nep-mkt New Economics Papers
on Marketing
Issue of 2015‒10‒10
twenty-six papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Interactive Advertising Models: A Meta-Analysis By Hasret Akta; Burçe Boyraz; Merve Gençyürek Erdo
  2. Attribute Search in Online Retail Grocery Markets By Timothy Richards; Stephen Hamilton
  3. A Study on Travel Blogs and Word of Mouth Communication By Tugay Arat
  4. The Limits of Price Discrimination By Dirk Bergemann; Benjamin Brooks; Stephen Morris
  5. Competitive pricing strategies in social networks By Chen, Ying-Ju; Zenou, Yves; Zhou, Junjie
  6. Can a Platform Make Profit with Consumer' Mobility? A Two-Sided Monopoly Model with Random Endogenous Side-Swiching By Pierre Andreoletti; Pierre Gaze; Maxime Menuet
  8. Strategy for Potential Development for the Students of Faculty of Music towards Guidelines for Entertainment.. By Saksit Rachruk
  9. Search and Price Dispersion in Online Grocery markets By Timothy Richards; Stephen Hamilton; William Allender
  10. Agricultural marketing cooperatives with direct selling: A cooperative–non-cooperative game By Maxime Agbo; Damien Rousselière; Julien Salanié
  11. Measurement of the Relationship Between Service Quality and Brand Loyalty with Structural Equation Modeling: A Research on Users of Smartphone Brands By Mehmet Nejat ÖZÜPEK; Murat KOÇY; Murat ERDO
  12. Intending to shop in single versus multi-channels: A Theory of Planned Behaviour-based explanation By Juan Carlos Londono Roldan
  13. Retail Market Power in a Shopping Basket Model of Supermarket Competition By Timothy Richards; Stephen Hamilton; Koichi Yonezawa
  14. Pay-What-You-Want in Competition By Samahita, Margaret
  15. Defining Public Benefit and Regulating Security through State-Induced Public Spots in Contemporary Turkey By SANEM Guvenc-Salgirli; BAHAR Aykan
  16. Quality standards versus nutritional taxes: health and welfare impacts with strategic firms By Réquillart, Vincent; Soler, Louis-Georges; Zang, Yu
  17. Evaluattion the Impacts of Market Orientation on Export Efficiency of lateral Industries of Fishery Sector through Structural Equation Modeling By Mosayeb Pahlavani; Mandana Zanganeh Soroush
  19. Developing a Survey on Aesthetic Labour: Women Frontline Employees By OMER AKGUN TEKIN; ESRA YILMAZ; RAB YILMAZ
  20. Loss aversion on the phone By Genakos, Christos D.; Roumanias, Costas; Valletti, Tommaso
  21. Le goût des autres : Une étude expérimentale sur la conformité By Fabrice Le Lec; Marianne Lumeau; Benoît Tarroux
  22. Are Innovations relevant for consumers in the hospitality industry? A hedonic approach for Cuban hotels By Mario Raúl de la Peña; Juan A. Núñez-Serrano; Jaime Turrión; Francisco J. Velázquez
  23. Impact of touristic activities on environment and need's of sustainable tourism development. Shaqlawa City / study area By AZAD KAKASHEKH
  24. Can Crop Purchase Programs Reduce Poverty and Improve Welfare in Rural Communities? Evidence from the Food Reserve Agency in Zambia By Fung, Winnie; Liverpool-Tasie, Saweda; Mason, Nicole; Uwaifo Oyelere, Ruth
  25. La politique de concurrence comme levier de la politique industrielle dans la France de l'après-guerre By Claude Didry; Frédéric Marty
  26. Disentangling the Role of Contract Types and Sector Disparities for Public Service Motivation By Grund, Christian; Thommes, Kirsten

  1. By: Hasret Akta (Associate Professor, Selcuk University, Faculty of Communication); Burçe Boyraz (Research Assistant, Selcuk University, Faculty of Communication,); Merve Gençyürek Erdo (Lecturer, Gazi University, Vocational School of Social Sciences,)
    Abstract: Today, virtual world and its online experiences come into prominence. In terms of advertising in new media, understanding what users do and how they behave online is crucial for not only computer scientists, but also advertisers and marketing professionals. Traditional communication and advertising models fall short to explain online behaviors of consumers because none of them considers interactive nature of Web 2.0. Advertising and computer science theorists develop interactive models to gain insight into online behaviors of consumers. By this way, computer scientists design their clients’ web sites and other online channels user-friendly and marketing professionals perform their online campaigns in a manner which users cannot refuse or ignore. Also, they may even make a part their audience in advertising campaigns.Although, interactive advertising is a commonly used concept, there are limited number of studies specially focus on this issue in related literature. In this study, a meta-analysis is made on existing interactive advertising models. By this way, studies about interactive advertising is analyzed interrelatedly and chronologically.
    Keywords: interactive advertising models, meta-analysis, interactivity
  2. By: Timothy Richards (Arizona State University); Stephen Hamilton (Department of Economics, California Polytechnic State University)
    Abstract: Online shopping is common in many categories of retail goods. The recent trend towards online retailing has created an unprecedented empirical opportunity to examine consumer search behavior using click stream data. In this paper we examine consumer search intensity across a wide range of grocery products that differ in the depth of product assortment. We develop a model of attribute search in which consumers search within a chosen retailer for products that match their tastes, and that equilibrium prices reflect retailers’ expectations of how intensively consumers intend to shop. The model predicts an inverse relationship between product variety and attribute search in which greater product variety reduces search intensity and leads to higher retail prices. We test these hypotheses using consumer data on online search and purchase behavior from the comScore Web Behavior Panel. Our results indicate that consumer’s search less and pay higher retail prices in categories with deeper product assortments, a finding that suggests deeper product assortments can produce anti-competitive effects in retail food markets mediated through equilibrium responses in consumer search.
    Keywords: consumer search, variety, retail prices, attribute search, market power.
    JEL: D12 D83 L13 L81
    Date: 2015–09
  3. By: Tugay Arat (Selcuk University Faculty of Tourism)
    Abstract: Nowadays, consumers see tourism as an experience and while they are deciding which experience they want to live, they give more importance to past experiences. In addition, past experiences are more comprehensive and reliable. Blogs which are a major contribution to the tourism sector are used by more and more consumers; it is understood from the comments and from the counter. Because consumers want to make the right decision while they are purchasing a product. Moreover blogs have become extremely important for the customers to provide the opportunity for dialogue among themselves. In particular, travel blogs exchange information among tourists; it offers real information about the approach of market places and business destinations. With the perspective of a tourist, blogs; getting ideas from other travel-related consumer products is digitized word of mouth communication. The purpose of this study is type of communication and word of mouth work to examine the effects of these forms of communication. In this study, the best trip blogs is examined with analysis of web pages contents. The scope of content analysis is limited to the first fifty travel blog sites obtained from the google search engine.
    Keywords: Word of mouth communications, Trip blogs, Tourism
    JEL: D83
  4. By: Dirk Bergemann (Cowles Foundation, Yale University); Benjamin Brooks (Dept. of Economics, Princeton University); Stephen Morris (Dept. of Economics, Princeton University)
    Abstract: We analyze the welfare consequences of a monopolist having additional information about consumers' tastes, beyond the prior distribution; the additional information can be used to charge different prices to different segments of the market, i.e., carry out "third degree price discrimination." We show that the segmentation and pricing induced by the additional information can achieve every combination of consumer and producer surplus such that: (i) consumer surplus is non-negative, (ii) producer surplus is at least as high as profits under the uniform monopoly price, and (iii) total surplus does not exceed the surplus generated by efficient trade.
    Keywords: First degree price discrimination, Second degree price discrimination, Third degree price discrimination, Private information, Privacy, Bayes correlated equilibrium, Concavification
    JEL: C72 D82 D83
    Date: 2013–05
  5. By: Chen, Ying-Ju; Zenou, Yves; Zhou, Junjie
    Abstract: We study pricing strategies of competing firms who sell heterogeneous products to a group of customers in a social network. Goods are substitutes and each customer gains network externalities from her neighbors who consume the same products. We show that there is a unique subgame-perfect equilibrium where, first, firms choose the prices of each good for each consumer, and, then, individuals decide their consumption of the goods. We also fully characterize the equilibrium prices for any network structure, and relate these equilibrium outcomes to the familiar Katz-Bonacich network centrality measures. Contrary to the monopoly case, the equilibrium price of a customer not only depends on her own characteristics but also on others' characteristics. We show that firms price discriminate and charge lower prices to more central consumers. This means that more central consumers obtain a larger discount because of their impact in terms of consumption on their neighbors. We also show that the firms' equilibrium profits can decrease when either the network becomes denser or network effects are higher.
    Keywords: competition; differentiated products; pricing; social networks
    JEL: D43 D85 L13 L14
    Date: 2015–10
  6. By: Pierre Andreoletti (MAPMO - Mathématiques - Analyse, Probabilités, Modélisation - Orléans - CNRS - UO - Université d'Orléans); Pierre Gaze (LEO - Laboratoire d'Economie d'Orléans - CNRS - Université d'Orléans); Maxime Menuet (LEO - Laboratoire d'Economie d'Orléans - CNRS - Université d'Orléans)
    Abstract: We model a specific two-sided monopoly market in which agents can switch from a side to the other. We define two periods of time. In the first period, agents buy the platform services on each side and in the second period of time, they can possibly enhance their satisfaction by going to the other face of the platform. We analyze the link between mobility, consumer’s utility, prices and profit. We show that mobility is a valuable feature which can be compared with an increase of product quality. Finally, the firm is able to capture the mobility in its monopoly’s profit. The relative size of each group then appears as a strategical variable for the firm.
    Keywords: externalities,side-switching,two-sided markets
    Date: 2015
    Abstract: The aim of this research; is to explain the awareness about real-time marketing by social media users and its influence over them. Moreover, examining the change created by real-time marketing on shopping habits and brand loyalties of social media users has been aimed. The scope of this research; includes 200 users from “Ek
    Keywords: Social Media, Real-Time Marketing, Ek
    JEL: M31
  8. By: Saksit Rachruk (Faculty of Music Silpakorn University)
    Abstract: The objectives of the research entitled "Strategy for Potential Development for the Students of Faculty of Music towards the Guidelines for Entertainment Industry Implementation" are (1) to study the current situations of the music business; (2) to study the expectations of music and entertainment organizations forward the abilities of graduates finished from the field of music business; (3) to study the factors influencing the guidelines of the potential development for the students of music and entertainment business courses; and (4) to present "strategy for potential development for the students of faculty of music towards the guidelines for entertainment industry implementation" in order to create confidence in strategy applied by experts. The approaches used in the research are both qualitative and quantitative methods, including factor analysis for statistic reference of hypothesis testing and strategic model searching. As surveying the situations and opinion of entertainment and music business group, the researcher found that the graduates with positive work attitude, job loyalty, curiosity and initiatives are required in labor market relevant to entertainment business. In addition, the ability to apply knowledge and skills to their work efficiently, accompanied with a profound understanding in art, business, communication, and marketing, is also needed from the graduates. In-depth interview with executives of record companies and relevant academicians was conducted to analyze the graduates' characteristics required. Factors analysis along with exploratory factor analysis (EFA) resulted in "SHARP" strategy. The musical term "SHARP" means raising a half step in pitch, which is the strategic driver for potential development for the students of Faculty of Music towards the guidelines for entertainment and music industry implementation.
    Keywords: Entertainment Industry, SHARRP Strategy, Strategy for Potential Development
    JEL: I29 L82 L89
  9. By: Timothy Richards (Arizona State University); Stephen Hamilton (Department of Economics, California Polytechnic State University); William Allender (McMaster University)
    Abstract: Prices for similar products often differ between retail outlets, leading consumers to actively search for products that meet their needs at the lowest possible price. Prices differ among retailers, and search intensity differs among consumers because search is a costly activity and consumers differ in their costs of search. How variety and the multiproduct nature of retailing affect search costs, search intensity, and the dispersion of prices, however, is not well understood. In this paper, we use online grocery pricing data form four retailers in the UK to estimate search costs and equilibrium price dispersions. When consumers search for singe products, we find that variety reduces the cost of search and induces consumers to search less, which increases the pricing power of online retailers. However, when consumers search for multiple products, search costs still fall in variety, but consumers search more intensively across stores, potentially increasing the competitiveness of online retail markets.
  10. By: Maxime Agbo (African School of Economics); Damien Rousselière (AGROCAMPUS OUEST [Le Rheu] - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1, Granem - Groupe de Recherche ANgevin en Economie et Management - UA - Université d'Angers - Agrocampus Ouest - Institut National de l'Horticulture et du Paysage); Julien Salanié (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - PRES Université de Lyon - CNRS)
    Abstract: We build a theoretical model to study a market structure of a marketing cooperative with direct selling, in which many farmers are members of an agricultural marketing cooperative. They can sell their production either to the cooperative or on an oligopolistic local market. We show that the decision to sell to the cooperative induces an anti-competitive effect on the direct selling market. The cooperative facilitates collusion on the local market by making farmers softer competitors on that market. Conversely, direct selling may create a "healthy emulation" among farmers, leading to more production benefiting the cooperative.
    Keywords: competition,direct selling,local market,marketing cooperative
    Date: 2014
  11. By: Mehmet Nejat ÖZÜPEK (Selcuk University Faculty of Communication); Murat KOÇY (Necmettin Erbakan University Faculty of Tourism); Murat ERDO (Necmettin Erbakan University Faculty of Tourism)
    Abstract: In today's rapidly changing and differentiating competitive environment, brands operating in smart phone industry must change, renew and improve service quality constantly to be able to respond immediately to changing customer expectations each passing day. Nowadays, criteria such as the quality of the manufactured product or service, customer satisfaction, trust in brand, brand loyalty and contribution to society have replaced the conventional performance indicators showing market share and profit levels of brands. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to investigate the impact of service quality to brand loyalty. In this context, a conceptual model was created in order to determine the impact of quality of service on brand loyalty through Structural Equation Model (SEM). The relationship between the variables in the model was tested by using data of the surveys applied to 353 Smartphone users and hypotheses put forward theoretically were examined. In addition, frequency analysis, and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Models applications were used in the analysis of research. In the model put forward theoretically, quality of service affects brand loyalty in a general integrity. Also, the hypotheses that service quality has a direct impact on perceived quality and customer satisfaction, perceived quality and customer satisfaction has a direct impact on trust and also trust has a direct impact on the brand loyalty are supported.
    Keywords: Service Quality, Brand Loyalty, Customer Satisfaction, Perceived Quality, Trust
    JEL: M30 M31 M37
  12. By: Juan Carlos Londono Roldan (Faculty of Economics and Management, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali)
    Abstract: A consumer who, in the different stages of his decision-making process, uses more than one channel is defined as a multi-channel shopper (Belvaux 2006). On the other hand, a customer who uses only one channel in his shopping process is defined as single-channel consumer. This article explores three gaps identified in the multi-channel literature. First, it explains why multi-channel consumers buy more. Second, it studies three key determinants of consumer behaviour based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Third, it compares the importance of these variables between integrated and independent channels. The difference between single and multi-channels is exemplified with the product Regaine (a hair loss product) in the retailer Boots (a multi-channel retailer) in the drugstore, internet and multi-channel.
    Keywords: Theory of Planned Behaviour, Multi-channel, Single Channel.
    JEL: M3
    Date: 2015–09
  13. By: Timothy Richards (Arizona State University); Stephen Hamilton (Department of Economics, California Polytechnic State University); Koichi Yonezawa (Technical University of Munich)
    Abstract: Supermarket consumers typically purchase more than one item ata time. Modeling demand relationship among items in consumers' shopping baskets is therfore essential to understanding how retailers set prices. To date, models of price competition among retailers typically assume consumers make discrete choices among categories in the store or derive utility from independent goods that is unaffected by basket composition. In this paper, we develop a model of price competition among items in consumer shopping baskets. We derive inferences for market power under complementary categories and compare outcomes with the prediction of models that assume discrete choice among independent categories. We show that complementarity generates substantially greater pricing power for retailers than independent goods, resulting in less competitive behavior.
  14. By: Samahita, Margaret (Department of Economics, Lund University)
    Abstract: Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) pricing schemes are popular in certain industries and not others. We model the seller's choice of pricing scheme under various market structures assuming consumers share their surplus. We show that the profitability and popularity of PWYW depend not only on consumers' preferences, but also on market structure, product characteristics and sellers' strategies. While there is no equilibrium where PWYW dominates the market, given a sufficiently high level of surplus-sharing and product differentiation, it is chosen by the second mover to avoid Bertrand competition. The equilibrium results and their associated market characteristics are consistent with empirical examples of PWYW.
    Keywords: Pay-what-you-want; competition; product differentiation; market behavior; market structure
    JEL: D11 D42 D43 L11 L12 L13
    Date: 2015–09–15
  15. By: SANEM Guvenc-Salgirli (Marmara University); BAHAR Aykan (Marmara University)
    Abstract: The second decade of the 2000s Turkey saw the emergence and sudden boost of public spots as a new communication material. These are forty-five seconds long clips that are prepared by the Ministries as well as NGOs and repeatedly aired on the advertising slots of national TV channels. Their pronounced aim is the pursuit of public benefit, directed towards ‘raising consciousness and awareness in public’ on quite a wide range of topics such as social solidarity, occupational accidents, health, food and environment. This presentation focuses on the ministry-produced public spots. Analyzing their content instead of their format and drawing on nineteen interviews conducted in 2014 with state officials involved in their preparation, we will question the very notion of public benefit and discuss how and why the public spot became a conventional medium to promote it. Our argument rests primarily on the observation that these spots of varying topics are linked through a generalized notion of security: issues concerning food, workplace, traffic, crime, and family are all problematized with the aim of regulating public safety through individual self-governance. As such, we discuss public spots as part of a neoliberal security regime induced by the state, a regime that gradually reassigns the problem of security upon the individual and advances public benefit through self-securitization.
    Keywords: self-governance; public benefit; securitization; public spots; Turkey
  16. By: Réquillart, Vincent; Soler, Louis-Georges; Zang, Yu
    Abstract: Up to now, most nutritional policies have been set up to inform consumers about the health benefits induced by more balanced diets. Reviews of the impacts of these policies show that the effects are often modest. This has led governments to implement, in more recent times, policies focused on the market environment, especially on the characteristics of the food supply. The goal of this paper is to deepen the analysis of firms' strategic reactions to nutritional policies targeting food quality improvements and to derive a set of optimal policies. To reach this goal, we propose a theoretical model of product differentiation taking into account both the taste and health characteristics of products, and use it to assess the health and welfare impacts of taxation and MQS-based policies. The model studies how a duopoly of mono-product firms reacts to three alternative policies: an MQS policy, linear taxation of the two goods on the market, and finally taxation of the low-quality good. We find that only the MQS policy and the linear excise tax on the low-quality product are welfare increasing. The choice, however, between the two depends on the priorities of the regulator. On the one hand, for a given moderate level of improvement in health, we show that social welfare increases more with the tax policy than the MQS policy. On the other hand, for a larger increase in the health status of the population, a MQS-based policy may be preferred. Moreover, the policies have distributional effects that must be taken into account, in particular for reasons related to their social acceptability. Finally we show that policies aiming at changing the food market environment allow getting greater health benefits and welfare than policies only based on information campaigns.
    Keywords: Taxation, MQS, Product differentiation, Strategic pricing, Nutritional policies
    JEL: I18 L13 Q18
    Date: 2015–09–03
  17. By: Mosayeb Pahlavani (University of Sistan and Baluchestan); Mandana Zanganeh Soroush (University of Sistan and Baluchestan)
    Abstract: Different studies around the world show that market orientation positively affects the export efficiency of organizations. Market orientation and its influence on export efficiency are the important subjects of marketing management. If an organization has the ability to understand needs of consumers better as well as competitors activities and influential factors on market condition and then spread these information in all of the organizational levels so as a result it has more ability for survival in competitive market. But it was not highly considered in different export organizations in Iran so the objective of this research is evaluation the relationship between market orientation and export efficiency in lateral industries of fishery sector. The nature of this research is descriptive. Fishery sector has been used for this study. Lisrel software is employed to analysis the data and estimate the theoretical model. Our empirical results show that there is a positive relationship between market orientation and export efficiency of these industries. Market intelligence has the most impact on market orientation and market dominant has the most impact on export performance in studied industries.
    Keywords: Market Orientation, Export Efficiency, Lisrel, Fishery sector, Structural Equation Model
    JEL: C13 C22 G14
  18. By: Ahmet Tarhan (Selcuk University Communication Faculty); Kadir Canoz (Selcuk University Communication Faculty); Omer Bakan (Selcuk University Communication Faculty)
    Abstract: As a result of the developments such as current competition environment, the rise of self-awareness among the consumers, and the requests and expectations of the consumers; the banks in the service sector were in the quest of being different from their rivals. Upon those developments, banks turned into sponsorship activities which are based on mutual benefits. The corporate web pages are among the instruments which banks have utilized recently in announcing their sponsorship activities for their corporate publicity, establishing their corporate images and increase their recognition. In the study, the sponsorship activities of 9 banks which serve in Turkey and listed in the categories such as public, private and participation banks were analyzed through their corporate web page sand using content analysis. Among the 191 sponsorship activities, it was found at the end of the analysis that 92 of the sponsorship activities were carried out by the private banks, 68 of them by public banks and 31 of them by participation banks. The most common type of sponsorship preferred by the banks was determined as the sports sponsorship while the least preferred one was environment sponsorship.
    Keywords: sponsorship, public relations, banking sector, corporate web page, content analysis.
    Abstract: All kinds of organizations have recently focused on being a part of unstable market and as a shareholder, increasing their shares in their markets. Especially, hospitality managements as being parts of highly competitive market and having a very tentative element such as “human” have an aim to provide full satisfaction of their customers. Protecting their brand urges them to search for new trends to differ their service systems and that causes an increase in their expectations from employees. One of them is having employees that have eligible physical properties and attitudes. Nowadays, hospitality managements pay attention to physical properties of a front line employee especially in the recruitment process. They look for a person who is looking good and sounding right. Finding an employee with perfectible properties is the first step that must be fulfilled. Then, through selection and training, managements modify and develop employees ‘abilities and attributes and convert them into aesthetic abilities. This, a creation of the management, the style of an employee with new abilities and attributes is called as aesthetic labour. The aim of this research is to reveal women frontline employees’ efforts while being an aesthetic labour. Departing from that, a questionnaire was developed under the light of international studies as there are few studies in national literature. A pilot implementation was conducted in 5 star hotels in Antalya, Turkey. As one of the noble seashore and having many 5 star hotels, Antalya is chosen for pilot implementation. 150 questionnaires were disturbed, 130 of them were collected. In order to conduct a reliable survey, 12 of them were eliminated as being fulfilled by other employees rather than frontline. 118 questionnaires were used to verify the data. Factor analysis was conducted to prove the dimensions predicted. 52 questionnaire items predicted within six factors were proven as 37 items within 6 factors. Factors are labelled as “Aesthetic Labour Requirements in Recruitment, Organizational Codes on Aesthetic Labour within Working Hours, Trainings on Becoming an Aesthetic Labour, Being an Aesthetic Labour in Customer Interactions, Effort to Preserve Aesthetic Labour Identity in Time off Work, Evaluations of Employees on Being an Aesthetic Labour.” According to the reliability analysis, the survey’s Cronbach Alpha value is 0.94. As there is few quantitative studies on aesthetic labour, this study takes a preliminary step for composing a questionnaire used for further researches both by national and international researchers.
    Keywords: Developing a Survey, Aesthetic Labour, Women Frontline Employees
    JEL: Z00 A30
  20. By: Genakos, Christos D.; Roumanias, Costas; Valletti, Tommaso
    Abstract: We analyze consumer switching between mobile tariff plans using consumer-level panel data. Consumers receive reminders from a specialist price-comparison website about the precise amount they could save by switching to alternative plans. We find that the effect on switching of being informed about potential savings is positive and significant. Controlling for savings, we also find that the effect of incurring overage payments is also significant and six times larger in magnitude. Paying an amount that exceeds the recurrent monthly fee weighs more on the switching decision than being informed that one can save that same amount by switching to a less inclusive plan, implying that avoidance of losses motivates switching more than the realization of equal-sized gains. We interpret this as evidence of loss aversion. We are also able to weigh how considerations of risk versus loss aversion affect mobile tariff plan choices: we find that a uniform attitude towards risk in both losses and gains has no significant influence on predicting consumers’ switching, whereas perceiving potential savings as avoidance of losses, rather than as gains, has a strong and positive effect.
    Keywords: consumer switching; loss aversion; mobile telephony; risk aversion; tariff plans
    JEL: D03 D12 D81 L96
    Date: 2015–10
  21. By: Fabrice Le Lec (CES, Université Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne, France); Marianne Lumeau (CEPN, Université de Paris 13 et LABEX ICCA, France); Benoît Tarroux (CREM, UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France)
    Abstract: Cet article étudie la conformité dans les comportements de consommation. Dans notre expérience, les sujets rapportaient leur satisfaction procurée par deux biens usuels testés en laboratoire, puis en donnaient une évaluation monétaire. Dans un premier traitement, les sujets étaient ``isolés". Dans un deuxième traitement, une information sur le choix effectué par d'autres sujets leur était fournie juste avant de donner une évaluation monétaire. Nos résultats montrent que les sujets sont sensibles au choix des autres de manière asymétrique. Les sujets ayant des goûts en contradiction avec le choix des autres ont tendance à diminuer la valorisation relative du bien préféré. En revanche, lorsque les sujets rapportent une plus grande satisfaction pour le bien également choisi par les autres, cette information n'affecte pas la valorisation monétaire des biens.
    Keywords: Conformité, Consommation, Information
    JEL: C91 D80
    Date: 2015–09
  22. By: Mario Raúl de la Peña (Universidad Oscar Lucero de Holguín); Juan A. Núñez-Serrano (Departamento de Economía Aplicada (Department of Applied Economics), Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales (Faculty of Economics and Management), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Autonomous University of Madrid); Grupo de Investigación en Productividad, Innovación y Competencia (GRIPICO) (Group for Research in Productivity, Innovation and Competition), Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales (Faculty of Economics and Business), Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Complutense University of Madrid)); Jaime Turrión (Grupo de Economía Europea (European Economy Group), Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales (Faculty of Economics and Business), Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Complutense University of Madrid); Departamento de Economía Aplicada (Department of Applied Economics), Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales (Faculty of Economics and Management), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Autonomous University of Madrid); Grupo de Investigación en Productividad, Innovación y Competencia (GRIPICO) (Group for Research in Productivity, Innovation and Competition), Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales (Faculty of Economics and Business), Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Complutense University of Madrid)); Francisco J. Velázquez (Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Campus de Somosaguas, s/n, E28223 POZUELO DE ALARCÓN, MADRID (SPAIN); Grupo de Investigación en Productividad, Innovación y Competencia (GRIPICO) (Group for Research in Productivity, Innovation and Competition), Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales (Faculty of Economics and Business), Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Complutense University of Madrid))
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the impact of innovative activity in the hotel industry on the willingness to pay by consumers. To this end we estimate a hedonic price function where innovation is identified indirectly through certain attributes. The contrast is performed on a representative sample of Cuban hotels considering a large number of attributes of hotels and rooms. To solve the usual problems of collinearity an original procedure is developed. The results highlight the importance of the attributes linked to innovation and internationalization on the price of the rooms of Cuban hotels.
    Abstract: Este trabajo evalúa el impacto de la actividad innovadora en la industria hotelera sobre la disposición a pagar por los consumidores. Con este objetivo se estima una función hedónica de precios donde las innovaciones se identifican indirectamente a través de ciertos atributos de los hoteles. El contraste se realiza sobre una muestra representativa de hoteles cubanos considerando un número importante de atributos de los hoteles y de las habitaciones. Para solventar el problema habitual de colinealidad en este contexto, se desarrolla un procedimiento original. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto la importancia de los atributos ligados a la innovación e internacionalización sobre el precio de las habitaciones de los hoteles cubanos.
    Keywords: Innovation, Hospitality industry, Prices, hedonic pricing method.; Innovación, Industria hotelera, Precios, Métodos de precios hedónicos.
    JEL: D46 L83 O32
    Date: 2015–06
  23. By: AZAD KAKASHEKH (Salahaddin University – Erbil / Colleg of Art -Geography Department)
    Abstract: The role of sustainable tourism development to treatment environmental problems caused by tourist activity. Shaqlawa City / study areaThis study aims to:1 - Clarifying the role of sustainable tourism development to treatment environmental problems caused by tourist activity in general.2 - To clarify the role that sustainable tourism development can play to treating the environmental problems caused by tourist activity in the city (Shaqlawa).The foregoing, the paoer will take care of these following points:1 - Definition of sustainable tourism development.2 - Definition of tourism activities and environmental problems resulting from it.3 - Clarifying the role of sustainable tourism development to treatment environmental problems caused by tourist activity.4 - Definition of tourist activity in the city (Shaqlawa) and environmental problems resulting from it.5 - Clarify the role of sustainable tourism development to treating environmental problems caused by tourist activity in the city (Shaqlawa).
    Keywords: sustainable development, environmental problems, tourist activity, Shaqlawa
    JEL: Q56 Q56 Q56
  24. By: Fung, Winnie (Wheaton College); Liverpool-Tasie, Saweda (Michigan State University); Mason, Nicole (Michigan State University); Uwaifo Oyelere, Ruth
    Abstract: The last decade has seen a resurgence of parastatal crop marketing institutions in sub-Saharan Africa, many of which cite improving food security and incomes as key goals. However, there is limited empirical evidence on the welfare effects of these programs. This article considers one such program, the Zambian Food Reserve Agency (FRA), which purchases maize from smallholder farmers at a pan-territorial price that typically exceeds maize market prices in surplus production areas. Using both fixed effects and an instrumental variables approach combined with correlated random effects, we estimate the effects of the FRA's maize marketing activities on smallholder farm household welfare. Results suggest that FRA activities have positive direct welfare effects on the small minority of smallholder households that are able to sell to it. However, the results also suggest negative indirect FRA effects, as higher levels of FRA activity in a district are associated with higher levels of poverty.
    Keywords: crop marketing boards, strategic grain reserves, maize, smallholder farmers, income, poverty, Zambia, sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: Q12 Q13 Q18 I38 D31 O13
    Date: 2015–09
  25. By: Claude Didry (Institutions et Dynamiques Historiques de l'Economie); Frédéric Marty (OFCE)
    Abstract: La création en 1953 du Comité Technique des Ententes, lointain prédécesseur de notre actuelle Autorité de la Concurrence, inscrit la politique de concurrence française dans un rapport de contemporanéité avec la loi sur la concurrence allemande et le Traité de Rome. Cependant, comme la dénomination même du Comité l’indique, le premier domaine d’intervention résidait en la répression des comportements collusifs horizontaux, il n’était pas alors question des abus de position dominante individuelle. Qui plusest, les pratiques collusives qui étaient particulièrement visées se nouaient autour de marchés publics liés aux plans de reconstruction, équipement et modernisation. Ainsi, si cette activation des règles de concurrence contrastait avec les traditions dirigistes héritées des expériences des économies de guerre ou l’influence des approches planistes qui étaient favorables aux ententes entre firmes au nom de l’efficience productive, elle ne saurait pour autant participer d’une logique comparable à celle alors à l’œuvre en Allemagne de l’Ouest sous l’influence des ordolibéraux. Cette lutte contre les cartels peut s’expliquer en regard d’une conception d’une politique industrielle fondée sur une étroite coopération entre les administrations et les grandes entreprises françaises considérées comme des champions nationaux. L’activation du levier concurrentiel a pu participer d’une politique industrielle de nature verticale passant par l’élimination des pratiques collusives entre firmes
    Keywords: politiques de concurence; Cartels; néo-libéralisme; services publics
    JEL: N44 H54 K21 B21
    Date: 2015–09
  26. By: Grund, Christian (RWTH Aachen University); Thommes, Kirsten (RWTH Aachen University)
    Abstract: The intention of "doing good for society" is regarded to be a crucial motivator for employees in the public sector in order for them to perform well. Recent research in the public sector literature calls for a deeper understanding of how this specific public service motivation (PSM) is shaped. In our paper, we analyze how different degrees of inclusion in the public sector impact PSM. We also investigate how prospects of employment relations (fixed-term versus permanent contracts), temporal differences (part-time versus full-time employment), and actual jobs (core versus subsidiary jobs) moderate PSM in public service. Our findings show that aspects of PSM are affected by these employment characteristics in various ways, suggesting that the factors influencing PSM are multifaceted and that actual employment conditions have to be taken into consideration when assessing PSM.
    Keywords: job characteristics, motivation, PSM, public sector, part-time, temporary employment
    JEL: M55 J45 H83
    Date: 2015–09

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