nep-mkt New Economics Papers
on Marketing
Issue of 2009‒10‒31
six papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Franchise in Romanian tourism By Bunea-Bontaş, Cristina Aurora; Petre, Mihaela
  2. What makes brands achieve iconic status? By Eisingerich, A; Kadwani, H; Manek, N; Raghuvanshi, S; Rayet, J; Seow, L-F; Zeloof, D
  3. Market Structure, Welfare, and Banking Reform in China By Hoy, Chun-Yu
  4. E-business Environment in the Global Information Society By Vymětal, Dominik; Suchánek, Petr
  5. Interpreting the Early Stages of the Self-service Revolution in Europe: the Modernization of Food Retailing in Spain, 1947-1972 By Maixe-Altes, J Carles
  6. Factor based Composite Indicators for the Italian Economy By Luciana Crosilla; Solange Leproux; Marco Malgarini; Francesca Spinelli

  1. By: Bunea-Bontaş, Cristina Aurora; Petre, Mihaela
    Abstract: Both on national and international scale, tourism business is improving continuously, by adjusting to the tourists' demands, resulting in modification and adaptation of organization and association forms in this area. One of these is the franchise affiliation, an original way of doing business that combines the entrepreneurs interest in keeping their own undertaking with that belongs to a group with well-known brand which aims to expand on national and international market. This paper will discuss two important areas of the Romanian tourism industry in which franchise agreement is applied: travel agencies franchise and hotel franchise. On a national scale, franchise was adopted as an expanding strategy by the travel agencies, on one hand, notorious tour-operators that has accumulated know-how and has proven its successful applicability, and, on the other hand, small and medium entrepreneurs who saw in the franchise affiliation an opportunity to develop faster and more reliable business. Also, the Romanian hotel owners with financial resources have seen in hotel franchise an easier way to obtain higher profits. In today's competitive and global hotel market, being part of a group of hotels that share a recognized brand and provide quality services might mean the difference between financial success and failure.
    Keywords: franchise; know-how; brand; travel agents franchise; hotel franchise
    JEL: L14 L83 M55
    Date: 2009–05
  2. By: Eisingerich, A; Kadwani, H; Manek, N; Raghuvanshi, S; Rayet, J; Seow, L-F; Zeloof, D
    Abstract: We propose that brands do not achieve iconic status by chance. This article focuses on how brands manage iconic status effectively. Drawing on an exploratory study of iconic brands, we identify a brand's ability to inspire consumers and connect with them on a personal level as well as its visual identity and presence in consumers' mind as critical elements of brand status. Consumers' perceptions of a sample of brands were investigated through in-depth interviews, followed by the examination of these brands' activities through case-study analyses. The alignment between brand strategies and the relevant features highlighted by consumers was then assessed. A comprehensive framework for achieving iconicity is presented and discussed.
    Date: 2009–08
  3. By: Hoy, Chun-Yu (BOFIT)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of market deregulation on consumers and state commercial banks in China, a large developing country. I jointly estimate a system of differentiated product demand and pricing equations under alternative market structures. While China's banking reforms overall have achieved mixed results, the consumer surplus of the deposit market has increased. The welfare effects from reforms are unevenly distributed, with losses skewed toward inland provinces and certain consumer groups. There is no clear evidence that the pricing of banking services has become more competitive after the reform, and such pricing remains subject to government intervention. Encouragingly, the price-cost margins of some state commercial banks have fallen over time.
    Keywords: banking reform; banks in China; demand estimation; market structure
    JEL: G21 L11
    Date: 2009–10–21
  4. By: Vymětal, Dominik; Suchánek, Petr
    Abstract: In today´s digital 21st century, almost all businesses face intense competition from competitors all around the globe. There are no borders and business area for the all companies is almost unlimited. As the main supports of mentioned fact are globalization and ICT´s development. Influences such as globalization, increased popularity of outsourcing and offshoring have recently combined to produce an environment where ICT graduates need to have up-to-date and industry-relevant knowledge and skills, so that they can be successful in this highly competitive environment. Development of e-business and e-commerce make possible the companies to enter to the global markets. Fundamental prerequisite of the successful company in the global market is well-made corporate strategy and correct source information. Of high account condition of an entry to global markets is an adjustment of the information system to global information and business system management standards. The statistics gained from the Czech market shows, that in spite of enormous Internet proliferation the ratio of e-sales is lower than the ratio of e-purchases. Some possible reasons for these phenomena are discussed at the end of this paper.
    Keywords: E-business; e-commerce; global information society; information and communication technology; IT security; IT standards; business strategy; enterprise resource planning; customer relationship management.
    JEL: M00 O39 M29 M0 O30 F01 M20 M21
    Date: 2009
  5. By: Maixe-Altes, J Carles
    Abstract: This article explores the Americanisation of food retailing in Spain while making a running comparison with developments in Britain and more especially, within the development of self-service techniques. This international comparison helps to ascertain the evolution and modernisation of food retailing in two distinct competitive environments. The aim of this study is to understand how Americanisation and retail innovation take place in a late-comer like Spain in the early stages of the self-service revolution. The comparison between Spain and the UK facilitates how different starting points favoured differentiated entrepreneurial options which, finally led to similar positions or modes of development. The Americanization of Spanish retailing is assessed against the backdrop of developments elsewhere in Europe. New archival evidence allows us to highlight specific aspects of the path to the Spanish modernization of food distribution. In addition to American aid, there were other elements that were crucial to the modernization process, chief among these being the contacts between Spanish and European businessmen and the influence of voluntary chains of cooperation.
    Keywords: Food trade; Americanization; mass consumption; retailing revolution; business strategies; self-service; Spain; United Kingdom; Europe
    JEL: N8 L81 N84
    Date: 2009
  6. By: Luciana Crosilla (Institute for Studies and Economic Analyses); Solange Leproux (Institute for Studies and Economic Analyses); Marco Malgarini (ISAE - Institute for Studies and Economic Analyses); Francesca Spinelli (ISAE - University of Cassino and OCDE)
    Abstract: A factor based approach is often used to build Composite Indicators (CI) from qualitative data stemming from Business and Consumers Survey (BCS). Bruno and Malgarini (2002) and Gayer and Genet (2006) have used factor analysis to synthesize the information contained in the balances of the various surveys Harmonized by the EC (industry, consumers, retail, building and services). However, Marcellino (2006) pointed out that the use of aggregate balance series could imply missing relevant information contained in the surveys. For this reason, in this paper we consider additional information stemming from the percentage of equal answers; moreover, we also use more disaggregate data at the branch level (considering socio-economics characteristics of the respondents for the consumers survey). More specifically, we consider Main Industrial Groupings for the industry survey; small and large multiple shops for the retail survey; building and civil engineering for the construction survey; households and business services for the service survey. Variables to be included in the analysis are pre selected prior to factor extraction on the basis of their contemporaneous or leading/lagging correlation with sector-specific target series. Three methods are then used to extract Composite Indicators, namely Static Principal Component Analysis and Static and Dynamic Factor Analysis (Forni, Hallin, Lippi, Reichlin, 2000, 2001). The various Composite Indicators obtained from the factor based approach are then investigated against the traditional Confidence Indicators in terms of performance with respect to the reference series. As alternative evaluation criteria we use: a) the cross-correlation between the CI and the reference series; b) the directional coherence of movement with the targets; c) turning points analysis (determined applying the Bry-Boschan method). Finally, from the whole set of data stemming from ISAE business and consumers survey we extract aggregate Composite Indicators for the whole Italian economy using the same methods and evaluation criteria outlined above. Indicators calculated with Static Factor Analysis on aggregate balances show the best performance in tracking the reference cycle, i.e. the rate of growth of Italian GDP.
    Keywords: Business cycle, confidence indicators, factor models, principal components.
    JEL: C42 C43 E32
    Date: 2009–07

This nep-mkt issue is ©2009 by Joao Carlos Correia Leitao. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.