nep-mkt New Economics Papers
on Marketing
Issue of 2006‒06‒03
fifteen papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Le commerce agroalimentaire via internet, encore une utopie ? By Salançon, A.
  3. MANUFACTURER AND RETAILER BRANDS IN FOOD RETAIL ASSORTMENTS Notes from a shopping trip across Europe By Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Brunsø, Karen
  4. Assesing the frequency and clauses of out-of-stock events through store scanner data By Bayle-Tourtoulou, Anne-Sophie; Laurent, Gilles; Macé, Sandrine
  5. Disconfirmation of Taste as a Measure of Region of Origin Equity. An Experimental Study on Five French Regions By D'Hauteville.; Fornerino, M.; Perrouty, J.P.
  6. Quality Sorting and Networking: Evidence from the Advertising Agency Industry By Mohammad Arzaghi
  7. Interlocking Transactions : Do they Restrain the Emergence of Rice Producers' organizations in Cambodia ? By Lemeilleur, S.; Codron, J.M.; Fares, M.
  8. Consumer Preferences for Mass Customization By Dellaert, B.G.C.; Stremersch, S.
  9. Place de l'origine dans la qualité et dimensions de l'image : perceptions des experts Français et Tunisiens, cas de l'huile d'olive By Dekhili, S.; D'Hauteville, F.
  10. Networking Off Madison Avenue By J. Vernon Henderson; Mohammad Arzaghi
  11. Le système alimentaire mondial est-il soluble dans le développement durable ? By Rastoin, J.L.
  12. High value products, supermarkets and vertical arrangements in Indonesia By Chowdhury, Shyamal; Gulati, Ashok; Gumbira-Sa'id, E.
  13. La non confirmation des attentes comme mesure de la force d'une marque. Une approche expérimentale sur le jus d'orange By Fornerino, M.; D'Hauteville, F.; Perrouty, J.P.
  14. Le capital-marque dans l'agroalimentaire By Grippaldi, F.; Rastoin, J.L.
  15. The tourism as a development investment in less developed regions: network behaviour of different cities By Hale Ciraci; Kenan Gocer; Ebru Kerimoglu

  1. By: Salançon, A.
    Abstract: The very uneven development of electronic trade (BtoC) arouses a lot of questions, and more particularly in the agro food sector. From a training course for agro food firms on marketing via Internet , realised within the European program Interreg3b AgroIntec , we try to understand why this new type of marketing is being adopted by agro food firms, and especially in Languedoc wine and vine sector. ...French Abstract : Le développement contrasté du commerce électronique (B to C) suscite nombre d'interrogations en particulier dans le secteur agroalimentaire. A partir d'une opération de formation d'entreprises agroalimentaires à la commercialisation via Internet, réalisée dans le cadre du programme européen Interreg3b AgroIntec, l'article cherche à comprendre les raisons de l'adoption de ce nouveau mode de commercialisation par des entreprises agroalimentaires principalement du secteur vitivinicole languedocien désireuses de commercialiser leurs produits via Internet.
    JEL: D83 F19 L66 L68
    Date: 2006
  2. By: Hrabrin Bachev (Institute of Agricultural Economics, Sofia, Bulgaria)
    Abstract: Attempt has been made to identify dominant forms and factors for output realization in Bulgarian farms. New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics framework is used to estimate comparative efficiency of various modes for realization of farm outputs in farms of different type (unregistered, cooperative, agro-firms) and various sizes (small, middle-size, large). Study is based on a large-scale microeconomic data collected through interviews with managers of 0.5% of commercial farms in the country. Big institutional, economic, and behavioral uncertainty combined with high assets specificity and low recurrence of transactions, have blocked formation of agrarian markets in the country. Market has “failed” to organize significant part of inputs supply and outputs realization transactions. However, agrarian agents have developed various private modes to overcome transacting difficulties and to govern their dependent transactions. A great variety of in-farm production and processing, personal contacts, long-term marketing contracts, and interlinked modes etc. have come to existence and they characterize dominant structures for outputs realization in Bulgarian farming today. Major type of farming outputs realization (household consumption and giving to friends and relatives; production in-farm consumption; additional processing in-farm; long-term contract for outside processing; sell) in farms of different types and sizes has been identified and their relative share in brut farm output determined. Product specificity (grain, vegetables, fruits and grape, live animals and meat, milk, others) and its relation to specific organizational choice of outputs realization (member cooperative; other farm, cooperative or firms; retail trade; wholesale trade to store, hotel, restaurant; commodity exchange; wholesale market; in-farm processing; state reserve; direct export) have been identified and microeconomic factors for governance choice discussed. Importance of diverse factors for preferring a particular buyer or mode for realization of farm outputs (lack of alternative buyer; best prices; maximum profit; minimum risk; cheapest way; maximum security; high trust; tradition; frequency of transactions with the same partner) have been specified. Prominence of various transacting problems for realization (lack of buyers; low prices; unstable prices; no price information; no buyer information; buyer is better informed; unreliable partner; not-fulfillment of negotiated terms; controlling and enforcement of contracts; non-business factors etc.) for main farming products and type of farms have been specified. In the same way the significance of chief factors for successful realization (mutual benefits for partners; written contract; oral agreement; third-party assistance; good will of partners; tradition; trust; beneficial for farm prices; lack of competition) have been identified. High marketing costs along with the big enforcement costs of contracts in general, and enormous credit supply costs are the major factors restricting farm enlargement of Bulgarian farms as present stage. Besides, the most important factors for farm development in future relate to improvement of institutional environment (guaranteed marketing, enforcement of Laws and private contracts, macro-economic stability, legislation framework, access to free markets), and own and family experience in farm management.
    Keywords: governing of output realization and marketing; transaction cost economics; transitional farm organization
    JEL: D1 D2 D3 D4
    Date: 2005–11–06
  3. By: Esbjerg, Lars (The MAPP Centre, Aarhus School of Business); Grunert, Klaus G. (The MAPP Centre, Aarhus School of Business); Bech-Larsen, Tino (The MAPP Centre, Aarhus School of Business); Juhl, Hans Jørn (The MAPP Centre, Aarhus School of Business); Brunsø, Karen (The MAPP Centre, Aarhus School of Business)
    Abstract: Food retailers present consumers with a complex market offering. They offer consumers an assortment of products sourced from numerous suppliers, along with various services within a retailer-controlled environment (Burt & Sparks 2002). Food retailers aim to offer an assortment of products and perform a variety of activities and services, which provide added value in the eyes of consumers (Burt 2000). In this connection, branding is becoming increasingly important, as food retailers develop their own brands within and across product categories. Many retailers are attempting to cultivate an overall brand identity in order to protect and identify their market offering (Burt & Sparks 2002). The assortment of products food retailers offer typically includes manufacturer brands, re-tailer brands and generic or unbranded products. In recent years, increasing competition in food retailing has made food retailers focus on whether they offer the "right" assort-ment to consumers. Under headings such as efficient consumer response (ECR) and cate-gory management (CM), retailers have been readjusting their assortments, delisting many brands that were deemed to be under-performing and including retailer branded products in an attempt to differentiate themselves by offering goods only available in their stores. Despite the importance of branding to retailers, the branding literature has focused on how manufacturers develop and maintain strong brands. Relatively little work has been done in the area of retail brands and even less about the interaction between retailer brands and manufacturer brands. In contrast, this paper develops a concept of retailer brand architecture, which captures that retailers typically offer an assortment of manu-facturer brands, retailer brands and generic products. In doing so we adapt the concept of brand architecture to a retail context. The concept of 'brand architecture', as originally developed by (Aaker & Joachimsthaler 2002), describes how the different brands used to market a range of products from the same manufacturer are related. The concept of brand architecture is based on the assumption that brands are not evaluated in isolation, but are placed in and evaluated within a broader context. This assumption is also important in a retail context. Consumers do not look at an isolated product or brand on the shelf. Their evaluation of the individual brand depends on the context; for instance, what other products are offered in the product category and in the retail outlet, previous experiences with the product or other products from the same manufacturer, as well as previous experiences with the retailer in question. In this paper, we take the concept of brand architecture and apply it to food retailers, con-ceptualising the brand architectures of food retailers as the portfolio of brands (gene-ric, retailer and manufacturer brands), which are included in the assortment of a retail concept (ie, a retail chain). In addition to developing a concept of 'retailer brand archi-tecture', we use this concept to investigate the brand architecture of a number of European food retailers in order to determine similarities and differences in brand architecture strategies. The paper is structured as follows: firstly, the concept of brand archi-tecture is presented. Secondly, the concept of brand architecture is applied to a retail setting and a number of other concepts important for understanding the brand architecture strategies of food retailers are introduced and discussed. Thirdly, the methodology used to investigate the brand architectures of European food retailers is discussed. Then, the findings from a shopping trip across Europe are presented. Finally, a discussion of the findings is provided and it is briefly considered how the findings of this study were used as input for a study of consumer perceptions of the brand architectures of food retailers. This subsequent study investigated whether consumers notice differences between the brand architectures of food retailers and how these are evaluated
    Keywords: No keywords;
    Date: 2005–09–02
  4. By: Bayle-Tourtoulou, Anne-Sophie; Laurent, Gilles; Macé, Sandrine
    Abstract: This paper aims to provide an answer to the question of out-of-stock events (OOS), their frequency, the sales losses they generate, and their causes. The authors provide two contributions. They describe a new sales-based measure of OOS computed on the basis of store-level scanner data and identify several of the main determinants of OOS. They also introduce a significant distinction between complete and partial OOS
    Keywords: out-of-stock events; store-level scanner data; assortment; retailing; marketing metrics
    JEL: L11 L16 L21
    Date: 2006–01–01
  5. By: D'Hauteville.; Fornerino, M.; Perrouty, J.P.
    Abstract: Disconfirmation of expectations is the mismatch between the expected and blind evaluation of a product (Anderson, 1973). From the consumer's point of view, the hedonic evaluation of a product under full information (intrinsic and extrinsic) is considered as a measure of perceived quality. Generally, the perceived quality of a product differs according to tasting conditions (blind, or full information). Based on previous literature on food marketing we assume that the change of preference between blind and full conditions reflects the influence of extrinsic information (here, the region of origin). Two types of results can be expected from disconfirmation: "Assimilation occurs when the final evaluation of the product changes in the direction of the expectation provided by the extrinsic cue, whereas "contrast" occurs when this change is contrary to the expectation. We experiment on five wines selected among regions with different reputation levels, and two groups of consumers, characterized by their level of expertise (trained/untrained students). Our experiments suggest that disconfirmation may be used to measure and interpret brand equity. ...French Abstract : La déconfirmation des attentes peut se définir comme l'écart entre l'évaluation en aveugle d'un produit et l'attente générée par le signal de qualité (Anderson, 1973). On considère que l'évaluation hédonique du produit en situation d' information complète constitue une mesure de la qualité perçue. On constate que cette évaluation diffère selon qu'elle se fait en l'aveugle ou en conditions d'information complète. La littérature sur le marketing alimentaire nous fait supposer que la différence entre ces deux niveaux d'évaluation résulte des attentes liées à l'information extrinsèque (dans notre cas, la mention de la région d'origine d'un vin). Deux types de résultats sont attendus : un effet d'assimilation, d'une part, lorsque l'évaluation finale se rapproche des attentes produites par l'information extrinsèque. Un effet de contraste, quand l'évaluation finale s'opère en sens inverse de celle des attentes. Nous expérimentons avec cinq vins issus de régions de réputations inégales, et auprès de deux groupes de consommateurs caractérisés par leur degré d'expertise (étudiants entraînes et non entraînés). Nos résultats nous laissent conclure que la déconfirmation des attentes peut constituer un outil d'évaluation de la force d'une marque sur la base d'une réponse de type comportemental.
    JEL: D11 D12 L66 M30
    Date: 2006
  6. By: Mohammad Arzaghi
    Abstract: This paper provides a model of knowledge sharing and networking among single unit advertising agencies and investigates the implications of this model in the presence of heterogeneity in agencies’ quality. In a stylized screening model, we show that, under a modest set of assumptions, the separation outcome is a Pareto-undominated Nash equilibrium. That is, high quality agencies locate themselves in a high wage and rent area to sift out low quality agencies and guarantee their network quality. We identify a necessary condition for the separating equilibrium to exist and to reject the pooling equilibrium even in the presence of agglomeration economies from networking. We derive the maximum profit of an agency and show the condition has a directly testable implication in the empirical specification of the agency’s profit function. We use a sample of movers—existing agencies that relocate among urban areas—in order to extract a predetermined measure of their quality prior to relocation. We estimate the parameters of the profit function, using the Census confidential establishment-level data, and show that the necessary condition for separation is met and that there is strong separation and sorting on quality among agencies in their location decisions.
    Keywords: Advertising, Agglomeration, Industrial Concentration, Business Services, Discrete Choice, Knowledge Spillovers, Learning, Location Decision, Poisson Regression, Nested Logit, Screening, Separating Equilibrium, Sorting
    JEL: D82 D83 D85 L25 L84 M37 R12 R30
    Date: 2005–10
  7. By: Lemeilleur, S.; Codron, J.M.; Fares, M.
    Abstract: Formal credit institutions in Cambodia have largely failed to provide access to farm credit to small and medium-scale paddy producers. The paper describes interlinked transactions between commercial rice millers and paddy producers in the paddy market that facilitate the provision of credit. Moreover, interlinked transactions are also used as an incentive device for producers who can only be imperfectly monitored. This kind of interlinked transaction, which tends to be dominant, may emerge as the best governance structure to minimize production and transaction costs. However, we show that in the context of producers' vulnerability to weather damage to crops, perverse risks may also cause indebtedness among producers. Thus, interlocking transactions could lead to unequal relations of economic power, often at the cost of delaying agrarian growth. These dependency relationships may explain, in part, why development institutions fail to promote producers' organizations with rice marketing capabilities. ...French Abstract : Au Cambodge, la défaillance du marché financier rural reste un des freins déterminants au développement des petites et moyennes exploitations agricoles. Cet article décrit les contratsliés entre riziers commerciaux et producteurs de riz paddy facilitant l'octroi de crédit pour ces derniers. Par ailleurs, les contrats-liés sont utilisés par le rizier comme mécanisme d'incitation à l'effort des producteurs, qui ne peut être qu'imparfaitement contrôlé. Les contrats-liés qui tendent à être la forme dominante dans les relations entre riziers et producteurs, semble émerger comme meilleure structure de gouvernance pour réduire les coûts de production et de transaction. Cependant, nous montrons que dans un contexte de forte vulnérabilité des producteurs aux aléas climatiques, le risque d'endettement peut être important pour de nombreux producteurs. Ainsi, les contrats-liés peuvent mener à des relations de pouvoir entre acteurs, générant un manque l'efficacité globale sur le marché du riz. Ces rapports de dépendance pourraient alors expliquer, en partie, les difficultés rencontrées par les institutions de développement dans la promotion des organisations de producteurs à vocation économique.
    JEL: L14 L22 Q13
    Date: 2006
  8. By: Dellaert, B.G.C.; Stremersch, S. (Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), RSM Erasmus University)
    Abstract: Increasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of processor, memory size, monitor, etc. However, how such firms configure the mass customization process determines the utility a consumer may obtain or the complexity a consumer may face in the mass customization task. Mass customization configurations may differ in four important ways ? we take the example of the personal computer industry. First, a firm may offer few or many product modules that can be mass customized (e.g., only allow consumers to customize memory and processor of a PC or allow consumers to customize any module of the PC) and few or many levels among which to choose per mass customizable module (e.g., for mass customization of the processor, only two or many more processing speeds are available). Second, a firm may offer the consumer a choice only between very similar module levels (e.g., a 17? or 18? screen) or between very different module levels (e.g., a 15? or 21? screen). Third, a firm may individually price the modules within a mass customization configuration (e.g., showing the price of the different processors the consumer may choose from) along with pricing the total product, or the firm may show only the total product price (e.g., the price of the different processors is not shown, but only the computer?s total price is shown). Fourth, the firm may show a default version (e.g., for the processor, the configuration contains a pre-selected processing speed, which may be a high-end or low-end processor), which consumers may then customize, or the firm may not show a default version and let consumers start from scratch in composing the product. The authors find that the choices that firms make in configuring the mass customization process affect the product utility consumers can achieve in mass customization. The reason is that the mass customization configuration affects how closely the consumer may approach his or her ideal product by mass customizing. Mass customization configurations also affect consumers? perception of the complexity of mass customization as they affect how many cognitive steps a consumer needs to make in the decision process. Both product utility and complexity in the end determine the utility consumers derive from using a certain mass customization configuration, which in turn will determine main outcome variables for marketers, such as total product sales, satisfaction with the product and the firm, referral behavior and loyalty. The study offers good news for those who wish to provide many mass customization options to consumers, because we find that within the rather large range of modules and module levels we manipulated in this study, consumers did not perceive significant increases in complexity, while they were indeed able to achieve higher product utility. Second, our results imply that firms when increasing the number of module levels, should typically offer consumers more additional options in the most popular range of a module and less additional options at the extremes. Third, pricing should preferably be presented only at the total product level, rather than at the module and product level. We find that this approach reduces complexity and increases product utility. Fourth, firms should offer a default version that consumers can use as a starting point for mass customization, as doing so minimizes the complexity to consumers. The best default version to start out with is a base default version because this type of default version allows the consumer to most closely approach his or her ideal product. The reason is that consumers when presented with an advanced default may buy a product that is more advanced than they actually need. We also found that expert consumers are ideal targets for mass customization offerings. Expert consumers experience lower complexity in mass customization and complexity has a less negative influence on product utility obtained in the mass customization process, all compared to novice consumers. In general, reducing complexity in the mass customization configuration is a promising strategy for firms as it not only increases the utility of the entire process for consumers, but also allows them to compose products that more closely fit their ideal product.
    Keywords: mass customization;consumer choice;complexity;utility;PC buying;mass customized products;customization;
    Date: 2004–11–17
  9. By: Dekhili, S.; D'Hauteville, F.
    Abstract: The literature in marketing indicates that the country (or region) of origin may be an attribute of a product. However practically its use as a competitive advantage is less than efficient, due to insufficient definition of the images associated to these regions. This paper explores some the dimensions of the image of a country (region), using olive oil as a case study on the basis of a recent model tested by Van Ittersum and al. (2003). In order to take in account cultural differences, we conducted interviews with experts in olive oil sector from two countries, Tunisia and France (Delphi method). 15 experts was selected, and 2 turns was realised in each country. Results show that consumption habits are depending on nationalities. Tunisian consumers are more familiar with the product, which may explain the consideration of many intrinsic attributes. Whatever the consumer nationality, geographic origin is an important choice cue and a quality judgement indicator. It is more interesting to consider the region level for the characterisation of the olive oil. The image is multidimensional. Our results suggest that we should include further dimensions to the Van Ittersum model, such as the variety of olives and the reputation of a producing country in terms of food safety. From a managerial point of view, these first results support the idea that a national policy promoting region of origin as a quality attribute might be relevant in both countries. ...French Abstract : Nous nous proposons de déterminer les dimensions de l'image Pays/Région d'origine dans le cas de l'huile d'olive, en nous basant sur un modèle récent testé par Van Ittersum et al. (2003). Pour tenir compte des différences liées à la culture, nous avons réalisé ce travail dans deux pays de traditions différentes : la France et la Tunisie. Dans chaque pays, nous avons mené des enquêtes avec des experts de la filière oléicole (méthode Delphi). 15 experts ont été sélectionnés et deux tours ont été effectués, dans chaque pays. Il ressort que les habitudes de consommation sont très différentes selon le pays. Mais quelle que soit la nationalité des consommateurs, l'origine géographique constitue un critère de choix important et un facteur de jugement de la qualité. Il apparaît que le niveau " Région " pourrait être plus pertinent que le niveau " Pays " pour la caractérisation de l'huile d'olive. Nous retrouvons les deux dimensions mises en évidence par Van Ittersum et al. (2003), les conditions naturelles (climat, sol) et le facteur humain (savoir-faire de transformation et de production, habitudes et traditions locales). Nous constatons que la variété et l'hygiène alimentaire, constitueraient deux nouvelles facettes déterminantes de l'image région d'origine, dans le cas de l'huile d'olive. D'un point de vue managerial, ces premiers résultats soutiennent l'idée qu'une politique nationale mettant en avant la région d'origine comme attribut de qualité peut être appropriée dans les deux pays.
    JEL: L15 L66 M31
    Date: 2006
  10. By: J. Vernon Henderson; Mohammad Arzaghi
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect on productivity of having more near advertising agency neighbors and hence better opportunities for meetings and exchange within Manhattan. We will show that there is extremely rapid spatial decay in the benefits of having more near neighbors even in the close quarters of southern Manhattan, a finding that is new to the empirical literature and indicates our understanding of scale externalities is still very limited. The finding indicates that having a high density of commercial establishments is important in enhancing local productivity, an issue in Lucas and Rossi-Hansberg (2002), where within business district spatial decay of spillovers plays a key role. We will argue also that in Manhattan advertising agencies trade-off the higher rent costs of being in bigger clusters nearer “centers of action”, against the lower rent costs of operating on the “fringes” away from high concentrations of other agencies. Introducing the idea of trade-offs immediately suggests heterogeneity is involved. We will show that higher quality agencies are the ones willing to pay more rent to locate in greater size clusters, specifically because they benefit more from networking. While all this is an exploration of neighborhood and networking externalities, the findings relate to the economic anatomy of large metro areas like New Yorkthe nature of their buzz.
    Keywords: Advertising, Agglomeration, Business Services, Discrete Choice, Knowledge Spillovers, Learning, Location Decision, Poisson Regression, Nested Logit
    JEL: D82 D83 D85 L25 L84 M37 R12 R30
    Date: 2005–10
  11. By: Rastoin, J.L.
    Abstract: In a process of world economic domination by an agro-industrial and agro-tertiary food system, the author wonders about the feasibility of an alternative model. The intensive agro-industrial model (financiarized, concentrated, specialized and globalized), allows remarkable results in terms of products prices and safety, but generates negative externalities. In the long term, this model could threat the food equilibrium of the populations and ecological balance of our planet. The concept of sustainable development provides some orientations on which the researchers are invited to work: definition of new food basis, design of shorter and more diversified productive and marketing systems, discussion of governance models, on a regional, national and international scale. These prospects imply the definition of voluntarist public policies. ...French Abstract : Dans un monde en voie de domination par un système alimentaire agro-industriel et agro-tertiaire, l'auteur s'interroge sur la faisabilité d'un modèle alternatif. En effet, le modèle agro-industriel intensif, spécialisé, concentré, financiarisé et mondialisé, s'il a permis de remarquables avancées en termes de prix et de sûreté des produits, génère des externalités négatives qui, à terme, menace l'équilibre alimentaire des populations et de la planète. Le concept de développement durable fournit quelques orientations sur lesquelles les chercheurs sont invités à travailler : définition de nouvelles bases alimentaires, conception de système productifs et de commercialisation plus courts et plus diversifiés, discussion des modes de gouvernance à l'échelle régionale, nationale et internationale. Ces perspectives impliquent la définition de politiques publiques volontaristes.
    JEL: E2 F1 L1 L66 N5 O1 Q1
    Date: 2006
  12. By: Chowdhury, Shyamal; Gulati, Ashok; Gumbira-Sa'id, E.
    Abstract: " Indonesian economy has experienced some major changes during the last three decades and transformed from a predominantly agricultural economy to one that relies more heavily on its non-agricultural sector. Within agriculture, there has also been a change in the contribution of different sub sectors and high value products have grown relatively rapidly making agriculture more diversified. Similar to the changes in agricultural production, food consumption in Indonesia has shown a pattern of change over the past three decades, from a diet characterized primarily by the staple foods of cereals and cassava, to one that includes a larger share of fruits, fish, meats, dairy products and processed foods. Alongside the change in composition of food demand, newer forms of retail have also come up commonly known as supermarkets. However, the emergence of modern retailing has other consequences that go beyond consumers. It requires deep integration with farmers and can influence the production and transaction costs at farm level. It can also influence the distribution of value among different agents involved in production, intermediation, and retailing. In this paper we pursue three interrelated objectives. First, we review the structural changes that have taken place in Indonesian agriculture for the last three decades and the state of high value products. Second, we examine the driving forces behind the production of high value products and the constraints that limit their production. Third, we review the emergence of supermarkets and the vertical arrangements among farmers, traders/distributors, and supermarkets. We have relied both on primary and secondary data sources. Most of the secondary data has come from government directorates, different ministries and the central bureau of statistics (CBS) of the Government of Indonesia. In cases where secondary information was not readily available, we have also collected primary data. Our findings suggest that during the last three decades, there has been a significant structural change in Indonesian agriculture and the production of high value commodities and products –estate crops, livestock, fisheries, fruits and vegetables, and floriculture – has grown faster than the cereals. However, the extent of diversification towards high value products has remained limited to few regions and to few products within each sub sector. Factors that have contributed most in diversification are the rapid growth in income and accompanied changes in urban consumption in favor of high value products and agricultural mechanization. The economic crisis that was triggered by the currency crisis has had a long negative impact on agriculture sector. Structural changes in Indonesian agriculture have been accompanied by changes in consumption pattern in urban areas in favor of high value products and by a major change in retailing in the form of growth of modern supermarkets. To cater to the demand of changed urban consumption needs, supermarkets have been integrating with farmers through formal and informal contracts. This vertical relationship between farms and supermarkets that has been emerging in Indonesia has been helpful to follow grades and standards, to improve quality, and to reduce transaction costs and information asymmetries. It has also been helpful to reduce price and production risks at farm level and to ensure a higher price for farmers compared to traditional value chain. However, it seems that the participation of small holders in the vertical relationship depends largely on vendors. Within the vertical chain, supermarkets appropriate a monopsony rent. Important policies that can be drawn from this study are the greater emphasize on rural infrastructure, user right of state-owned estate to smallholders, promotion of public-private partnerships, encouragements of vertical arrangements, grades and standards, and bringing up the modern retailing sector under the purview of regulatory oversights." Authors' Abstract
    Keywords: Diet ,High value agricultural products ,Supermarkets ,
    Date: 2005
  13. By: Fornerino, M.; D'Hauteville, F.; Perrouty, J.P.
    Abstract: Disconfirmation is the mismatch between expected and blind evaluation of a product (Anderson, 1973). Assimilation occurs when the final evaluation of the product changes in the direction of the expectation, whereas contrast occurs when this change is opposite to the expectation. We experiment on oranges juices on 8 groups of students (n=109), and we demonstrate that these mechanisms may be interpreted and used to measure brand equity. The results indicate a strong assimilation effect for the most appreciated brand, and a contrast effect for the retailers brand, although both products were rated the same in the blind evaluation. ...French Abstract : La non confirmation est le décalage entre la qualité attendue et qualité perçue lors de la dégustation à l'aveugle (Anderson, 1973). Ce décalage peut aller dans le sens d'une assimilation lorsque l'évaluation du produit se fait dans le sens de la qualité attendue, soit dans le sens d'un contraste lorsque cette évaluation se fait en sens inverse. A partir d'expérimentations menées avec des jus d'orange auprès de groupes d'étudiants (n=109), les auteurs montrent que ces mécanismes peuvent être utilisés comme des indicateurs de la force d'une marque. Les résultats montrent un effet d'assimilation très marqué pour la marque la plus connue et appréciée par les étudiants, et un effet de contraste dans le cas d'une marque de distributeur, alors que les évaluations des deux produits à l'aveugle ne permet pas de les départager.
    JEL: D11 D12 L66 M30
    Date: 2006
  14. By: Grippaldi, F.; Rastoin, J.L.
    Abstract: The argument of financial brand value in the agro-food sector was not at this moment the subject of specific studies. This survey aims to identify the relations between the value of brand equity and the stock market value of firm in the agro-food industry. The first part has been dedicated to study the different definitions of the brand equity and the second to the calculation methods proposed by the scientific literature. In the last part, we will present one econometric model applied to an empiric survey about brand value and market value of firms for 1999-2003 period. ...French Abstract : Le thème de la valeur financière de la marque dans l'agroalimentaire n'a pas encore fait l'objet d'études spécifiques. Cet article vise à identifier les relations entre la valeur monétaire du capital-marque (brand equity) et la valeur d'entreprise (capitalisation boursière) dans l'agroalimentaire. La première partie est consacrée aux différentes définitions du capital-marque et la deuxième aux méthodes calcul proposées par la littérature scientifique, Enfin, dans la dernière partie on présentera un modèle économétrique simple d'identification des relations entre valeur des marques et valeur des entreprises sur la période 1999-2003.
    JEL: M21 M30 M40 L1 L25
    Date: 2006
  15. By: Hale Ciraci; Kenan Gocer; Ebru Kerimoglu
    Abstract: Tourism industry has been used to create new employment opportunities by increasing the business capacity and to provide economic growth in Turkey. But most of the tourism investments have been located in relatively more developed western and southern regions, which are ecologically sensitive coastal areas. It is known that there are important disparities between socio-economic development levels of different regions and tourism industry can be a planning investment in revitalizing the less developed areas. Turkey is a very large country, it has very much climatic regions and natural resources and as it is a place of meeting of many cultures and religions throughout the history, it owns a very rich cultural and archaeological inheritance. In this framework, it is possible to make tourism investments in such fields as urban tourism, sea-sun tourism, winter tourism or religion based tourism. The urban tourism that is able to attract tourists in any season has a very widespread potential in the country and provides us with substantial opportunities for the provinces with only one tourism option such as winter tourism. From 1980s so far, there has been discrete developments thanks to efforts of local governments, the association of tourism investors and the Ministry of Tourism. The Law for Tourism Encouragement enforced in 1982 defined the terms ‘tourism region’, ‘tourism area’ or ‘tourism center’ and provided such concepts with a legal definition and determined the systems of encouragement and means of application in these fields. In establishing these regions, areas and centers, the country has been taken as a whole with its natural, historical, archaeological, socio-cultural and tourism values as well as winter, hunting and water sports, health tourism and religion based tourism potential. But a means to create network by combining different types of tourism and creating a synergy in tourism sector by means of cooperation between the cities has not been followed so far. Combining these different types of tourism and providing cooperation between cities will create a synergy in tourism sector in less developed areas. This study tries to answer the question of which cities can be grouped as a network to cooperate based on tourism industry regarding their tourism potential. In this study using cluster analysis and factor analysis cities are grouped according to their socio-economic development levels. The results of cluster analysis indicate that western-southern, middle-northern, and eastern-southern regions are three major development levels. According to the factor analysis, the provinces grouped in 4 different levels of development in relation to different factors. These spatial settings in Turkey’s geography show as to which regions would respond the investments to be made in a shorter period. As the country is very large, the attractive points with a high tourism potential, other than those in the developed regions should be determined and a synergy between the settlement zones should be established in an effort to increase the productivity. It would be possible to coordinate the infrastructure investments to take place in the cities and to define the short, medium and long-term investments with this study.
    Date: 2004–08

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