nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2024‒05‒06
five papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura,  La Trobe University

  1. The Impact of Immigration on Firms and Workers: Insights from the H-1B Lottery By Parag Mahajan; Nicolas Morales; Kevin Shih; Mingyu Chen; Agostina Brinatti
  2. Local far-right demonstrations and nationwide public attitudes toward migration By Freitas Monteiro, Teresa; Prömel, Christopher
  3. Do migrants displace native-born workers on the labour market? The impact of workers’ origin By Valentine Fays; Benoît Mahy; François Ryckx
  4. Hukou-Based Discrimination, Dialects and City Characteristics By Thomas Vendryes; Jiaqi Zhan
  5. Retaining population with water? Irrigation policies and depopulation in Spain over the long term By Ignacio Cazcarro; Miguel Martín-Retortillo; Guillermo Rodríguez-López; Ana Serrano; Javier Silvestre

  1. By: Parag Mahajan; Nicolas Morales; Kevin Shih; Mingyu Chen; Agostina Brinatti
    Abstract: We study how random variation in the availability of highly educated, foreign-born workers impacts firm performance and recruitment behavior. We combine two rich data sources: 1) administrative employer-employee matched data from the US Census Bureau; and 2) firm level information on the first large-scale H-1B visa lottery in 2007. Using an event-study approach, we find that lottery wins lead to increases in firm hiring of college-educated, immigrant labor along with increases in scale and survival. These effects are stronger for small, skill-intensive, and high-productivity firms that participate in the lottery. We do not find evidence for displacement of native-born, college-educated workers at the firm level, on net. However, this result masks dynamics among more specific subgroups of incumbents that we further elucidate.
    Keywords: Immigration, firm dynamics, productivity, H-1B visa, high-skilled migration
    JEL: F22 J61
    Date: 2024–04
  2. By: Freitas Monteiro, Teresa; Prömel, Christopher
    Abstract: One of the primary objectives of protests and demonstrations is to bring social, political, or economic issues to the attention of politicians and the wider population. While protests can have a mobilizing and persuading effect, they may reduce support for their cause if they are perceived as a threat to public order. In this study, we look at how local or spontaneously organised xenophobic demonstrations affect concerns about hostility towards foreigners and worries about immigration among natives in Germany. We use a regression discontinuity design to compare the attitudes of individuals interviewed in the days immediately before a large far-right demonstration and individuals interviewed in the days immediately after that demonstration. Our results show that large right-wing demonstrations lead to a substantial increase in worries about hostility towards foreigners of 13.7% of a standard deviation. In contrast, worries about immigration are not affected by the demonstrations, indicating that the protesters are not successful in swaying public opinion in their favour. In the heterogeneity analyses, we uncover some polarisation in the population: While worries about hostility against foreigners increase and worries about immigration decrease in left-leaning regions, both types of worries increase in districts where centre-right parties are more successful. Lastly, we also show that people become more politically interested in response to protests, mainly benefiting left-wing parties, and are more likely to wish to donate money to help refugees.
    Keywords: Protests, Right-wing Extremism, Xenophobia, Attitudes, Polarisation
    JEL: D72 D74 D83 J15
    Date: 2024
  3. By: Valentine Fays (UMONS (Soci&ter) and ULB (CEBRIG, DULBEA)); Benoît Mahy (UMONS (Soci&ter) and ULB (CEBRIG, DULBEA)); François Ryckx (ULB (CEBRIG, DULBEA),)
    Abstract: This article is the first to examine how 1st-generation migrants affect the employment of workers born in the host country according to their origin, distinguishing between natives and 2nd-generation migrants. To do so, we take advantage of access to a unique linked employer-employee dataset for the Belgian economy enabling us to test these relationships at a quite precise level of the labour market, i.e. the firm level. Fixed effect estimates, including a large number of covariates, suggest complementarity between the employment of 1st-generation migrants and workers born in Belgium (both natives and 2nd-generation migrants, respectively). Several sensitivity tests, considering different levels of aggregation, workers’ levels of education, migrants’ region of origin, workers’ occupations, and sectors corroborate this conclusion.
    Keywords: 1st and 2nd generation migrants, Substainability, Complementarity, Moderating factors
    JEL: J15 J24 J62
    Date: 2024–04–11
  4. By: Thomas Vendryes (Université Paris-Saclay, ENS Paris-Saclay, Centre for Economics at Paris-Saclay (CEPS)); Jiaqi Zhan (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Sorbonne School of Economics)
    Abstract: The hukou system is one of the most specific as well as consequential institutional features of contemporary China. Linking Chinese citizens'rights with official - and hard to change - status and place of residence, it has far-reaching social and economic implications, especially on internal migration. The consequences of the hukou have been a subject of unabated debate, especially as for the discrimination rural migrant workers might face in cities. In this paper, we rely on a series of CHIP (China Household Income Project) surveys from 2007 to 2018, to contribute to this debate by investigating the roles of two sets of factors that have been generally disregarded by the literature so far: at the individual level, the role of the dialect distance, between a migrant's origin and destination areas, and, at the macro level, the influence of destination city's characteristics, such as population, GDP and FDI. Results show that a sizeable part of the hukou-related wage gap can be explained by our dialect distance variable, and that the hukou-related wage gap also highly depends on destination cities' characteristics.
    Keywords: Labor Markets, Wage Discrimination, Rural-Urban Migrants, Hukou, China
    JEL: J31 J61 J71 O15 P23 R23
    Date: 2023
  5. By: Ignacio Cazcarro (Universidad de Zaragoza, ARAID); Miguel Martín-Retortillo (Universidad de Alcalá); Guillermo Rodríguez-López (Universidad de Zaragoza); Ana Serrano (Universidad de Zaragoza, IA2); Javier Silvestre (Universidad de Zaragoza, IEDIS)
    Abstract: Depopulation, especially, but not only, rural, has become a major concern across many countries. As one type of place-based policy, irrigation has been claimed to contribute to resettling populations and reducing outward migration, by increasing agricultural output, productivity, and competitiveness and, consequently, employment and living standards. This paper aims to elucidate on the relationship between irrigation and population for Spain, historically and currently the most irrigated country and one of the most depopulated countries in Europe. We use municipal-level data over the period 1910-2011 and exploit a staggered difference-in-differences design. Overall, we find an effect on population only for irrigation developments that started in the relatively distant past. In any case, effects are temporary or tend to level off. We also consider trade-offs. We discuss the policy implications of the findings in light of current policies, and in terms of environmental and economic costs of increasing the intensity of irrigation.
    Keywords: Depopulation, place-based policies, irrigation programs, long-term view, staggered DiD, Spain
    JEL: J11 Q15 Q25 R11 N54 N94
    Date: 2024–04

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