nep-mkt New Economics Papers
on Marketing
Issue of 2006‒03‒05
nine papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Explicit and Implicit Determinants of Fair-Trade Buying Behavior By D. VANTOMME; M. GEUENS; J. DE HOUWER; P. DE PELSMACKER
  2. Healthy or unhealthy slogans: That’s the question… By L. ADAMS; M. GEUENS
  3. CRM at a Pay-TV Company: Using Analytical Models to Reduce Customer Attrition by Targeted Marketing for Subscription Services By J. BUREZ; D. VAN DEN POEL
  4. Response Styles in Marketing Research : a Means And Covariance Structures Comparison of Modes of Data-Collection By B. WEIJTERS; N. SCHILLEWAERT; M. GEUENS
  5. A Taxonomy of Consumer Motives through Preferred Brand Personality : Empirical Findings for 11 Countries By N. GEEROMS; I. VERMEIR; P. VAN KENHOVE; H. HENDRICKX
  6. Sustainable food consumption, involvement, certainty and values: an application of the theory of Planned Behaviour By I. VERMEIR; W. VERBEKE
  7. Consumers’ quality perception as a basis for fish market segmentation in Belgium By W. VERBEKE; I. VERMEIR; Z. PIENIAK; K. BRUNSØ
  8. Outsourcing of Public Services in Australia - Seven Case Studies By Peter Abelson
  9. Tourism specialization and environmental sustainability in a dynamic economy By Fabio Cerina

    Abstract: We examined the usefulness of an implicit attitude measure (IAT) to explain the weak attitude-behavior relationships often found in research about ethical consumer behavior. The results indicated that the IAT effects for buyers and nonbuyers of Fair Trade products were significantly different, showing that the IAT can be used to differentiate between buyers and non-buyers. Further, the authors conclude that the IAT has unique predictive validity and that most importantly implicit attitudes need to be enhanced to raise ethical consumer behavior.
    Date: 2005–12
  2. By: L. ADAMS; M. GEUENS
    Abstract: An experiment was conducted to examine the effect in adolescents of different health appeals (healthy versus unhealthy) in ads for healthy and unhealthy perceived foods. The results did not reveal a main effect of product or slogan, but indicated a significant interaction effect between slogan and product. The healthy slogan only led to significantly more positive attitudes and purchase intentions when it promoted a healthy food product. An unhealthy food product received better results in combination with an unhealthy slogan than with a healthy one. This indicates that adolescents react better to ads in which the health appeal is congruent with the health perception of the product. Moreover, we took into account gender and health concern as potential moderators in the relationship between slogan and ad responses. Gender did not lead to different responses to healthy or unhealthy food ads, whereas health concern did interact significantly with the slogan type. Highly concerned adolescents responded more favorably to a healthy slogan in terms of attitudes. A necessary first step seems to be making adolescents more health conscious. A following step is to reinforce their positive attitudes towards healthy foods and turn them into real behavior.
    Date: 2005–11
    Abstract: The early detection of potential churners enables companies to target these customers using specific retention actions, and subsequently increase profits. This analytical CRM (Customer Relationship Management) approach is illustrated using real-life data of a European pay-TV company. Their very high churn rate has had a devastating effect on their customer base. This paper first develops different churn-prediction models: the introduction of Markov Chains in churn prediction, and a random forest model are benchmarked to a basic logistic model.<br> The most appropriate model is subsequently used to target those customers with a high churn probability in a field experiment. Three alternative courses of marketing action are applied: giving free incentives, organizing special customer events, obtaining feedback on customer satisfaction through questionnaires. The results of this field experiment show that profits can be doubled using our churn prediction model. Moreover, profits vary enormously with respect to the selected retention action, indicating that a customer satisfaction questionnaire yields the best results, a phenomon known in the psychological literature as the ‘mere-measurement effect’.
    Date: 2005–11
    Abstract: Based on two data sets, we compare levels of response styles across three modes of data-collection: paper and pencil questionnaires, online questionnaires, and telephone interviews. Using Means And Covariance Structures (MACS), we find that data collected by different modes show differences in response styles levels. More specifically, telephone data show lower levels of midpoint responding. We propose a method to alleviate response style bias in cross-mode comparisons.
    Date: 2005–11
    Abstract: This paper presents a circumplex taxonomy of related consumer motives based on valence ratings of 34 preferred brand personality traits. Results of INDSCAL analysis reveal a consistent, replicable preferred brand personality structure across 11 different countries and four different product categories. As preferred brand personality dimensions are considered as behavioral expressions of underlying motives, the found structure was reformulated in terms of a taxonomy of eight fundamental consumer motives i.e. Vitality, Pleasure, Conviviality, Belonging, Security, Control, Recognition and Power, determined by two basic, bipolar dimensions i.e. Intrapersonal versus Interpersonal axis. The proposed taxonomy appears to overlap considerably with prior classifications of human motives. Opportunities in the context of consumer research are discussed, as well as some directions for future research.
    Date: 2005–11
    Abstract: This study investigates determinants of sustainable consumption behaviour in Belgium. To gain a better insight in sustainable consumption, we conducted a study where sustainable attitudes and behaviour as well as some individual characteristics like involvement, certainty and values related to sustainable products are scrutinized. We explore if determinants as hypothesised by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) – attitudes, perceived behavioural control, social norms - influence sustainable consumption intention in general and according to different levels of involvement, certainty and values. The empirical research builds on a survey with a sample of 456 young consumers, using a questionnaire and an experimental design with manipulation of key constructs through showing advertisements for sustainable dairy. The stepwise multiple regression showed that 50% of the variance in intention to consume or purchase sustainable dairy was explained by the combination of attitudes, perceived social influences, perceived consumer effectiveness and perceived availability. In addition, different levels of involvement, certainty and value orientation entail different strengths of the determinants. The findings yield public policy and marketing recommendations for stimulating sustainable food consumption among the young.
    Keywords: sustainable consumption, attitudes, behavioural intention, involvement, certainty, values
    Date: 2005–12
    Abstract: This paper focuses on consumers’ quality perception of fish in Belgium and its impact on interest in information, beliefs and behaviour. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of 429 consumers in March 2003. Two dimensions shape fish quality perception: consumer involvement with fish quality and consumers’ self-estimated ability to assess fish quality, which allow segmenting the market in four fish consumer segments. The segments are typified as Uninvolved, Insecure, Self-confident and Connoisseurs, and have distinctive socio-demographic, attitudinal and behavioural profiles. The Uninvolved are mainly young males, have the lowest fish consumption level, weakest belief in health benefits from eating fish, and lowest interest in both search and credence information cues. Insecure fish consumers are mainly females, with a tendency of lower education and urban residence, who feel not able to evaluate fish quality, although they find quality very important. They display a strong interest in a fish quality label. The most relevant facts about Self-confident consumers, who display an average socio-demographic profile, are their high fish consumption level, and their low interest in a fish quality label. Connoisseurs are mainly females in the age category 55+, who are strongly involved with food in general and well aware of the association between food and health. They have the highest fish consumption and show a strong interest in both search and credence cues, as well as in a fish quality label. The segments do not differ with respect to risk perception about fish.
    Keywords: Fish, Consumer, Quality, Perception, Information, Segmentation
    Date: 2005–12
  8. By: Peter Abelson (Department of Economics, Macquarie University)
    Abstract: The paper starts with a brief introduction to the main principles of outsourcing and a description of the recent history of outsourcing in the two largest states, New South Wales and Victoria. The main part of the paper then describes seven case studies which exemplify the process and possible outcomes of outsourcing. The case studies are not randomly selected. Indeed reported results of outsourcing are likely to be biased towards success stories because governments usually suppress poor results. Consistent with other studies, in five of the reported case studies, outsourcing cut costs or raised the quality of services, or both. These examples indicate that there are significant potential gains from outsourcing. However, the potential gains are not always achieved. To achieve these gains, contracting out often requires significant structural reform of an organization and always requires detailed planning and ongoing agency commitment. As the other two case studies show, with poor management contracting-out can produce expensive outcomes or major service failures.
    JEL: H11
    Date: 2005–04
  9. By: Fabio Cerina
    Abstract: This study focuses on the dynamic behaviour of a small open economy specialized in tourism based on natural resources when tourist services are supplied to foreign tourists who are crowding-averse and care for the environment. We analyse the steady-state properties of the model and a unique locally saddle-point equilibrium is found for both the market and the central planner solution. Then we compare the effects of two policies aiming at improving the market solution: in the first the government poses a corrective tax on residents' income and then redistributes the tax gains with lump-sum transfers while, in the second, the government taxes residents' income and employs the tax gains in pollution abatement technology. We find that the first policy is able to direct the economy towards its first-best dynamic path but the second policy, by relaxing the dynamic constraint on the environment, yields a higher steady-state utility when the externality effects and/or the natural regeneration rate of the environmental asset are low enough. Both policies, insofar they lead to an increase in tourists' willingness to pay, might work as an "implicit" tourist tax paid by tourists, with the difference that the first policy always leads to to this result, while the second obtains it only when tourists' aversion to crowding is not too high.
    Keywords: Tourism Specialization, Sustainability, Environment, Taxation, Crowding, Pollution Abatement
    JEL: H23 L83 O41 Q26 Q56
    Date: 2006

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