety of specific and practical applications through excavate data. Therefore, the research questions of this study are 1. how do smart bracelet companies strike a balance between protecting consumer privacy and selling user data to get more business opportunities? 2. In order to achieve this balance, what kind of strategy should smart bracelet companies adopt? This study addresses what measures smart bracelet companies take as well as what attitude they hold through literature review and the comparison of Fitbit, Xiaomi and Garmin's privacy policies. Meanwhile we adopt PEST analysis model and Porter’s diamond model to engage external analysis of three main vendors in order to have a further understanding of the environment in which the industry is poised. At last, we apply the stakeholder analysis to determine what strategies the companies should take in correspondence after identifying the direct and indirect stakeholders of the smart bracelet companies. This research outcome indicates that beneficial tangible service is the main factor affecting consumers whether to share their data with wearable vendors, but vendors have to be aware of the impacts of privacy issues by selling user data. It is possible that consumers resist buying the wearable products if they find their privacy is disturbed. Furthermore, this study is valuable not only to wearable device vendors to strike balance between privacy and profits but also policy makers to figure out the necessity to get involve in personal data protection over wearable device market.
    Keywords: wearable devices,smart bracelet,user privacy,PEST analysis,diamond model,stakeholder analysis
    Date: 2017
  11. By: Morgane Bénade (RWTH Aachen University [Aachen], CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Juliette Brun (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Ingi Brown (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pascal Le Masson (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Benoit Weil (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Frank Piller (RWTH Aachen University [Aachen])
    Abstract: The recent applications of information and communication technology in consumer products unveiled a promising form of user-product interaction. Somehow, a handful succeeded to empower users to design their uses. We call them “smart products with built in flexibility”. One of the best pioneering examples is IPad. Users generated uses ranging from utilizing the product as a book to employing it as a music instrument. In this regard, it is evident that their values are less about their performance of fulfilling a given task but rather captured in their ability to empower users to self-design uses. This is why, in this paper, we aimed at better understanding how they do so. To reach this goal, we developed, by exploiting modern design theories like C-K theory, a novel theoretical framework for use generation and applied it on two types of smart products with built in flexibility i.e. the ADIDAS One running shoes and an app for mobile phone called EMOTIO. Mostly, with our findings, we revealed the nature of design mechanisms that are proper to each of these products and subsequently identified the design tasks assigned to users. Relying on these findings, we finally considered managerial implications so that these products better promote users ´abilities to design uses as after all, they are purchased products.
    Keywords: Use generative product, design theory, design toolkit
    Date: 2016
  12. By: Raassens, N. (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management); Haans, Hans (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Abstract: The Net Promoter Score (NPS) is, according to Reichheld, the single most reliable indicator of company growth, and many companies use this recommendation-based technique for measuring customer loyalty. Despite its widespread adoption by many companies across multiple industries, the debate about NPS goes on. A major concern is that managers treat NPS as being equivalent across customers, which is often very misleading. By using a unique data set that combines customers’ promoter scores and online word-of-mouth (eWOM) behavior, this research studies how individual customers’ promoter scores are related to eWOM, including its relationship with the three categories of customers that are identified by the NPS paradigm (i.e., promoters, passives, and detractors). Based on a sample of 189 customers, their promoter scores and corresponding eWOM, the results show that there is a positive relationship between customers’ promoter scores and the valence of online messages. Further, while detractors and promoters are homogeneous with respect to the valence of the eWOM messages they spread, passives show message valence heterogeneity. Thus, although passives, the largest group of customers, have no weight in calculating the NPS, our results reveal that companies should flag passives for further attention and action.
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Sebastiano Patti
    Abstract: The Wine and Food Routes (WFRs) identify socio-territorial entities, which involve many private and public actors. This paper will take into consideration just wineries and local counties. The purpose is to suggest WFR as a collective (trade)mark for wine tourism. This paper is theoretical and the methodology used concerns a game theoretical approach through which a sequential game of adhesion - exit model has been set-up. This work intends to show whether a WFR can be considered as a collective trademark to study the behavior of the wineries in evaluating to adhere or not to the WFR. The paper will also show that in some cases the adhesion to the WFR can appear to be too rigid for producers influencing in some way the good performance of the WFR itself. Further considerations should be taken regarding the relationship between the local stakeholders when WFR start functioning. The main finding is that the use of a collective trademark for wine tourism entrepreneurs is not always useful. The creation of a collective trademark can be efficient or not as well as the non creation of the mark. Its use can stimulate entrepreneurs to improve the quality of their goods and thus foster competition. The implications concern the fact that alliances among local players acting within WFR can generate improved quality of services, enhanced visibility and cross-marketing activities with other members and the involvement in local events. Furthermore, a strong relationship between entrepreneurs and public institutions in the short run should be a way to reinforce entrepreneurial co-operation and encourage further business development in the long run. The originality of this work regards the use of a game theoretical approach within the wine tourism sector.
    JEL: D R
    Date: 2017–04–26
  14. By: Katsumata, Sotaro; Ichikohji, Takeyasu
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the characteristics of digital game users and discuss desirable development and marketing strategies for firms. This study developed measurement scales and empirically found that there are two segments in the market: “share” and “achievement” orientation. Some users require “achievement” for games. These users play games to feel a sense of achievement and prefer well-designed games. They desire to embed the gaming experience in their minds and respect the intention of game developers and designers. Other users need to “share” with other gamers. They wish to play games with their friends and seek communication through games. These users do not need sophisticated graphics or stories while they engage in games simultaneously with their friends. These two preferences are not mutually exclusive—some consumers have both intentions.
    Keywords: Smartphone,Digital game,Consumer behavior
    Date: 2017
  15. By: Rodríguez, Julieta A.; Lupín, Beatriz; Lucca, Ana M. F.
    Abstract: In Argentina, potato growing is carried out at different times of the year and regions. The Southeastern Buenos Aires Province (SEBA) is one of the most important areas. The main destination of the product for fresh consumption is the domestic market, and Spunta is the most commercialized variety. Conventional production is characterized by high cost and intensive use of agrochemicals. Several sectors of the population, concerned about the use of agrochemicals and their effects on health and the environment, are willing to pay a Premium for food produced with a lower environmental impact. This work is focused on analyzing if it is feasible to reduce the costs of production when a lower quantity of agrochemicals is employed, and to evaluate if consumers would be willing to pay a differential price for such product.
    Keywords: Costos de Producción; Disposición a Pagar; Papa; Productos Agroquímicos; Argentina;
    Date: 2017–07

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