nep-mkt New Economics Papers
on Marketing
Issue of 2009‒08‒08
six papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Search in the Product Market and the Real Business Cycle. By Thomas Y. Mathä; Olivier Pierrard
  3. Strategic Vertical Pricing in the U.S. Butter Market By Du, Ying; Stiegert, Kyle
  4. Traceability -- A Literature Review By Trautman, Dawn; Goddard, Ellen; Nilsson, Tomas
  5. Incentives at the counter: An empirical analysis of surcharging card payments and payment behaviour in the Netherlands By Wilko Bolt; Nicole Jonker; Corry van Renselaar
  6. Dynamic Estimation of U.S. Demand for Fresh Vegetable Imports By Nzaku, Kilungu; Houston, Jack E.

  1. By: Thomas Y. Mathä (Central Bank of Luxembourg, 2 bd. Royal, L-2983 Luxembourg.); Olivier Pierrard (Central Bank of Luxembourg, 2 bd. Royal, L-2983 Luxembourg.)
    Abstract: We develop a search-matching model, where firms search for customers (e.g. in form of advertising). Firms use long-term contracts and bargain over prices, resulting in a price mark up above marginal cost, which is procyclical and depends on firms’ relative bargaining power. Product market frictions decrease the steady state equilibrium, improve the cyclical properties of the model and provide a more realistic picture of firms’ business environment. This suggests that product market frictions may well be crucial in explaining business cycle fluctuations. Finally, we also show that welfare costs of price rigidities are negligible relative to welfare costs of frictions. JEL Classification: E10, E31, E32.
    Keywords: Business cycle, Frictions, Product market, Price bargain.
    Date: 2009–03
  2. By: Almenberg, Johan; Dreber, Anna
    Abstract: We designed an experiment that examines how knowledge about the price of a good, and the time at which the information is received, affects how the good is experienced. The good in question was wine, and the price was either high or low. Our results suggest that hosts offering wine to guests can safely reveal the price: much is gained if the wine is expensive, and little is lost if it is cheap. Disclosing the high price before tasting the wine produces considerably higher ratings, although only from women. Disclosing the low price, by contrast, does not result in lower ratings. Our finding indicates that price not only serves to clear markets, it also serves as a marketing tool; it influences expectations that in turn shape a consumerâs experience. In addition, our results suggest that men and women respond differently to attribute information.
    Keywords: Price-Quality Heuristic, Attribute Information, Role of Expectations, Marketing, Blind Tasting, Wine, Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis, C91, D03, D83, M31,
    Date: 2009–04
  3. By: Du, Ying; Stiegert, Kyle
    Abstract: This article develops a methodology for empirically analyzing vertically strategic interactions in a multi-level supply channel. The model is used to analyze the vertical channel for U.S. butter manufacturing and retailing. Aggregating products to the firm level and using a nonlinear AIDS demand system under alternative strategic pricing assumptions is estimated using full information maximum likelihood (FIML) for seven geographic markets from 1998-2002. The market demand for butter was found to very price elastic. Furthermore, cross price elasticities between private labels and the two large national brands were also very elastic. The selected market structure was one indicating category profit maximization of national brands (separate from private label) at the retail level, Vertical Nash competition in the vertical channel, and Bretrand competition at the manufacturing level. Our results strongly suggest that the retail market for food products is impacted by the underlying vertical structure. The study provides useful measures of imperfect competition in the retail manufacturing sector.
    Keywords: Vertical interaction, market structure, strategic pricing, market power, AIDS model, butter., Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis, Industrial Organization, L13, L22, L66,
    Date: 2009–06
  4. By: Trautman, Dawn; Goddard, Ellen; Nilsson, Tomas
    Abstract: In light of recent food safety crises and international trade concerns associated with food or animal associated diseases, traceability has once again become important in the minds of public policymakers, business decision makers, consumers and special interest groups. This study reviews studies on traceability, government regulation and consumer behaviour, provide case studies of current traceability systems and a rough breakdown of various costs and benefits of traceability. This report aims to identify gaps that may currently exist in the literature on traceability in the domestic beef supply chain, as well as provide possible directions for future research into said issue. Three main conclusions can be drawn from this study. First, there is a lack of a common definition of traceability. Hence identifying similarities and differences across studies becomes difficult if not impossible. To this end, this study adopts CFIAâs definition of traceability. This definition has been adopted by numerous other agencies including the EUâs official definition of traceability however it may or may not be acceptable from the perspective of major Canadian beef and cattle trade partners. Second, the studies reviewed in this report address one or more of five key objectives; the impact of changing consumer behaviour on market participants, suppliers incentive to adopt or participate in traceability, impact of regulatory changes, supplier response to crisis and technical description of traceability systems. Drawing from the insights from the consumer studies, it seems as if consumers do not value traceability per se, traceability is a means for consumers to receive validation of another production or process attribute that they are interested in. Moreover, supply chain improvement, food safety control and accessing foreign market segments are strong incentives for primary producers and processors to participate in programs with traceability features. However the objectives addressed by the studies reviewed in this paper are not necessarily the objectives that are of most immediate relevance to decision makers about appropriate traceability standards to recommend, require, subsidize etc. In many cases the research objectives of previous work have been extremely narrow creating a body of literature that is incomplete in certain key areas. Third, case studies of existing traceability systems in Australia, the UK, Scotland, Brazil and Uruguay indicate that the pattern of development varies widely across sectors and regions. In summary, a traceability system by itself cannot provide value-added for all participants in the industry; it is merely a protocol for documenting and sharing information. Value is added to participants in the marketing chain through traceability in the form of reduced transactions costs in the case of a food safety incident and through the ability to shift liability. To ensure consumer benefit and have premiums returned to primary producers the type of information that consumers value is an important issue for future research. A successful program that peaks consumer interest and can enhance their eating experience can generate economic benefits to all sectors in the beef industry. International market access will increasingly require traceability in the marketing system in order to satisfy trade restrictions in the case of animal diseases and country of origin labelling, to name only a few examples. Designing appropriate traceability protocols industry wide is therefore becoming very important.
    Keywords: traceability, institutions, Canada, consumer behaviour, producer behaviour, supply chain, Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Health Economics and Policy, International Relations/Trade, Livestock Production/Industries, Marketing, Production Economics, D020, D100, D200, Q100,
    Date: 2008
  5. By: Wilko Bolt; Nicole Jonker; Corry van Renselaar
    Abstract: In card payment systems, no-surcharge rules prohibit merchants from charging consumers extra for card payments. However, Dutch retailers are allowed to surcharge consumers for their debit card use. This allows an empirical analysis of the impact of surcharging on the demand for debit card services, and the effect of removing the no-surcharge rule on card acceptance by retailers and on consumer payment choice. Based on consumer and retailer survey data, our analysis shows that surcharging steers consumers away from using debit cards towards cash. Half of the observed difference in debit card payment shares across retailers can be explained by this surcharge effect. First calculations suggesr that removing the surcharge on debit card payments in the Netherlands may induce considerable social cost savings of more than EUR 100 million in the long run.
    Keywords: survey data, retail payments, no-surcharge rule, cost efficiency
    JEL: D12 D61 G20
    Date: 2009–01
  6. By: Nzaku, Kilungu; Houston, Jack E.
    Abstract: This paper analyses U.S. demand for fresh vegetable imports using a dynamic AIDS model. The commodities selected for the study include tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers and asparagus. The results shows that the demand for fresh vegetable imports is more elastic compared to the demand for domestic fresh vegetables. Also demand for all the fresh vegetables is significantly responsive to changes in own-price and expenditure. Fresh tomatoes, peppers, and cucumber imports do not complement domestic supply as is often believed but are significant substitutes.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis, International Relations/Trade, Marketing,
    Date: 2009–07–26

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