nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2024‒04‒15
ten papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura,  La Trobe University

  1. Hometown Conflict and Refugees' Integration Efforts By Aksoy, Cevat Giray; Khanna, Gaurav; Marino, Victoria; Tumen, Semih
  2. Is Intent to Migrate Irregularly Responsive to Recent German Asylum Policy Adjustments? By Beber, Bernd; Ebert, Cara; Sievert, Maximiliane
  3. Nudging the Agents: Does it Reduce Discrimination Against Migrants in the House Rental Market? By Zanoni, Wladimir; Díaz, Lina M.; Díaz, Emily; Paredes, Jorge; Acevedo, Paloma
  4. Labour market disadvantages of citizens with a migration background in Belgium: A systematic review By Louise Devos; Louis Lippens; Dries Lens; François Rycx; Stijn Baert; Mélanie Volral; Stijn Baert
  5. The relationship between COVID-19 entry restrictions and immigration By Jang, Youngook; Joe, Donghee
  6. Climate Variability and Worldwide Migration: Empirical Evidence and Projections By Cristina Cattaneo; Emanuele Massetti; Shouro Dasgupta; Fabio Farinosi
  7. The causal effect of liberalizing legal requirements on naturalization intentions By Kosyakova, Yuliya; Damelang, Andreas
  8. School Starting Age and the Social Gradient in Educational Outcomes By Zhao, Yuejun; Markussen, Simen; Røed, Knut
  9. Out-of-State Enrollment, Financial Aid and Academic Outcomes: Evidence from Wisconsin By Justin C. Wiltshire
  10. Would the Euro Area Benefit from Greater Labor Mobility? By Vasco Curdia; Fernanda Nechio

  1. By: Aksoy, Cevat Giray (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development); Khanna, Gaurav (University of California, San Diego); Marino, Victoria (EBRD, London); Tumen, Semih (Amazon)
    Abstract: How does violence in origin areas affect the educational outcomes of refugees in their destinations? Using administrative panel data, we find that heightened violence in the hometowns of Syrian students leads to improvements in their school outcomes in Türkiye. Turkish language and Math scores of refugee students improve, with larger impacts on Turkish scores. There is no impact on naturalized Syrian students. We observe positive spillovers on Turkish students. These findings suggest ongoing violence in refugee-origin areas reduces the prospect of returning home, and induces students to increase their integration effort by investing in education.
    Keywords: conflict, forced migration, integration effort, return migration
    JEL: J15 I21 I25 F51 O15
    Date: 2024–03
  2. By: Beber, Bernd (RWI); Ebert, Cara (RWI); Sievert, Maximiliane (RWI)
    Abstract: We investigate the extent to which asylum policies that aim to deter individuals from migrating irregularly in fact do so. We specifically consider effects of Germany's recent and high-profile asylum policy adjustments, which include accelerated asylum decision processes, the prospect of asylum processing outside of Europe, the introduction of a payment card to replace cash benefits, and an extended waiting period for native-level benefits. In order to estimate effects of these policy measures on irregular migration intent, we implement a conjoint experiment with 989 men aged 18–40 in four cities in Senegal, a population of most-likely migrants in a country where irregular migration to Europe is highly salient. We find that offshoring the asylum process significantly and substantially lowers irregular migration intentions across nearly all types of subjects. Extending the waiting time for native-level benefits only has a small, marginally significant effect on intent, and no effect among the poorest subjects and those that are most motivated to migrate internationally. Neither reducing asylum processing times nor replacing cash benefits with a payment card significantly alters intentions. We note that the presence or absence of an effect does not resolve political and normative questions concerning these policies, which are beyond the scope of this particular study.
    Keywords: asylum policy, irregular migration, conjoint experiment
    JEL: F22 J61 K37
    Date: 2024–03
  3. By: Zanoni, Wladimir; Díaz, Lina M.; Díaz, Emily; Paredes, Jorge; Acevedo, Paloma
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of a behavioral intervention on reducing discrimination against Venezuelan migrants in the screening of home rental applications conducted by Ecuadorian real estate agents (REAs). Given that Venezuelan migrants represent the second-largest migratory group globally, with over seven million individuals seeking refuge primarily in other Latin American countries, understanding and addressing discrimination against them is of significant importance. Our artifactual field experiment involved providing information to REAs that highlighted the extra efforts Venezuelan migrants must make to achieve the same goals as nonmigrants in host countries. The results demonstrated a meaningful increase of 33.67% in the preference for Venezuelan migrants over native applicants, with this effect mainly driven by changes in male REAs discriminatory behaviors. The findings suggest that challenging the information value of Venezuelan migrant stereotypes, which often underlie assumptions about their qualities, can effectively diminish discrimination during the rental application process. This research contributes valuable insights to the ongoing efforts to identify effective means to deal with discrimination against migrants.
    Keywords: field experiments;behavioral interventions;Nudges;Migration;prejudice
    JEL: F22 J15 R31
    Date: 2023–10
  4. By: Louise Devos; Louis Lippens; Dries Lens; François Rycx; Stijn Baert; Mélanie Volral; Stijn Baert (-)
    Abstract: Labour markets struggle to be inclusive, while diversity is increasing. This literature review examines labour market challenges faced by first- and second-generation migrants in Belgium. We systematically review articles published between 2010 and 2023 in the Web of Science Core Collection to delineate underlying mechanisms, associated solutions, policy recommendations and literature gaps. The literature reveals that individuals with a migration background generally experience poorer labour market outcomes than natives. These outcomes vary based on specific origin and gender and persist from the first into the second generation. The mechanisms underlying these poorer outcomes are discrimination, individual preferences, and human and social capital differences. Recommendations for employers include implementing anti-discrimination policies, fostering awareness of discrimination, and taking affirmative action. On the employee side, investing in human capital, increasing labour market knowledge, and having competencies formally recognised can help to narrow employment gaps. Our review also advocates for policy refinement to combat biases and suggests that alternative pathways to attaining employment, such as selfemployment and volunteering, are promising areas for future research.
    Keywords: Belgium, migration, labour market, systematic review
    JEL: J15 J18
    Date: 2024–03
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the relationship between COVID-19 entry restrictions and dependence on immigrants. In response to the global COVID-19 pandemic, countries worldwide implemented international travel restrictions to reduce the entry of infected individuals. These measures included entry and exit bans, mandatory quarantine of travelers, and vaccination requirements, significantly altering global mobility patterns. Despite their proven effectiveness, entry restrictions also impose substantial economic costs, particularly evident in the form of reduced immigration and subsequent labor shortages in sectors reliant on immigrant labor. We introduce a theoretical framework to shed light on the factors influencing the determination of entry restrictions, encompassing both health and economic considerations. Empirical analyses reveal that countries heavily dependent on foreign labor are inclined to adopt less stringent border controls, balancing the economic costs associated with reduced immigrant workforce. Moreover, we argue that the strength of entry restrictions is determined by a government’s capacity to manage infection waves through means other than entry bans. Finally, we offer policy implications based on our research, on how to control the spread of infectious diseases while minimizing the costs imposed by reducing immigration and the cost imposed on the immigrants themselves.
    Keywords: India; Trade; Investment; Causality test; COVID-19; entry restrictions; immigration policy; immigrant workforce
    JEL: F22 I18 J61
    Date: 2023–12–29
  6. By: Cristina Cattaneo; Emanuele Massetti; Shouro Dasgupta; Fabio Farinosi
    Abstract: We estimate a bilateral gravity equation for emigration rates controlling for decadal weather averages of temperature, precipitation, droughts, and extreme precipitation in origin countries. Using the parameter estimates of the gravity equation, we estimate global, regional, and country-by-country emigration flows using different population and climate scenarios. Global emigration flows are projected to increase between 73 and 91 million in 2030-2039; between 83 and 102 million in 2040-2049; between 88 and 121 in 2050-59, and between 87 and 133 million in 2060-2069. Changes in emigration flows are mainly due to population growth in the origin countries.
    Keywords: Climate change; International Migration.
    Date: 2024–03–15
  7. By: Kosyakova, Yuliya (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany ; Univ. Bamberg); Damelang, Andreas (FAU)
    Abstract: "This study investigates the multifaceted factors influencing immigrants’ naturalization intentions, with a primary focus on legal requirements and the implementation of naturalization laws. It distinguishes between different immigrant groups, such as refugees, European Union (EU) citizens, and non-EU citizens. Employing a vignette experiment among immigrants in a large-scale representative data in Germany, the research empirically analyzes the effects of liberalizing legal requirements and the effects of more inclusive naturalization procedure on intentions to acquire German citizenship. This comparison, both for current versus liberalized requirements and less versus more inclusive naturalization procedures, offers a realistic scenario of how liberalization and inclusiveness impact naturalization intentions. The results reveal that liberalizing legal requirements, specifically dual citizenship availability and reduced waiting period, has a positive effect on naturalization intentions. Simultaneously, these effects differ between the three immigrant groups, particularly due to differences in the perceived benefits of naturalization. In contrast, a more inclusive naturalization procedure does not affect immigrants’ naturalization intentions. These results underline the importance of citizenship policy for the naturalization intentions of immigrants. However, the results also show nuanced reactions to liberalized requirements stressing the importance of group-specific cost-benefit considerations." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: Bundesrepublik Deutschland ; IAB-Open-Access-Publikation ; Auswirkungen ; EU-Bürger ; Drittstaatsangehörige ; Bürokratie ; doppelte Staatsangehörigkeit ; Einbürgerung ; Einwanderer ; Geflüchtete ; institutionelle Faktoren ; Kosten ; Liberalisierung ; Motivation ; Prüfung ; IAB-SOEP-Migrationsstichprobe ; IAB-SOEP-Migrationsstichprobe ; Sprachkenntnisse ; Staatsangehörigkeitsrecht ; IAB-BAMF-SOEP-Befragung von Geflüchteten ; IAB-BAMF-SOEP-Befragung von Geflüchteten ; Szenario ; Wartezeit ; 2021-2022
    JEL: C99 F22 J15 K37
    Date: 2024–02–26
  8. By: Zhao, Yuejun (University of Edinburgh); Markussen, Simen (Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research); Røed, Knut (Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research)
    Abstract: Can lowering school starting age promote equality of opportunities and reduce the achievement gaps between pupils? We provide evidence on the heterogeneous (positional) effects on early school performance of two mandatory schooling reforms in Norway specifically aimed at reducing achievement gaps based on family background and immigrant status. Whereas the first reform reduced the school starting age from seven to six, the second changed the first-year curriculum from a play-oriented kindergarten pedagogy to a learning-oriented school pedagogy. We apply repeated simple difference models to evaluate the two reforms based on high-quality administrative register data, using children's grade point average (GPA) rank at age 15 to 16 and high school completion at age 21 as the main outcomes. We find no evidence that any of the reforms had the intended effect of reducing socioeconomic achievement gaps or immigrant-native differentials. Both reforms left educational inequalities more or less unchanged.
    Keywords: school performance, socioeconomic status, parental earnings, immigrant children, relative age, social mobility
    JEL: I24 I28
    Date: 2024–03
  9. By: Justin C. Wiltshire (Department of Economics, University of Victoria)
    Abstract: Scholars disagree about the effect out-of-state university students have on potential in-state students. Despite paying a premium to attend state universities, researchers argue that out-of-state students may come at a cost to in-state students by negatively affecting academic quality or by crowding out in-state students. To study this relationship, we examine the effect of a 2016 policy at a highly ranked state flagship university that removed the limit on how many out-of-state students it could enroll. We find the policy caused an increase in out-of-state enrollment by around 29 percent and increased tuition revenue collected by the university by 47 percent. We argue that this revenue was used to fund increases in financial aid disbursed at the university, particularly to students from low-income households, indicating that out-ofstate students cross-subsidize lower income students. We also fail to find evidence that this increase in out-of-state students had any effect on several measures of academic quality.
    Keywords: Higher Education, Out-of-State Students, Human Capital
    Date: 2023–09–01
  10. By: Vasco Curdia; Fernanda Nechio
    Abstract: We assess how within euro area labor mobility impacts economic dynamics in response to shocks. In the analysis we use an estimated two-region monetary union dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model that allows for a varying degree of labor mobility across regions. We find that, in contrast with traditional optimal currency area predictions, enhanced labor mobility can either mitigate or exacerbate the extent to which the two regions respond differently to shocks. The effects depend crucially on the nature of shocks and variable of interest. In some circumstances, even when it contributes to aligning the responses of the two regions, labor mobility may complicate monetary policy tradeoffs. Moreover, the presence and strength of financial frictions have important implications for the effects of labor mobility. If the periphery’s risk premium is more responsive to its indebtedness than our estimates, there are various shocks for which labor mobility may help stabilize the economy. Finally, the euro area’s economic performance following the Global Financial Crisis would not have been necessarily smoother with enhanced labor mobility.
    Keywords: monetary unions; labor mobility; credit frictions
    JEL: F41 F45 E44 E3 E4
    Date: 2024–03–07

This nep-mig issue is ©2024 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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