nep-mkt New Economics Papers
on Marketing
Issue of 2012‒08‒23
eleven papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Modern Distribution vs. Specialised Shop: a Study on beef consumer behaviour By Scozzafava, Gabriele; Casini, Leonardo; Marinelli, Nicola
  3. Sensory Marketing and Tourist Experiences By Agapito, Dora; Valle, Patrícia; Mendes, Julio
  4. Marketing the Destination Experience By Campos, Ana Cláudia
  5. Cross-border Shopping and State Use Tax Liabilities: Evidence from eBay Transactions By James Alm; Mikhail I. Melnik
  6. Segmenting Graduate Consumers of Higher Education in Tourism: An Extension of the ECSI Model By Eurico, Sofia; Valle, Patrícia; Silva, João Albino; Marques, Catarina
  7. The analysis of competitive interdependencies through Social Network Analysis: the case study of extra-virgin olive oil By Marchini, Andrea; Diotallevi, Francesco; Fioriti, Linda
  8. Advertising and the Distribution of Content By Weeds, Helen
  9. The Impact of State Marketing Board Operations on Smallholder Behavior and Incomes: The Case of Kenya By Mather, David L; Jayne, T.S.
  10. The Economics of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Survey By Patricia Crifo; Vanina Forget
  11. Business-Foundation Partnerships and Foundation Performance: Evidence from the Spanish Foundation Sector By María José Sanzo Author-1-Name-First: María José Author-1-Name-Last: Sanzo; Luis I. Álvarez Author-2-Name-First: Luis I. Author-2-Name-Last: Álvarez; Marta Rey Author-3-Name-First: Marta Author-3-Name-Last: Rey; Nuria García Author-4-Name-First: Nuria Author-4-Name-Last: García

  1. By: Scozzafava, Gabriele; Casini, Leonardo; Marinelli, Nicola
    Abstract: The evolution of consumer profile highlights, for food products and specifically for beef, a growing attention for a number of specific aspects related to food quality, safety, environmental issues and animal welfare. Because of this, it is more and more important to understand the consumer’s choice dynamics in order to develop differentiated marketing, commercial and communication strategies that also refer to different distribution channel. This study was conceived with the aim of analysing the different motives and purchase behaviours of beef consumers in the two main distribution channels: Modern Distribution (MD) and specialised shops (butcher shops). The research is based on an internet administered questionnaire to a representative sample of 1500 beef consumers. Within the questionnaire a Visual Choice Experiment was proposed and its results were analysed using a Multinomial Logit Model. The results show different consumer characteristics in the two analysed distribution channels, highlighting how the same product attributes have different meaning and relevance. Such results may supply strategic information for packaging, pricing and general commercialisation strategies to be implemented by the different agents in the distribution sector.
    Keywords: Beef, Consumer Behaviour, Choice Experiment, Distribution, Marketing Strategies, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Q13, C90,
    Date: 2012
  2. By: Marchini, Andrea; Diotallevi, Francesco; Angiolini, Gianluca; Pampanini, Rossella
    Abstract: The process of product selection in the large retail stores is increasingly influenced by food merchandising techniques (Stocchetti and Volpato, 2002).. In this context, the products positioning on the shelves is as strategic and critical variable, both for manufacturers and for the distribution companies (Pellegrini, 1997). The construction of planograms thus becomes the main marketing activity of the sale point and the principles that underlie it are all geared to increasing visibility of product categories. These decisions affect the contractual parameters that bind the manufacturer with the distribution companies (Marchini et al., 2009). Some lines of operating marketing research based on in the neuroscience field discoveries give interesting results in applications to define the behavior of the consumer and the critical variables of purchase. The result of empirical analysis is to identify the planogram that maximizes the consumer's attention and then the visibility of each product in the competitive arena. The approach of emotional marketing develops new empirical models for the study of consumer choices. Thanks to these new techniques it is possible to simulate the behavior of a generic consumer in the store with obvious advantages in terms of competitive positioning strategies (De Luca and Vianelli, 2001).. This work, by developing a empirical prototype, based on the visual marketing approach, examine the extra virgin olive oil shelf of distribution company. The results show that positioning strategies are confirmed by the graphical maps resulting from administration of the test to a sample of consumers. In addition, important startegic considerations are derived on the basis of case study.
    Keywords: olive oil Modern Distribution Visual Marketing
    JEL: M31 D30 A13
    Date: 2012
  3. By: Agapito, Dora (cieo - research centre for spatial and organizational dynamics); Valle, Patrícia (cieo - research centre for spatial and organizational dynamics); Mendes, Julio (cieo - research centre for spatial and organizational dynamics)
    Abstract: Marketing has been increasing its focus on the role of the five human senses in consumer behaviour, since research under the experiential paradigm has pointed to multisensory stimuli as intensifiers of consumers’ experiences, such as tourist experiences. Whereas previous studies in tourism touted vision, current research claims a holistic approach to sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch in order to develop effective communication and branding strategies, as well to boost the performance of destinations and tourist organizations by designing and creating conditions to enhance tourist experiences. This study aims to present the main contributions of the literature on a sensory marketing approach to the tourist experience, and to discuss some preliminary results of an empirical study on the role of human senses in tourist experiences in rural areas. Data analysis from a questionnaire presented to tourists supports the multisensory nature of tourist experiences and the importance of the five senses to the intensity of the experience.
    Keywords: Sensory Marketing; Five Senses; Tourist Experiences; Experiential Paradigm
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2012–03–30
  4. By: Campos, Ana Cláudia (cieo - research centre for spatial and organizational dynamics)
    Abstract: The destination is the basic unit of analysis and management action, and yet it is recognisably the most difficult unit to manage and market. As global competition increases and consumers become more skilled and empowered, destinations striving for survival and competitiveness in the marketplace need to rethink their approaches to marketing. Traditional destination marketing has been failing both destinations and Destination Marketing Organisations in assisting them to achieve competitiveness. Recent research has been calling attention to changes in the environment and suggesting innovative approaches to deal with them, in addition to issues for debate. This paper reviews the destination construct, highlighting the theoretical complexity, and identifies traditional aspects involved in destination marketing. Subsequently, a literature review is the basis of the characterisation of the new marketing environment in which destinations are now competing, while identifying foreseeable challenges that they will have to manage. Some areas of research that are of interest for both DMOs and researchers are identified.
    Keywords: Destination; Traditional Destination Marketing; Marketing of Destination Experiences
    JEL: L83 M31
    Date: 2012–03–30
  5. By: James Alm (Department of Economics, Tulane University); Mikhail I. Melnik (Department of Business Administration, School of Engineering Technology and Management, Southern Polytechnic State University)
    Abstract: Online commerce presents consumers with a convenient way of shopping outside of their local jurisdiction, and this online purchase decision is capable of affecting in significant ways the sales and use tax collections of state governments. However, the actual revenue impact has proven difficult to estimate. There is considerable work that examines the revenue impact of seller compliance with sales taxes. However, there is little work on buyer compliance with use taxes. In this paper we investigate the potential impact of cross-border shopping on state use tax liabilities of buyers, using data from the largest online consumer-to-consumer and business-to-consumer marketplace, We collect our own data on actual cross-border shopping transactions from eBay, focusing upon a "representative" commodity classification and a "typical" day; these data consist of nearly twenty-one thousand eBay listings generated by roughly seven thousand individual sellers with over nine thousand buyers. These data allow us to examine the extent of actual, not estimated, cross-border shopping by buyers, and the subsequent potential impact of this cross-border shopping on state use tax liabilities. Our results indicate that cross-border shopping is highly prevalent on eBay, with out-of-state purchases accounting for on average 94 percent of the volume of a state's purchase transactions. Even so, given the limited volume of eBay-based transactions relative to total sales transactions, the likely impact of cross-border transactions on state use tax revenue streams is quite low, at least at present, typically less than one percent of actual state sales tax revenues.
    Keywords: online commerce, sales taxes, nexus, tax evasion
    JEL: H71 H73
    Date: 2012–07
  6. By: Eurico, Sofia (School of Tourism and Maritime Technology); Valle, Patrícia (cieo - research centre for spatial and organizational dynamics); Silva, João Albino (cieo - research centre for spatial and organizational dynamics); Marques, Catarina (Department of Quantitative Methods, ISCTE)
    Abstract: This research explores the European Consumer Satisfaction Index model applied to higher education in tourism by accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. In particular, it intends to identify segments of Higher Education Institutions’ consumers based on the structural model estimates of the European Consumer Satisfaction Index, enlarged with the employability construct. A model-based segmentation approach in Partial Least Squares path modelling is used. The European Consumer Satisfaction Index was properly adjusted to the educational framework and has shown its effectiveness when assessing students’ satisfaction regarding the attended Higher Education Institution. Two distinctive, graduates’ segments were identified using a sample of 166 Higher Education Institutions’ consumers. Results confirm the assumption of heterogeneity as the relationships differ across segments and the need for Higher Education Institutions to differently target those segments in such a competitive context. These results may be used strategically by Higher Education Institutions and policy makers as segments of graduates are identified according to their perception of employability and the future influence of this on their satisfaction. Deepening the knowledge on their consumers, Higher Education Institutions will be better prepared to adjust their educational performance to graduates’ best interests and to promote their offer.
    Keywords: ECSI; Segmentation; Higher Education; Employability
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2012–03–30
  7. By: Marchini, Andrea; Diotallevi, Francesco; Fioriti, Linda
    Abstract: This paper aims to analyze, utilizing scanner data, the relationships of competitive interdependency in the extra-virgin olive oil sector in Italy. One of the most important aspects of the competitiveness analysis is the concept of competitive interdependency, as the competitive performances of a product depend upon the number of competitors on the same shop shelf. The «Social Network Analysis» (SNA) has been applied to investigate these interdependencies by elaborating extra-virgin olive oil sales data from a national level survey. The SNA methodology has provided a useful tool to analyse the competitive relationships between each selected extra-virgin olive oil brand and the others on the same shop shelf. The conclusions aim to discuss the results of the study, which has provided useful information about high quality Italian olive oil segments, and to evaluate future opportunities and actual limits of this new methodology to approach the analysis of competitive brand networks.
    Keywords: Social Network Analysis (SNA); extra-virgin olive oil market; competitiveness
    JEL: Q13
    Date: 2012
  8. By: Weeds, Helen
    Abstract: This paper examines incentives for exclusive distribution of content in the presence of advertising. A monopoly seller of content - such as televisation rights to popular sports - may contract with one or both of two competing distributors, charging lump-sum fees. When distributors are subscription-funded, exclusive sale to a single buyer is the seller's profit-maximising choice, even when distributors also sell advertising airtime. When distributors are purely advertising-funded, however, non-exclusive contracting may instead be preferred. Advertising revenues accruing directly to the content provider may also generate a preference for non-exclusivity even when selling to subscription-funded distributors. The analysis has implications for the distribution of content to pay TV and free-to-air broadcasters, and for internet distribution of content.
    Keywords: Advertising; Broadcasting; Exclusivity; Internet
    JEL: D43 L14 L82 M37
    Date: 2012–08
  9. By: Mather, David L; Jayne, T.S.
    Abstract: Marketing boards and strategic reserves have re-emerged over the last decade as significant actors in grain markets in eastern and southern Africa, yet there is little empirical research regarding how their activities affect smallholder behavior. This paper uses panel survey data from 1997-2007 on Kenyan smallholders to investigate the effect of Kenya’s National Cereal Produce Board activities on farmgate maize price expectations, output supply, and factor demand. Results show that the NCPB pan-territorial price has a positive effect on smallholders’ maize price expectations, and that smallholders respond to higher expected maize prices by increasing maize production through increased fertilizer use.
    Keywords: Marketing boards, supply response, Africa, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, Marketing, Q12, Q13,
    Date: 2012
  10. By: Patricia Crifo (Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique - CNRS : UMR7176 - Polytechnique - X, UP10 - Université Paris 10, Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense - Université Paris X - Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense - Ministère de l'Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique, CIRANO - Montréal); Vanina Forget (Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique - CNRS : UMR7176 - Polytechnique - X, AgroParisTech - ENGREF)
    Abstract: This article analyzes the economics of Corporate Social Responsible behaviors, namely the voluntary integration of environmental, social and governance factors in firms' strategy. We review theoretical and empirical literature and provide a unified framework of the forces driving corporate social responsibility, relying on three categories of market imperfections: the existence of externalities and public good; consumer heterogeneity; and imperfects contracts. The impacts of corporate social responsibility on corporate performance and society are also surveyed and the lack of knowledge on the latter leads to a research agenda.
    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Business Sustainability; En- vironmental, Social and Governance Criteria; Firm Strategy.
    Date: 2012–07–25
  11. By: María José Sanzo Author-1-Name-First: María José Author-1-Name-Last: Sanzo (IIIS Visiting Academic and Professor of Marketing, University of Oviedo, Spain); Luis I. Álvarez Author-2-Name-First: Luis I. Author-2-Name-Last: Álvarez (University of Oviedo, Spain); Marta Rey Author-3-Name-First: Marta Author-3-Name-Last: Rey (University of La Coruña, Spain); Nuria García Author-4-Name-First: Nuria Author-4-Name-Last: García (University of Oviedo, Spain)
    Abstract: This research analyzes the effects of partnerships between firms and nonprofit organizations (specifically, foundations) on the foundations' development of two critical capabilities, namely, human resource management and information and communication technology competence. We propose that the stronger the firm–foundation relationship, in terms of perceived value, communication, reduced conflict, trust, and commitment, the greater the transfer of resources and know-how should be from the firm to the foundation, and therefore the greater the foundations' development of key capabilities needed to achieve their social aims. Empirical research is based on a survey of a representative sample of 325 Spanish foundations selected according to the basic descriptors of the Spanish foundation sector provided by the Spanish Institute for Strategic Analysis of Foundations, INAEF. Structural equation techniques with EQS 6.2 served to analyze the data. The results confirm that this type of firm–foundation relationship positively influences the extent to which a foundation develops both competences.
    Keywords: Business–nonprofit partnerships, corporate responsibility, foundations, internal marketing, information technology, performance
    JEL: M14

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