nep-mkt New Economics Papers
on Marketing
Issue of 2012‒02‒20
nine papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Corporate and Consumer Social Responsibilities: Label Regulations in the Lab By Etile, Fabrice; Teyssier, Sabrina
  2. Do consumers prefer offers that are easy to compare? An experimental investigation By Crosetto, Paolo; Gaudeul, Alexia
  3. Wintertime for Deceptive Advertising? By Jonathan Zinman; Eric Zitzewitz
  4. The Effect of Marketing Spending on Sales in the Premium Car Segment: New Evidence from Germany By Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus; Stöckl, Matthias
  5. Mandatory Labelling: Evidence from the French Fromage Blanc and Yogurt Market By Allais, Olivier; Etile, Fabrice; Lecocq, Sebastien
  6. Price Discrimination and Fairness Concerns By Englmaier, Florian; Gratz, Linda; Reisinger, Markus
  7. "Silver" product design: Product innovation for older people By Herstatt, Cornelius; Kohlbacher, Florian; Bauer, Patrick
  8. To Sponsor or Not to Sponsor: Sponsored Search Auctions with Organic Links By Michael Arnold, Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics, University of Delaware, US; Éric Darmon, University of Rennes 1 - CREM-CNRS, France; Thierry Pénard, University of Rennes 1 - CREM-CNRS, France
  9. Le rôle de la culpabilité dans le marketing de la collecte de fonds : influence sur le don des particuliers. By Chédotal, Camille

  1. By: Etile, Fabrice; Teyssier, Sabrina
    Abstract: Although consumer attitudes toward corporate social responsibility are positive, socially responsible (SR) products are far from gaining significant market shares. Information asymmetries have been identified as one of the factor contributing to this attitude-behaviour gap, because social responsibility is a credence attribute. Signalling may remedy this market failure. We use an experimental posted offer market to investigate the impact of various regulatory requirements for labels on sellersâ choice to supply SR products and to signal it, and on buyersâ choice of ethical quality. Three treatments are tested: label certification by a third-party, âcheap-talk signallingâ with random monitoring and with or without reputations. Individual social preferences are elicited prior to the game, and their distribution generates a positive supply of and demand for social responsibility. When there is third-party certification or cheap-talk signalling with random monitoring and reputations, a separating equilibrium emerges, whereby labelled and non-labelled goods are exchanged at different prices. However, efficiency gains are significant only for third-party certification. Cheap-talk signalling with random monitoring but without reputations does not yield efficiency gains. Moreover, it generates a âhaloâ effect, whereby buyers are misguided by sellersâ claims about product quality. Finally, individual social preferences have a significant effect on playersâ decisions. Only third-party certification can increase companiesâ social responsibility and can allow consumers to express their social preferences through consumption.
    Keywords: labels, social responsibility, social preferences, separating equilibrium, market game, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Marketing, C92, D82, L15, M14,
    Date: 2011
  2. By: Crosetto, Paolo; Gaudeul, Alexia
    Abstract: Abstract Consumers make mistakes when facing complex purchasing decision problems but if at least some consumers disregard any offers that is difficult to compare with others then firms will adopt common ways to present their offers and thus make choice easier. We design an original experiment to identify consumers’ choice heuristics in the lab. Subjects are asked to choose from menus of offers and we measure the extent to which they favor those offers that are easy to compare with others in the menu. A sufficient number of subjects do so with sufficient intensity for offers presented in common terms to generate higher revenues than offers that are expressed in an idiosyncratic way.
    Keywords: Bounded Rationality; Cognitive Limitations; Standards; Consumer Choice; Experimental Economics; Heuristics; Pricing Formats; Spurious Complexity
    JEL: D18 D83 C25
    Date: 2012–03–08
  3. By: Jonathan Zinman; Eric Zitzewitz
    Abstract: Casual empiricism suggests that deceptive advertising about product quality is prevalent, and several classes of theories explore its causes and consequences. We provide some unusually sharp empirical evidence on the extent, mechanics, and dynamics of deceptive advertising. Ski resorts self-report substantially more natural snowfall on weekends. Resorts that plausibly reap greater benefits from exaggerating do it more. Data on website visits suggests that consumers are appropriately skeptical of weekend reports. We find little evidence that competition restrains or encourages exaggeration. Near the end of our sample period, a new iPhone application feature makes it easier for skiers share information on ski conditions in real time. Exaggeration falls sharply, especially at resorts with better iPhone reception.
    JEL: D82 D83 K29 L15
    Date: 2012–02
  4. By: Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus (Vienna University of Economics and Business); Stöckl, Matthias (University of Salzburg)
    Abstract: This paper assesses empirically the relationship between marketing expenditures and sales in the premium car segment in Germany. We employ a new data-set which contains model-specific data on sales (i.e. registrations), restyling activities and marketing expenditures at a monthly basis for the years 1998 to 2007. The richness of our data in the time dimension allows for a systematic modeling of product life cycle effects which have been partly ignored in the existing empirical literature. We find a robust positive marketing-sales relationship, even after common characteristics of the product life cycle have been taken into account. Furthermore, our results indicate that the launching of a new model, face lifts and customized packages appear to exert a positive and sizeable effect on sales in the German premium car segment.
    Keywords: Marketing expenditure; panel data models; automobile industry; premium car segment; automotive restyling
    JEL: D43 M31 M37
    Date: 2012–02–14
  5. By: Allais, Olivier; Etile, Fabrice; Lecocq, Sebastien
    Abstract: A number of public health advocates and consumer associations urge policy makers to strengthen nutrient labelling rules, in order to help people to make healthier and better informed food choices. Yet, little is known about the e¤ectiveness of mandatory labelling. This research evaluates the impact of a mandatory fat label policy on consumer choices in the fromages blanc and dessert yogurt market. While fat labels are mandatory since 1988 for fromages blancs, this is not the case for yogurts. This is a natural source of variation to identify separately consumer preferences for labels and for fat. We use a mixed logit discrete choice model and household scanner data collected in 2007 to estimate the distribution of the Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) for fat labels and simulate various counterfactual policy scenarios in a sample of casual fromages blancs and dessert yogurts consumers. The WTP is negative for about one third of this population, especially for consumers of full-fat dessert yogurts. The …rst simulation results suggest that a mandatory labelling policy would make these individuals switch to full-fat fromages blancs or to the outside option, and mandatory labelling would have more impact than a fat tax on the consumption of full-fat products. Hence, variations in labelling rules have been exploited by producers to develop dessert yogurts and increase market segmentation. We plan to re…ne these results, by taking into consideration manufacturersÂand retailersÂstrategic reactions to these policies.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Marketing,
    Date: 2011
  6. By: Englmaier, Florian; Gratz, Linda; Reisinger, Markus
    Abstract: We analyze the profitability of third degree price discrimination under consideration of consumers' fairness concerns within an experiment and explain the results within a theoretical framework. We find that with an increase in the price differential negative reciprocal reactions by disadvantaged consumers become stronger compared to positive reciprocal reactions by advantaged consumers. Consequently, the profit maximizing price differential lies below the one predicted to be optimal by standard theory. Further, profitability increases when consumers who are regarded as poorer are charged lower prices compared to when the wealth of the different consumer groups is unknown.
    Keywords: price discrimination; reciprocal fairness; inequity aversion; experimental economics
    JEL: D11 D12 E3
    Date: 2012–02
  7. By: Herstatt, Cornelius; Kohlbacher, Florian; Bauer, Patrick
    Abstract: Aging populations challenge companies across different countries and industries to respond to the changing needs, demands and expectations of their growing shares of older customers. This opens room for improving or developing innovations - products as well as services - that correspond to the diverse expectations. New product development for older customers or 'Silver' product design is one way to approach the 'silver' market - without explicitly excluding younger customers. Research in this field is still in its infancy. Silver product design focuses on individual autonomy, representing an elementary aspect of good life, disappearing in a more or less continuous manner over the life cycle of a human being. Offering solutions that will allow people to maintain or recover autonomy and to use products and services in an independent manner therefore seems to be a promising avenue for companies innovating across different industries. The general concept of autonomy can be perceived as a boundary-spanning argument and a common denominator for starting development initiatives leading to innovations targeting the silver market. Cross-case analysis based on four different product innovations addressing typical needs of older people are used to present how firms in different industrial contexts and user-settings address such needs, which have their roots in a need to stay autonomous and independent. Technological, marketing and strategy-related observations as well as communalities and differences of the cases are being discussed and very first implications for managing the front end of silver product development sketched. --
    Keywords: Demographic change,aging,older users,silver market,innovation management,silver product design,individual autonomy
    Date: 2011
  8. By: Michael Arnold, Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics, University of Delaware, US; Éric Darmon, University of Rennes 1 - CREM-CNRS, France; Thierry Pénard, University of Rennes 1 - CREM-CNRS, France
    Abstract: In 2010 sponsored search advertisements generated over $12 billion in revenue for search engines in the US market and accounted for 46% of online advertising revenue. A substantial portion of this revenue was generated by the sale of search keywords using an auction mechanism. We analyze a game-theoretic model to understand the interplay between organic and sponsored links in keyword auctions. Our model allows both the relevance of the advertising firm as well as the position of its sponsored link to impact click-through-rates. Our results demonstrate how the presence of organic links (links generated by the search engine algorithm) may lead to either more or less aggressive bidding for sponsored link positions depending on consumer attitudes toward sponsored links and the extent to which sponsored and organic links are complements or substitutes. In contrast to equilibrium results in existing literature, the …rm with the highest value per click does not necessarily win the first spot in the sponsored search listings. It also may be optimal for a firm to bid an amount greater than the expected value (or sale) from a click.
    Date: 2012–01
  9. By: Chédotal, Camille
    Abstract: Cette thèse s’inscrit dans le domaine du marketing social et a pour objectif d’analyser les effets de l’utilisation de la culpabilité dans les mailings de collecte de fonds. Après une revue de la littérature sur le don et la culpabilité en marketing, en psychologie et en sciences sociales, nous nous sommes interrogée sur le déclenchement de la culpabilité, sur l’intensité du stimulus culpabilisant et sur les réactions des récepteurs de messages culpabilisants. Grâce à trois études qualitatives exploratoires, nous avons pu identifier la manière dont la culpabilité est induite dans un message de sollicitation et recueillir les réactions des participants exposés à des mailings culpabilisants. L’intensité du message culpabilisant et les caractéristiques des récepteurs de ces messages sont principalement étudiées par le biais d’une expérimentation. 432 répondants ont été exposés à trois conditions expérimentales faisant varier l’intensité du message culpabilisant (faible, moyenne et forte). Cette recherche étudie les réponses émotionnelles des répondants en fonction des différentes intensités des stimuli et s’intéresse aux réactions individuelles à ces messages. Elle analyse ensuite l’impact de ces réponses émotionnelles sur les attitudes développées envers le message et envers l’association et sur les intentions et la probabilité de don. Les résultats montrent que les réactions émotionnelles sont différentes selon l’intensité du message culpabilisant. Il existe une relation curvilinéaire entre l’intensité du message culpabilisant et la culpabilité ressentie : la culpabilité ressentie est la plus forte dans le cas du message moyennement culpabilisant. Les individus se sentent manipulés par le message fortement culpabilisant qui déclenche une forte irritation. Le message aboutit alors à un échec : l’irritation ressentie influence négativement les attitudes et les intentions et la probabilité de don. Notre recherche suggère donc d’utiliser des messages culpabilisants d’intensité moyenne. Ces messages qui permettent de générer une forte culpabilité s’avèrent efficaces : la culpabilité ressentie a en effet une influence positive sur les attitudes envers le message et envers l’association, sur les intentions et la probabilité de don. Cette thèse met également en avant des différences individuelles de perception de la culpabilité : les personnes ayant tendance à culpabiliser ou à ressentir de la culpabilité existentielle, les femmes et les jeunes sont plus sensibles aux messages culpabilisants.
    Abstract: This dissertation falls within the scope of social marketing. The aim is to analyze the effects of guilt induction in fundraising campaigns. After a literature review on charitable giving and guilt in marketing, psychology and social sciences, we focus on guilt triggering, on stimulus intensity and on the reactions of individuals exposed to a guilt-loaded message. Based on three exploratory qualitative studies, we identified how guilt is induced and collected reactions from participants exposed to guilt appeals. We mostly studied the intensity with which the message attempts to evoke guilt in the receiver and individual differences in guilt perception through an experimental study: 432 respondents were exposed to one of three levels of guilt (weak, average and strong). This research examines the emotional responses of the respondents according to different levels of stimuli and is interested in individual responses to these appeals. Afterward, we analyze the impact of these emotional responses on the attitudes towards the message, attitudes towards the charity and donation intentions and probability. The results show that emotional reactions are different depending on the level of guilt evoked. There is a curvilinear relationship between the intensity of guilt and felt guilt: average guilt appeal triggers more felt guilt. People feel manipulated by strong guilt appeal which generates strong irritation feeling. The appeal fails to success: the felt irritation negatively influences the attitudes, donation intentions and probability. Our research suggests the use of average guilt appeals. Appeals that trigger strong guilt are effective: felt guilt has a positive influence on the attitudes towards the message, attitudes towards the charity and donation intentions and probability. Finally, this dissertation highlights individual differences in guilt perception: People who tend to feel guilty or to feel existential guilt, women and youth are more responsive to guilt appeals.
    Keywords: Guilt; Guilt appeals; Fundraising; Direct mail; Social marketing; Individual differences; Culpabilité; Stimulus culpabilisant; Irritation; Collecte de fonds; Mailing; Marketing social; Différences individuelles;
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2011–11

This nep-mkt issue is ©2012 by Joao Carlos Correia Leitao. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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