nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2024‒04‒08
eight papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura,  La Trobe University

  1. Professional networks and the labour market assimilation of immigrants By Engdahl, Mattias; Willis, Sébastien; Åslund, Olof
  2. Unlucky migrants: Scarring effect of recessions on the assimilation of the foreign born By Gabriele Lucchetti; Alessandro Ruggieri
  3. High-profile crime and perceived public safety: Evidence from Cologne's new year's eve in 2015 By Lange, Martin; Schmidt, Alexander
  4. The Effect of Content Moderation on Online and Offline Hate: Evidence from Germany’s NetzDG By Jiménez Durán, Rafael; Muller, Karsten; Schwarz, Carlo
  5. Moving Out of the Comfort Zone: How Cultural Norms Affect Attitudes toward Immigration By Yvonne Giesing; Björn Kauder; Lukas Mergele; Niklas Potrafke; Panu Poutvaara
  6. Medium and Long Run Economic Assimilation of Venezuelan migrants to Peru By Torres, Javier; Beverinotti, Javier; Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo
  7. The Legacy of the Spanish Conquista in the Andes: Mining Mita, Persistent Social Unrest, and Cultural Divergence By César Huaroto; Francisco Gallego
  8. The role of political will in enabling long-term development approaches to forced displacement By OECD; UNU-CPR

  1. By: Engdahl, Mattias (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy); Willis, Sébastien (Uppsala University and Uppsala Center for Labor Studies); Åslund, Olof (Uppsala University, IFAU, UCLS, CReAM, IZA.)
    Abstract: We study how professional networks are related to immigrant labour market integration. Matched employer-employee data for Sweden show that networks grow with time in the host country and that their composition changes from immigrant toward native network members. A firm-dyadic analysis of re-employment of displaced workers suggests that conational connections have a much larger positive effect than native connections. However, the employment effect of native connections grows with years since migration. Furthermore, native connections tend to be associated with higher earnings and increased hires in connected local industries. After 20 years in Sweden, the built-up connections raise immigrant re-employment rates by 0.7 to 1.1 percentage points, amounting to 10–20 percent of the observed difference by years since migration. Our findings indicate complete assimilation in the total productivity of professional connections for displaced workers.
    Keywords: labour market integration of immigrants; networks; job search
    JEL: J15 J20 J60
    Date: 2024–03–21
  2. By: Gabriele Lucchetti; Alessandro Ruggieri
    Abstract: This paper studies how aggregate labor market conditions affect the intra-generational assimilation of immigrants in the hosting country. Using data from the American Community Survey, we leverage variation in the national unemployment rates in the U.S. at the time of arrival of different cohorts of immigrants to identify short- and long-run effects of recessions on their careers. We document that immigrants who enter the U.S. when the labor market is slack face large and persistent earnings reductions: a 1 p.p. rise in the unemployment rate at the time of migration reduces annual earnings by 4.9 percent on impact and 0.7 percent after 12 years since migration, relative to the average U.S. native. Change in the employment composition across occupations with different skill contents is the key driver: were occupational attainment during periods of high unemployment unchanged for immigrants, assimilation in annual earnings would slow down on average by only 3 years, instead of 12. Slower assimilation costs between 1.7 and 2.4 percent of lifetime earnings to immigrants entering the U.S. labor market when unemployment is high.
    Date: 2023
  3. By: Lange, Martin; Schmidt, Alexander
    Abstract: This study analyses the impact of a high-profile crime event on perceived public safety. At the 2015 New Year's Eve celebrations in Cologne (NYE), Germany, refugees allegedly committed over a thousand crimes, ranging from theft to sexual assault. The widespread media coverage of these incidents made a shift in the public's perceived safety plausible. We empirically analyze this proposition using a difference-in-differences strategy. Using the European Social Survey, we estimate the differential response of German respondents to those of other European countries in terms of perceived safety after NYE. We find that Germans feel less safe after the NYE incidents. Women and individuals leaning toward the political right are affected the most. An analysis of search queries suggests that the loss of perceived safety may also translate into changed behavior, indicated by a higher demand for defense goods.
    Keywords: Crime, Perceived Safety, Immigration, Refugees
    JEL: J15 K42 Z13
    Date: 2023
  4. By: Jiménez Durán, Rafael (Universit`a Bocconi, Department of Economics, IGIER, Stigler Center); Muller, Karsten (National University of Singapore, Department of Finance); Schwarz, Carlo (Universit`a Bocconi, Department of Economics, IGIER, PERICLES, CEPR, CAGE)
    Abstract: We study the online and offline effects of content moderation on social media using the introduction of Germany’s “Network Enforcement Act†(NetzDG), which fines social media platforms failing to remove hateful posts. We show that the law transformed social media discourse: posts became less hateful, refugee-related content less inflammatory, and the use of moderated platforms increased. The NetzDG also had offline effects by reducing anti-refugee hate crimes by 1% for every standard deviation in exposure to far-right social media use. The law reduced hate crimes partly by making it harder for perpetrators to coordinate, without changing attitudes toward refugees.
    Keywords: Social Media, NetzDG, Content Moderation, Hate Crime, Refugees, Germany JEL Classification: L82, J15, O38
    Date: 2024
  5. By: Yvonne Giesing; Björn Kauder; Lukas Mergele; Niklas Potrafke; Panu Poutvaara
    Abstract: We examine how cultural norms shape attitudes toward immigration. Our causal identification relies on comparing students who moved across the East-West border after German reunification with students who moved within former East Germany. Students who moved from East to West became more positive toward immigration. Results are confirmed among students whose move was plausibly exogenous due to national study place allocation mechanisms. Evidence supports horizontal transmission as the difference between East-West movers and East-East movers increases over time and is driven by East German students who often interacted with fellow students. Effects are stronger in less xenophobic West German regions.
    Keywords: cultural transmission, migration, attitudes toward immigration, German division and unification, political socialization
    JEL: D72 D91 J15 J20 P20 P51 Z10
    Date: 2024
  6. By: Torres, Javier; Beverinotti, Javier; Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo
    Abstract: In a span of six years, the proportion of Venezuelans in Peru has surged nearly fourfold, rising from virtually zero to over 4% of the population. This study delves into the dynamics of medium- and long-term labor market integration in Peru, combining data from the Venezuelan Population Residing in Peru Survey and the Peruvian National Household Survey. Our findings reveal that Venezuelan workers experience low returns on foreign postsecondary education and there is minimal relation between foreign work experience and monthly income. Importantly, these outcomes remain consistent irrespective of the time spent in the host country, indicating a gradual economic assimilation process. Lastly, our estimation demonstrates that if Venezuelans human capital yielded returns equivalent to Peruvian human capital, the average income of Venezuelans would witness a substantial increase of 20%.
    Keywords: Immigration;Economic Assimilation;Wage Discount
    JEL: J15 J24 J31 J70
    Date: 2024–01
  7. By: César Huaroto; Francisco Gallego
    Abstract: This paper studies the persistent effect on social unrest of the Mining Mita- a colonial forced labor and migration institution that affected indigenous communities in Peru between 1573 to 1811. Using a geographical regression discontinuity design for identification, we provide causal evidence that Mita areas have experienced higher levels of social unrest since the end of the 18th century. We present a simple conceptual rationale with historical and causal evidence indicating that at least part of the roots of such persistence is cultural. Specifically, people living in Mita districts identify more with the indigenous groups and indigenous institutions, are more likely to speak native languages, are less likely to migrate, and have different beliefs about development and democracy.
    JEL: D74 I38 J15 N26 O10 O43 P14 Z10
    Date: 2023
  8. By: OECD; UNU-CPR
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of mobilising political will in establishing the conditions necessary for economic and social inclusion of refugees, internally displaced persons, and formerly displaced persons who achieve durable solutions such as voluntary return. It investigates the role and conditions to mobilise political will for more comprehensive and inclusive policies that can lead to long-term local development in contexts of forced displacement in low- and middle-income countries (LICs and MICs). Case studies from Bangladesh, Cameroon, Ecuador, Iraq and Lebanon illustrate the ways in which political will, or its absence, can shape the approach to supporting the forcibly displaced and hosting communities. The paper also proposes a conceptual model for mobilising political will to facilitate sustainable development support in contexts of forced displacement.
    Keywords: development co-operation, development effectiveness, development planning, forced displacement, internal displacement, refugees, social and economic inclusion
    JEL: F35 F5 J15 O2 O19
    Date: 2024–03–23

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