nep-mkt New Economics Papers
on Marketing
Issue of 2015‒03‒13
seven papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Eliciting Consumer WTP for Food Characteristics in a Developing Context: Comparison of four methods in a field experiment By Alphonce, Roselyne; Alfnes, Frode
  2. Luxusmarketing bei Lebensmitteln: Eine empirische Studie zu Dimensionen des Luxuskonsums in Deutschland By Schneider, Thea; Hartmann, Laura; Spiller, Achim
  3. The impact of food price volatility on consumer welfare in Cameroon By Kane, Gilles Quentin; Tene, Gwladys Laure Mabah; Ambagna, Jean Joel; Piot-lepetit, Isabelle; Sikod, Fondo
  4. The Signaling Effect of Critics: Do Professionals outweigh Word-of-Mouth? Evidence from the Video Game Industry By Daniel Kaimann; Joe Cox
  5. Perception et valorisation du café dans la restauration : comment concevoir et mettre à disposition une offre à forte valeur ajoutée ? By Carole Jegou
  6. How Do Consumers Choose Health Insurance? – An Experiment on Heterogeneity in Attribute Tastes and Risk Preferences By Nadja Kairies-Schwarz; Johanna Kokot; Markus Vomhof; Jens Wessling
  7. Luxusaffinität deutscher Reitsportler: Implikationen für das Marketing im Reitsportsegment By Hartmann, Laura; Spiller, Achim

  1. By: Alphonce, Roselyne (School of Economics and Business, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Alfnes, Frode (School of Economics and Business, Norwegian University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: This paper aims at answering two objectives;1) assess consumer preference and willingness to pay for organic and food safety inspected tomatoes in a traditional African food market; 2) compare willingness to pay for the tomato attributes in four different elicitation techniques. We elicit willingness to pay for conventional, organic and/or food-safetyinspected tomatoes using methods that can be conducted with one respondent at a time: the Becker–DeGroot–Marschak mechanism, multiple price lists, multiple price lists with stated quantities, and real-choice experiments. All methods show that consumers are willing to pay a premium for organic and food-safety-inspected tomatoes. However, the size of the premium is significantly larger when consumers choose between alternatives than when they indicate their reservation price. Throughout the paper, we discuss method implementation issues for this context and make method recommendations for future research.
    Keywords: elicitation methods; framed field experiments; organic; food-safety inspected; Tanzania; WTP
    JEL: C93 D12 Q10 Q13
    Date: 2015–03–05
  2. By: Schneider, Thea; Hartmann, Laura; Spiller, Achim
    Abstract: Heutzutage zeigt sich das Ernährungsverhalten der deutschen Konsumenten immer differenzierter und ist mit einem wachsenden Involvement beim Kauf von Lebensmitteln verbunden. In diesem Zusammenhang steigt die Nachfrage nach Qualitätslebensmitteln und Premium-Marken. Für das Marketing im Bereich hochpreisiger Lebensmittel ergibt sich die Frage nach den kaufmotivierenden Produkteigenschaften und der Abgrenzung zum Konsumentenverhalten auf dem allgemeinen Lebensmittelmarkt. Die Konzeptionierung zielgruppenspezifischer Marketingmaßnahmen erfordert die Kenntnis der Einstellungen und Einflussfaktoren von Konsumenten der sogenannten Luxus-Lebensmittel. Bislang sind unseres Wissens hierzu jedoch kaum empirische Studien vorhanden. Basierend auf einer explorativen Faktorenanalyse untersucht die vorliegende Studie, welche Produktdimensionen Konsumenten beim Kauf von hochpreisigen Lebensmitteln leiten und in welchem Zusammenhang diese mit dem allgemeinen Lebensmittelmarkt stehen. Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Kaufentscheidungen im Hochpreissegment wesentlich von den Attributen Qualität, Nachhaltigkeit und Genusswert beeinflusst werden.
    Abstract: Nowadays, the nutritional behavior of German consumers appears to become more differentiated and is moreover related to a high involvement during the purchase of food. As a result, the demand for high quality food products has increased. The question arises which consumption motives are significant in the market for high-price food products and how these differ in comparison to the conventional food market. For the conception of target-group specific marketing strategies, new empirical consumer studies on the market for this so-called luxury food are needed. The developments on the German food market have a high topicality, but there is a lack of those investigations. Based on an explorative factor analysis, this study investigates which product dimensions decisively influence purchase intentions for high-price food products in Germany. Moreover, it highlights the links to the conventional German food market. Results of the analysis show that different dimensions emerge. Especially quality, sustainability and indulgence can be revealed as significant consumption motives on the market for high-price foods.
    Keywords: Luxuslebensmittel,Konsumenten,Dimensionen,Luxusmarketing,luxury food,consumers,dimensions,luxury marketing
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Kane, Gilles Quentin; Tene, Gwladys Laure Mabah; Ambagna, Jean Joel; Piot-lepetit, Isabelle; Sikod, Fondo
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyse the welfare effects of food price volatility on Cameroonian consumers. Using data from the third Cameroonian Household Consumption Surveys, the price elasticities are obtained from a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand
    Keywords: price volatility, consumer welfare, Cameroon
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Daniel Kaimann (University of Paderborn); Joe Cox (Portsmouth Business School)
    Abstract: Experience goods are characterized by information asymmetry and a lack of ex ante knowledge of product quality, such that reliable external signals of product quality are likely to be highly valued. Two potentially credible sources of such information are reviews from professional critics with expert reputations, as well as ‘word-of-mouth’ reviews from other consumers. This paper makes a direct comparison between the relative influence of both critic and user reviews on the sales of video games software. In order to empirically estimate and separate the effects of the two signals, we analyze a sample of 1,480 video games and their sales figures between 2004 and 2010. We find clear evidence to suggest that reviews from professional critics have a significantly positive influence on sales that outweighs word-of-mouth reviews. Consequently, we support the hypothesis that professional critics adopt the role of an influencer whereas word-of-mouth opinion acts merely as a predictor of sales.
    Keywords: Signaling Theory, Information Asymmetry, Critics, Word-of-Mouth, Video Game Industry
    JEL: C31 D82 L14 L82
    Date: 2014–08
  5. By: Carole Jegou (Economie Appliquée de Grenoble, INRA)
    Abstract: Dans la restauration, en France, le café reste le plus souvent vendu sans information ni choix, comme une matière première indifférenciée, de qualité variable et incertaine. Dès lors, les consommateurs lui accordent peu de valeur. Pourtant, le café consommé à domicile connaît une montée en gamme et en étendue du choix disponible, avec de nombreuses innovations autour des doses permettant la préparation de café « à la tasse ». L’objectif est d’aider à la conception et à la mise à disposition d’une offre de café au restaurant de plus forte valeur pour les consommateurs. Pour cela, la première partie établit un diagnostic de l’offre et de la demande actuelles de café au restaurant. Des entretiens avec les consommateurs révèlent une demande liée aux fonctions sociales du café. L’étude de la filière, par des données de marché et des observations de terrain, montre une mise à disposition des produits par les torréfacteurs axée sur les services proposés aux restaurateurs. Ces constats permettent de mieux comprendre les mécanismes menant à la filière du café-commodité et de formuler des hypothèses de valorisation de l’offre par la différenciation verticale (par la qualité) ou par la différenciation horizontale (par la variété). Dans la seconde partie, ces hypothèses sont soumises à expérimentation, afin d’évaluer leur pertinence auprès des consommateurs, par des méthodologies issues de l’économie expérimentale et comportementale, et de l’évaluation sensorielle. Finalement, la faisabilité de ces deux types de différenciation est discutée à la lumière d’entretiens avec des restaurateurs. Une solution de valorisation du café dans la restauration, pertinente et faisable, pourrait passer par une évolution des activités dans la filière, afin de mobiliser les acteurs autour d’une stratégie de singularisation de l’offre.
    Abstract: In French restaurants, coffee is one of the last products sold without any information or choice: as a basic commodity, undifferentiated, and with an unpredictable and variable quality. Therefore, consumers do not grant much value to this product. In parallel, the coffee offer for consumption at home is improving in terms of quality and choice. Many innovations are available on the supermarket’s shelves in the category of pre-dosed pods, for the preparation of coffee by the cup. The purpose of this thesis is to help in the conception and positioning of a coffee offer in restaurants, with high-added value for consumers. In this aim, the Part 1 makes a diagnosis of the current supply and demand of coffee in French restaurants. Interviews with consumers reveal a demand linked to social functions of coffee. The sector analysis, based on market data and field observations, shows that the supply of coffee by roasting companies relies on services offered to restaurant managers. This analysis enables to better understand mechanisms of the coffee-commodity industry, and to formulate hypothesis of development of an offer with higher added-value by a vertical differentiation (by the quality) or by a horizontal differentiation (by the variety). In Part 2, these hypotheses are tested in order to evaluate their relevance regarding consumers, through methodologies coming from sensory evaluation, and experimental or behavioral economics. Finally, feasibility of these two types of differentiation is discussed based on interviews with restaurant managers. An offer with high-added value for consumers, relevant and feasible, could arise from a development of the activities in the sector, in order to get stakeholders together around a strategy of making the offer unique.
    Keywords: coffee, consumer behavior, product differenciation, restaurant, experimental economics, café, comportement des consommateurs, économie expérimentale, restaurantrestaurationqualité, qualité gustativedifférenciation des produits
    Date: 2014
  6. By: Nadja Kairies-Schwarz; Johanna Kokot; Markus Vomhof; Jens Wessling
    Abstract: Recent health policy reforms try to increase consumer choice. We use a laboratory experiment to analyze consumers’ tastes in typical contract attributes of health insurances and to investigate their relationship with individual risk preferences. First, subjects make consecutive insurance choices varying in the number and types of contracts offered. Then, we elicit individual risk preferences according to Cumulative Prospect Theory. Applying a latent class model to the choice data, reveals five classes of consumers with considerable heterogeneity in tastes for contract attributes. From this, we infer distinct behavioral strategies for each class. The majority of subjects use minimax strategies focusing on contract attributes rather than evaluating probabilities in order to maximize expected payoffs. Moreover, we show that using these strategies helps consumers to choose contracts, which are in line with their individual risk preferences. Our results reveal valuable insights for policy makers of how to achieve efficient consumer choice.
    Keywords: Health insurance; risk preferences; heterogeneity; heuristics; laboratory experiment; cumulative prospect theory
    JEL: C91 I13 D81
    Date: 2014–12
  7. By: Hartmann, Laura; Spiller, Achim
    Abstract: Der Reitsport wird seit jeher mit Luxus assoziiert. Das Durchschnittseinkommen und die Zahlungsbereitschaften von Reitsportlern sind hoch, zugleich wird ihnen eine Affinität zu Luxusgütern unterstellt. Dies erklärt das Interesse von Luxusgüterherstellern an einer Positionierung ihrer Marketingmaßnahmen im Reitsport. Motiviert durch die vielfache Verknüpfung beider Branchen wurde eruiert, inwieweit deutsche Reiter einem materiellen Luxusverständnis zugewandt sind. Diese Frage ist für Positionierungsstrategien im Luxusmarketing grundlegend, bisher aber kaum empirisch untersucht. Auf Grundlage einer Faktoren- und Clusteranalyse können vier Reitersegmente identifiziert werden, die sich in ihrer Haltung zu Luxus und ihrem sozio-demografischen Profil voneinander unterscheiden. Der Konsum von Luxus und die Ausübung von Reitsport werden eher motiviert durch das Bedürfnis nach Selbstverwirklichung und hedonistischem Erleben. Damit stellt die Gruppe der Reitsportler ein Anwendungsbeispiel für den in der Literatur zwar postulierten, bisher aber wenig empirisch untersuchten Wandel von außengerichteten, sozialen zu innengerichteten, persönlichkeitsorientierten Motiven im Luxuskonsum dar. Es können Implikationen für das Luxusgütermarketing abgeleitet werden.
    Abstract: Equestrian sports have always been associated with luxury. Equestrian athletes' average income and their willingness to pay are high. Simultaneously, they are assumed to have an affinity to luxury goods. This explains the interest of luxury goods manufacturers in placing their marketing activities in equestrian sports. Motivated by several links between both fields, this study found out how far German equestrian athletes have been turned to an understanding of material luxury. This is a fundamental question for positioning strategies in luxury marketing, however, it has hardly been studied empirically so far. Based on a factor and cluster analysis, four segments can be identified, differing in attitude to luxury and socio-demographic profiles. Consuming luxury and exercising equestrian sports is rather motivated by the need for self-realization and hedonism. This means the group of riders being an application example of the change from external, social motives towards internal personality-related motives in luxury consumption. Implications for luxury marketing are derived.
    Keywords: Luxusgütermarketing,Reitsportler,Luxusaffinität,Luxusmotive,luxury marketing,horse riders,affinity to luxury,luxury motives
    Date: 2015

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