nep-mkt New Economics Papers
on Marketing
Issue of 2017‒06‒04
ten papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Sustainable Consumption: Eco-labelling and its impact on consumer behavior - evidence from a study on Polish consumer By Lucyna Witek
  2. B2B digital marketing strategy: A framework for assessing digital touchpoints and increasing customer loyalty By Elina Bakhtieva
  3. Gender Roles in Marketing Communications in Real Estate Markets By Beata Zatwarnicka-Madura
  4. Cellophane, the New Visuality, and the Creation of Self-Service Food Retailing By Ai Hisano
  5. Dotcom bubble and underpricing: conjectures and evidence By Carvalho, Antonio Gledson de; Pinheiro, Roberto Benjamin; Sampaio, Joelson Oliveira
  6. The Production of Information in an Online World: Is Copy Right? By Cagé, Julia; Hervé, Nicolas; Viaud, Marie-Luce
  7. Resale Price Maintenance with Strategic Customers By Bazhanov, Andrei; Levin, Yuri; Nediak, Mikhail
  8. Corporate Reputation and Corporate Image - Empirical Analysis on the Example of Polish Banking Sector By Danuta Szwajca
  9. Consumer attitudes in the light of the concept of sustainable consumption in Lubuskie voivodeship against the background of trends in consumption in Poland By Piotr Kulyk; Mariola Michalowska; Monika Patelska
  10. “Negative Political Advertising: It’s All in the Timing” By Davis, Brent

  1. By: Lucyna Witek (Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland)
    Abstract: Environmental pollution has led to a growing interest in protecting the environment of various stakeholder groups, especially consumers, who in their purchasing behavior point to eco-labels. The purpose of the study is to analyze consumers attitudes towards eco-labels. The direct survey method was used. The survey was conducted from 1 December 2015 to 31 January 2016 among 390 consumers who are residents of south-eastern and southern Poland. The study conducted confirms that consumers have positive attitudes toward eco-labels, but have overall and partial knowledge of them. Almost half of respondents (48.2%) buy eco-labels, but only a small group has knowledge of various eco-labels (24.9%). The recognition of EU eco-labels is declared by 43.4% of survey participants (national eco-label – 35.1%). One may notice an inconsistency in the test participant declarations. A large group of respondents believe that manufacturers use eco-labels for sales and image purposes (61%). Only one third (32.1%) have confidence in eco-labels products. Quite a large number of respondents (43.1%) are willing to pay a higher price for such products. Almost three quarters of respondents declared that they were buying products from reliable sources but without eco-labels (76.2%). This study is a valuable contribution to research and a discussion on consumer ecological behavior, and contributes to sustainable consumption research. It creates a deeper and more detailed analysis of attitudes towards eco-labelling. It gives guidance to manufacturers and retailers, especially in consumer communication strategies. The results of the study may help to increase the effectiveness of eco-labelling. The research implies some values to society and helps to solve environmental problems.
    Keywords: green product, sustainable consumption, eco-labelling, consumer, ecolabel
    JEL: D12 M31 M37 Q56
    Date: 2017–05
  2. By: Elina Bakhtieva (Tomas Bata University in Zlín)
    Abstract: Digital marketing has changed the nature of company-to-customer communication. With rising information overload and reduced decision-making time, touchpoints have gained additional importance by yielding customer loyalty. Yet the existing digital marketing tools have failed to keep pace with these trends. Companies are lacking a simple framework that focuses on a digital marketing strategy built around touchpoints and customer loyalty. This is especially relevant for B2B companies, which due to their specifics are more dependent on customers and less flexible in adapting of new digital trends. A B2B business strategy tailored to digital trends demands a re-evaluation of prior understanding of a product portfolio, a company’s internal and external environment. The purpose of the article is to present a framework that helps to undertake the necessary changes and enables the connections with industry. The suggested model has been drawn from the literature review and been extended based on the findings of an empirical multiple case study. Aspiring to follow trends in digital marketing and to help B2B companies to adapt their strategy to ongoing changes in company-to-customer communication, a new framework has been developed. The framework aims to increase customer loyalty and focuses on channels/touchpoints, assets, skills, audience and customer journey. The model could be beneficial for Chief Marketing Officers (CMO) and other C-levels by offering a simple and reliable tool for improving a company's position in the digital marketplace. Moreover, it enables continuously adjustment of an already existing business strategy.
    Keywords: digital marketing, customer loyalty, touchpoints, B2B digital marketing strategy, B2B industrial companies
    JEL: M31 L1
    Date: 2017–05
  3. By: Beata Zatwarnicka-Madura (Cracow University of Economics, Poland)
    Abstract: The real estate market has attracted a lot of public interest due to its significant economic role. Changes are, however, going to abound in the nearest future as a result difficulties in accessing housing loans and amendments to the building construction laws, amongst others. This will call for even greater involvements of tenderers in the marketing communication process. Gender-related differences in the purchasing decision making process is growing in significance and should be reflected in marketing communications. The aim of the article is identify contemporary activities undertaken in marketing communications in the real estate market. The specific objective is to analyse the use of one of the most significant tools of marketing communications namely, the internet in the real estate market. The specific objective also includes seeking answers to the question if the sex of recipients of marketing messages concerning the real estate market is taken into consideration by their broadcasters. The study involved the use of literature analysis and criticism, analysis of web contents provided by tenderers of real estate as well as telephone interviews with representatives of both property developers and real estate agencies. Online marketing communications are the most important in real estate markets. Websites of real estate agencies and property developers vary a lot. Real estate tenderers, very often, make use of social media in marketing communications undertaken by them. One of the most common trend is to the use of images and not texts in marketing communications, thus creating new possibilities for communication. Very few property developers and real estate agencies exploit the knowledge of gender-related differences in the reception of marketing messages. Only few communication activities take cognisance of sex. The need for marketing communications in real estate to be directed at young customers has necessitated the engagement of new media sources in such activities.
    Keywords: marketing communications, real estate market, gender roles
    JEL: M21 M31
    Date: 2017–05
  4. By: Ai Hisano (Harvard Business School, General Management Unit)
    Abstract: This working paper examines how innovations in transparent packaging, specifically cellophane, in the mid-twentieth century United States helped retailers to create full self-service merchandising systems, including selling perishable food. While self-service stores began appearing in the late 1910s, self-service was initially applied only to grocery and dry goods, such as canned foods and a box of breakfast cereals. It was not until after World War II that the majority of American grocers adopted self-service to meat and produce sections. Business historians have explored the development of this self-service merchandising from the perspectives of marketing strategies, store operations, and relationships between customers and store clerks. However, the significance of the development of cellophane as a new packaging material, and the role of packaging manufacturers in promoting self-service, has yet to be analyzed. This working paper fills this void by showing that the expansion of self-service operation and the increasing use of transparent packaging had a significant impact not only on how consumers purchased foods but also on how they understood food quality.
    Date: 2017–05
  5. By: Carvalho, Antonio Gledson de; Pinheiro, Roberto Benjamin; Sampaio, Joelson Oliveira
    Abstract: We provide conjectures for what caused the price spiral and the high underpricing of the dotcom bubble of 1999–2000. We raise two conjectures for the price spiral. First, given the uncertainty about the growth opportunities generated by the new technologies and their spillover effects across technology industries, investors saw the inflow of a large number of high-growth firms as a sign of high growth rates for the market as a whole. Second, investors interpreted the wave of highly underpriced IPOs as an opportunity to obtain gains by investing in newly public companies. The underpricing resulted from the emergence a large cohort of firms racing for market leadership. Fundamentals pricing at the IPO was part of their strategy. We provide evidence for our conjectures. We show that returns on NASDAQ composite index are explained by the flow of high-growth (or highly underpriced) IPOs; the high underpricing can be fully explained by firms’ characteristics and strategic goals. We also show that, contrary to alternatives explanations, underpricing was not associated with top underwriting, there was no deterioration of issuers’ quality, and top underwriters and analysts became more selective.
    Date: 2017–03–07
  6. By: Cagé, Julia; Hervé, Nicolas; Viaud, Marie-Luce
    Abstract: This paper documents the extent of copying and estimates the returns to originality in online news production. We build a unique dataset combining all the online content produced by the universe of news media (newspaper, television, radio, pure online media, and a news agency) in France during the year 2013 with new micro audience data. We develop a topic detection algorithm that identifies each news event, trace the timeline of each story and study news propagation. We show that one quarter of the news stories are reproduced online in less than 4 minutes. High reactivity comes with verbatim copying. We find that only 32.6% of the online content is original. The negative impact of copying on newsgathering incentives might however be counterbalanced by reputation effects. By using media-level daily audience and article-level Facebook shares, we show that original content represents 57.8% of online news consumption. Reputation mechanisms actually appear to solve about 40% of the copyright violation problem.
    Keywords: Copyright; Facebook; Information spreading; internet; Investigative journalism; reputation
    JEL: L11 L15 L82 L86
    Date: 2017–05
  7. By: Bazhanov, Andrei; Levin, Yuri; Nediak, Mikhail
    Abstract: We consider a decentralized supply chain (DSC) under resale price maintenance (RPM)selling a limited-lifetime product to forward-looking customers with heterogeneous valuations. When customers do not know the inventory level, double marginalization in DSC leads to a higher profit and lower aggregate welfare than in centralized supply chain (CSC). When customers know the inventory, DSC coincides with CSC. Thus, overestimation of customer awareness may lead to overcentralization of supply chains with profit loss comparable with the loss from strategic customers. The case with unknown inventory is extended to an arbitrary number of retailers with inventory-independent and inventory-dependent demand. In both cases, the manufacturer, by setting a higher wholesale price, mitigates the inventory-increasing effect of competition and reaches the same profit as with a single retailer. The high viability of RPM as a strategic-behavior-mitigating tool may serve as another explanation of why manufacturers may prefer DSC with RPM to a vertically integrated firm.
    Keywords: limited-lifetime product, strategic customers, limited information, aggregate welfare, oligopoly
    JEL: D9 L13 L42
    Date: 2017–05–27
  8. By: Danuta Szwajca (Silesian University of Technology, Poland)
    Abstract: Corporate reputation and image are two valuable intangible resources of the company, aimed at building its long-term competitive advantage and market value. Although reputation and image are interrelated categories, they should not be identified with each another. The differences are not only in the definition and character, but also in the mechanism of formation and tools to create these resources by the company. Image is a picture, perceptions and associations about the company in the minds of consumers, which may be created using the tools of PR and advertising in a relatively short period of time. Reputation is a review of the company and its activities, formulated by various stakeholder groups on the basis of not only the advertising, but also on the basis of the assessment of real activities of companies in the long term. The cognitive objective of the article is to point out the fundamental differences between reputation and image on the basis of the analysis of approaches and theoretical concepts. The practical objective is to make an attempt to identify the differences and relationships between reputation and image on the basis of empirical analysis, therefore the research was conducted in the Polish banking sector. In order to evaluate the image and reputation, the survey method was used aimed at the customers of banks operating on the Polish market. The results allowed formulating the thesis that the banks that are characterized by a consistent, unambiguous and positive image have higher rates of reputation. Due to some limitations of research conducted, mainly concerning the size and methods of sampling as well as the method applied for measuring the corporate reputation and image, the relationships identified should be treated as a starting point for broader research and for conducting further discussions in this area.
    Keywords: corporate reputation, corporate image, intangible resources, banking sector.
    JEL: G21 L14 L25 M31
    Date: 2017–05
  9. By: Piotr Kulyk (Uniwersytet Zielonogorski); Mariola Michalowska (Uniwersytet Zielonogorski); Monika Patelska (Uniwersytet Zielonogorski)
    Abstract: Research background: The article has address the issue of sustainable consumption which is becoming increasingly important on account of the adverse social and environmental consequences caused by the development and growth of societies. Sustainable consumption encourages to make rational choices and take responsibility for one's choices. Consumers take a number of decisions every day that affect not only themselves, but also cause externalities. There are many studies that indicate that consumers when buying goods and services are driven by environmental and ethical considerations. Purpose of the article: Changes occurring in the environment affect consumer behavior leading to multiplicity of attitudes and changes in consumption trends. The article has shown consumer behavior in line with the concept of sustainable development against the background of trends in consumption in Poland. Methodology/methods: The basis for the discussion in the article will be: literature studies, available empirical studies and our own results of the survey among respondents in Lubuskie voivodeship. Surveys using questionnaires were directed at 541 respondents. The number of correctly completed questionnaires was 500, and the figures contained in them were subjected to further analysis. Findings: Respondents in their purchasing choices are not guided by the influence of the consumption on the natural environment. However, in their behaviors we can notice some environmental measures, which stem from different reasons, depending on the socio-economic conditions.
    Keywords: consumers’ behaviours, sustainable consumption, trends in consumption, Lubuskie voivodeship
    JEL: Q01 D11 D12
    Date: 2017–05
  10. By: Davis, Brent
    Abstract: Negative political advertising is a common feature of election campaigns in liberal democracies, whether in the milder form of ‘contrast ads’ or the more aggressive form of ‘attack ads’. Despite a substantial volume of scholarship, whether such advertisements generate persuasion effects (persuading voters of the deficiencies in the subject of the ads) or backlash effects (diminishing the standing of the candidate/party promulgating the ads) remains a still-unresolved question. This ‘persuasion or backlash’ question may well reflect the implicit assumption in many of the research designs, and their associated (and consequently mis-specified) models: that causality runs from negative political advertising to vote intention. This article tests that assumption, and finds it wanting. Testing for endogeneity indicates a bi-directional causality between negative political advertising and vote intention; each causes the other, but with differential temporal profiles. For electoral scholars (and campaign strategists) this means the decision(s) to engage in negative political advertising is not just if, by whom or how, but also when.
    Keywords: election campaigns; political advertising; voter behavior; politico-econometric modelling; endogeneity; election forecasting
    JEL: C53 C54 D72
    Date: 2017–05–30

This nep-mkt issue is ©2017 by João Carlos Correia Leitão. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.