nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2024‒05‒20
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura,  La Trobe University

  1. The effects of asylum seeker self-selection on the integration in the host country By M. Magnani
  2. Return Migration and Human Capital Flows By Naser Amanzadeh; Amir Kermani; Timothy McQuade
  3. International Immigration and Labor Regulation By Levai, Adam; Turati, Riccardo
  4. Immigrant overeducation across two generations: The role of gender and part-time work By Pineda-Hernández, Kevin; Rycx, François; Volral, Mélanie
  5. Temporary migration decisions and effects on household income and diets in rural Bangladesh By Rana, Sohel; Faye, Amy; Qaim, Matin
  6. Merchants of Migrant Domestic Labour: Recruitment Agencies and Neoliberal Migration Governance in Southeast Asia By Chee, Liberty
  7. Labor Market Integration of Refugees in Germany: New Lessons After the Ukrainian Crisis By Honorati, Maddalena; Testaverde, Mauro; Totino, Elisa
  8. Caring Connections: Immigrant Caregivers and Long-Term Elderly Care in Italy By Lisa Capretti; Joanna A. Kopinska; Rama Dasi Mariani; Furio Camillo Rosati
  9. Gender-Biased Technological Change: Milking Machines and the Exodus of Woman From Farming By Philipp Ager; Marc Goni; Kjell G. Salvanes

  1. By: M. Magnani
    Abstract: In this paper we study the process of self-selections undertaken by asylum seekers hosted in temporary reception center in Italy, in the Province of Parma. In particular, by differentiating migrants on the basis of their countries of origin and of their countries of destination we identify different groups in the sample population: refugees and illegal migrants, people directed to Europe and people directed outside Europe. Leveraging on the randomness of the sample with regard to both the dimensions previously mentioned, we compare these groups to identify their specific characteristics. The relevance of this distinction introduced in the population of asylum seekers is then tested with respect to integration outcomes. In particular, we consider the proficiency in the Italian language and the effort exerted by migrants for labour market integration. In both areas, refugees obtain performances which are worse than those of illegal migrants. This result has potentially sizable policy implications as the country of origin of asylum seekers is an information which is recorded soon after arrival. This knowledge can be used to design integration policies which are different for refugees and illegal migrants.
    Keywords: migrant self-selection; asylum seekers; integration policies
    JEL: F22 J61
    Date: 2024
  2. By: Naser Amanzadeh; Amir Kermani; Timothy McQuade
    Abstract: We bring to bear a novel dataset covering the employment history of about 450 million individuals from 180 countries to study return migration and the impact of skilled international migration on human capital stocks across countries. Return migration is a common phenomenon, with 38% of skilled migrants returning to their origin countries within 10 years. Return migration is significantly correlated with industry growth in the origin and destination countries, and is asymmetrically exposed to negative firm employment growth. Using an AKM-style model, we identify worker and country-firm fixed effects, as well as the returns to experience and education by location and current workplace. For workers in emerging economies, the returns to a year of experience in the United States are 59-204% higher than a year of experience in the origin country. Migrants to advanced economies are positively selected on ability relative to stayers, while within this migrant population, returnees exhibit lower ability. Simulations suggest that eliminating skilled international migration would have highly heterogeneous effects across countries, adjusting total (average) human capital stocks within a range of -60% to 40% (-3% to 4%).
    JEL: F22 J61 O15
    Date: 2024–04
  3. By: Levai, Adam (LISER); Turati, Riccardo (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona)
    Abstract: The existing literature investigating the labor market impact of immigration assumes, implicitly or explicitly, that the law or labor regulation is exogenous to immigration. To test this assumption, we build a novel workers' protection measure based on 36 labor law variables that capture labor regulation over a sample of 70 developed and developing countries from 1970 to 2010. Exploiting a dynamic panel setting using both internal and external instruments, we establish a new result: immigrants' norms and experience of labor regulation influence the evolution of host countries labor law regulation. This effect is particularly strong for two components of workers' protection: worker representation laws and employment forms laws. Our main results are consistent with suggestive evidence on the transmission of preferences from migrants to their offspring (vertical transmission), and from migrants to natives or local political parties (horizontal transmission). Finally, we find that the size of the immigrant population per se has a small and negligible impact on host country labor market regulation.
    Keywords: international migration, labor market institutions, labor regulation, legal transplants
    JEL: J61 K31 F22
    Date: 2024–04
  4. By: Pineda-Hernández, Kevin; Rycx, François; Volral, Mélanie
    Abstract: A large body of literature shows that first-generation immigrants born in developing countries experience a higher likelihood of being overeducated than natives (i.e. immigrant overeducation). However, evidence is remarkably scarce when it comes to the overeducation of second-generation immigrants. Using a matched employer-employee database for Belgium over the period 1999-2016 and generalized ordered logit regressions, we contribute to the literature with one of the first studies on the intergenerational nexus between overeducation and origin among tertiary-educated workers. We show that immigrant overeducation disappears across two generations when workers work full-time. However, immigrant overeducation is a persistent intergenerational phenomenon when workers work part-time. Our gender-interacted estimates endorse these findings for female and male immigrants.
    Keywords: immigrants, intergenerational studies, labour market integration, overeducation, generalized ordered logit, moderating factors
    JEL: I21 I22 J15 J24 J61 J62 J71
    Date: 2024
  5. By: Rana, Sohel; Faye, Amy; Qaim, Matin
    Abstract: Temporary migration is a widely observed phenomenon among poor rural households, mostly related to agricultural seasonality. However, household preferences for temporary migration in comparison to longer-term migration, and the differential effects of these migrations on household livelihoods are not yet well understood. Here, we use survey data collected in northern rural Bangladesh to analyze determinants of households’ choice between temporary and longer-term migration, and their comparative effects on various livelihood indicators, with a particular focus on agricultural lean periods. Issues of selection bias and endogeneity are addressed with Heckman selection models and instrumental variables. We show that temporary migration is more common than longer-term migration, partly determined by family demographic and farm-labor constraints. Although longer-term migration has larger positive effects on household income, temporary migration has larger positive effects on food consumption and dietary quality during lean periods. These results suggest that temporary migration is an important mechanism for the rural poor to smooth consumption and deserves more attention by researchers and policy-makers.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2024–05–08
  6. By: Chee, Liberty (Ca' Foscari University of Venice)
    Abstract: This draft contains parts of the conclusion of the book manuscript with the same title as above. The book unpacks the “market logic” of private recruitment and employment agencies as actors in migration governance. It looks into why these actors play such an outsized role in domestic worker migration, and examines their relations with employers, workers and state apparatuses. The book argues that these relations comprise neoliberal migration governance – a governmental rationality that cedes authority to the market.
    Date: 2024–04–12
  7. By: Honorati, Maddalena; Testaverde, Mauro; Totino, Elisa
    Abstract: Forced displacement has become more frequent in the last decades, with refugees often spending many years abroad. While international responses often focus on immediate needs, investment in refugees’ longer-term integration is increasingly important to support their transition to self-sufficiency. This paper documents the key features of German integration system and its adaptations following the Ukrainian crisis. The emerging evidence suggests that while refugees’ labor market integration in Germany is at first slower than in other EU countries, early investment in refugees’ human capital, especially in language skills, allows access to better jobs in the medium-term. Years of investment in a strong integration eco-system was key to quickly start a process that turns short-term integration costs into long-term economic opportunities.
    Date: 2024–04–01
  8. By: Lisa Capretti (CEIS, University of Rome "Tor Vergata"); Joanna A. Kopinska (University of Rome La Sapienza); Rama Dasi Mariani (University of Roma Tre); Furio Camillo Rosati (CEIS & DEF, University of Rome "Tor Vergata")
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of migrant-provided home-based care on elderly health in Italy, analysing hospitalisation frequency, duration, and mortality. Using an instrumental variable approach to mitigate endogeneity between local health status and migratory flows, we show that migrant-provided home-based care reduces the frequency of hospital admissions (extensive margin) and their duration (intensive margin). Regarding the former, a one percentage point increase in the immigrant-to-elderly population ratio leads to a 4% decrease in long-term and rehabilitation (LR) stays, with no effect on acute stays. Concerning the latter, we find that a similar change in the migrant inflows translates to a 1.5% reduction in admission duration, with LR admissions reaching a 3.3% decline. These effects primarily stem from traumatic injuries, musculoskeletal disease, and genitourinary disorders, particularly linked to home-based mobility and treatment management. Our back-of-the-envelope calculations suggests that a 1.3 percentage point increase in the migrant-to-elderly population ratio registered in our analysis period could potentially reduce LR elderly hospitalisation costs by approximately 8% and yield annual public budget savings equivalent to around 0.59% of total hospitalisation expenditures
    Date: 2024–04–19
  9. By: Philipp Ager; Marc Goni; Kjell G. Salvanes
    Abstract: This paper studies how gender-biased technological change in agriculture affected women’s work in 20th-century Norway. After WWII, dairy farms began widely adopting milking machines to replace the hand milking of cows, a task typically performed by young women. We show that the adoption of milking machines pushed young rural women out of farming in dairy-intensive municipalities. The displaced women moved to cities where they acquired more education and found better-paid employment. Our results suggest that the adoption of milking machines broke up allocative inefficiencies across sectors, which improved the economic status of women relative to men.
    Keywords: Technological change, rural-to-urban migration, gender effects
    JEL: J16 J24 J43 J61 N34 O14 O33
    Date: 2024–04

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