nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2024‒04‒01
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura,  La Trobe University

  1. Gendered Implications of Restricted Residence Obligation Policies on Refugees’ Employment in Germany By Adriana R. Cardozo Silva; Yuliya Kosyakova; Aslıhan Yurdakul
  2. Gender and Distance in Domestic and International Environmental Migration A structural gravity approach By Cipollina, Maria; De Benedictis, Luca; Scibè, Elisa
  3. Occupational downgrading of Venezuelan migrants in Colombia: Do work permits Improve occupational mobility? By García-Suaza, Andrés; Mondragón-Mayo, Angie; Sarango-Iturralde, Alexander
  4. Barriers to Immigrant Assimilation: Evidence on Grading Bias in Ecuadorian High Schools By Rangel, Marcos; Marotta, Luana; van der Werf, Cynthia; Duryea, Suzanne; Drouet Arias, Marcelo; Rodríguez Guillén, Lucina
  5. Is there a glass ceiling for ethnic minorities to enter leadership positions? Evidence from a large-scale field experiment with over 12, 000 job applications By Mladen Adamovic; Andreas Leibbrandt
  6. Immigration and political realignment By Javad Shamsi
  7. Queen Bee Immigrant: The effects of status perceptions on immigration attitudes By Biljana Meiske
  8. The birthplace bias of teleworking: Consequences for working conditions By Eva Moreno Galbis; Felipe Trillos Carranza
  9. The Immigration Policies in Comparison (IMPIC) Dataset: Technical Report V2 By Berger, Valentin; Bjerre, Liv; Breyer, Magdalena; Helbling, Marc; Römer, Friederike; Zobel, Malisa

  1. By: Adriana R. Cardozo Silva; Yuliya Kosyakova; Aslıhan Yurdakul
    Abstract: This paper investigates the gender-specific impact of settlement policies on the labor market integration of refugees in Germany, utilizing a gender-specific approach. Analyzing data from the IAB- BAMF-SOEP Refugees Survey (2016-2020) through a pooled logit model with an intention-to-treat design, we explore how restrictive residency obligation policies, in conjunction with local conditions in the assigned county—such as local labor market conditions and ethnic enclaves – influence outcomes. Results reveal that female refugees experience reduced employment prospects, independent of mobility restrictions, while the residency obligation policy bears a significant negative impact on employed male refugees. In turn, the impact of analyzed local labor market characteristics and linguistic enclaves on employment probability remains consistent across gender and residency obligation. Our results highlight the multidimensional nature of refugees’ labor market integration and underscore the significance of gender-sensitive approaches.
    Date: 2023
  2. By: Cipollina, Maria; De Benedictis, Luca; Scibè, Elisa
    Abstract: The article provides cross-sectional evidence of domestic and international human migration associated with environmental shocks, with a specific emphasis on genderspecific heterogeneity and geographical distance. Both sudden and gradual environmental changes may influence the decision to migrate. However, the response is conditional to the cost and opportunity to move, which can vary based on gender and the distance between the location affected by the environmental shock and the hosting destination, within the country or internationally. Using the 5-year estimates of internal and international domestic migration flow disaggregated by sex, representative of the period 2005-2010, we estimate a structural gravity model and we find that migration can be influenced by environmental risks, as people may seek safer or more stable environments when their home regions are prone to disasters, albeit differently for each gender, both within a country and across borders.
    Keywords: Migration; Climate change; Natural disasters; Gender; Structural Gravity model.
    JEL: C13 F22 J61 Q51 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2024–03–18
  3. By: García-Suaza, Andrés (Facultad de Economía Universidad del Rosario); Mondragón-Mayo, Angie (Facultad de Economía Universidad del Rosario); Sarango-Iturralde, Alexander (Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: Immigration policies prioritize labor market integration, aiming for high employment rates and leveraging migrant skills to enhance host country productivity. However, migrants often face entry barriers and human capital misallocation. This article examines the occupational downgrading of Venezuelan migrants in Colombia and assesses the impact of work permit policies on mitigating this trend. Our empirical findings highlight significant occupation downgrading, prompting an exploration of the role of work permits. The analysis indicates that permits have expanded employment prospects for migrants who were previously unemployed or engaged in blue-collar jobs, mainly for females and the youngest population. While permits do not significantly reduce occupation downgrading they are associated with more formal job search mechanisms. Moreover, our findings show no significant impact of work permits on the intensity of routinization; instead, there is an increase in the intensity of non-routine analytic and interactive tasks among the youngest workers. This suggests that permits could be complemented with additional instruments to enhance migrant matching in the labor market.
    Keywords: Migration; occupational downgrading; labor mobility; work permits
    JEL: F22 J24 J61 O15
    Date: 2024–02–19
  4. By: Rangel, Marcos; Marotta, Luana; van der Werf, Cynthia; Duryea, Suzanne; Drouet Arias, Marcelo; Rodríguez Guillén, Lucina
    Abstract: We investigate the assimilation of immigrant youth in Ecuador. Focusing on formal schooling and employing administrative data from high schools, we document subtle ways by which assessment biases against students with an immigrant background play a significant role in this assimilation process. We find that, after holding constant performance on blindly scored proficiency tests, teacher-assigned grades in Mathematics and Spanish are consistently lower for students from immigrant families. We show that these results are robust with respect to the omission of socio-emotional and behavioral traits that are likely valued by teachers. These differentials are larger for male students and those attending urban schools. While these grading differentials have direct impact over high school graduation rates, they may also discourage future human capital investments, potentially leading to lower college attendance, distorted choice of major, and sub-optimal labor market outcomes, which are all well know elements for the economic assimilation of immigrants.
    Keywords: Immigration assimilation;human capital;teacher discrimination;grading bias
    JEL: I24 J15
    Date: 2024–03
  5. By: Mladen Adamovic (Department of Huan Resource Management & Employment Relations, King’s Business School, King’s College London, 30 Aldwych, London WC2B 4BG, UK.); Andreas Leibbrandt (Department of Economics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.)
    Abstract: Ethnic inequalities are pervasive in the higher echelons of organizations. We conducted a field experiment to analyze if there is a glass ceiling for ethnic minorities entering leadership positions. We submitted over 12, 000 job applications, to over 4, 000 job advertisements, to investigate hiring discrimination against six ethnic groups for leadership positions. Drawing on implicit leadership theory, we argue that ethnic discrimination is particularly pronounced in the recruitment of leadership positions. Our findings confirm this hypothesis. We find that discrimination increases for leadership positions. Resumes with non-English names receive 57.4% fewer positive responses for leadership positions than identical resumes with English names. For non-leadership positions, ethnic minorities receive 45.3 percent fewer positive responses. Ethnic discrimination for leadership positions is even more pronounced when the advertised job requires customer contact. In contrast, ethnic discrimination in leadership positions is not significantly influenced by whether the organization’s job advertisement emphasizes individualism or learning, creativity, and innovation. These findings provide novel evidence of a glass ceiling for ethnic minorities to enter leadership positions.
    Keywords: Ethnic discrimination, hiring discrimination, resume study, field experiment, audit study
    JEL: C93 J23 J71 J78
    Date: 2024–03
  6. By: Javad Shamsi
    Abstract: This paper examines how immigration reshapes political landscapes, centring on the influx of immigrants from the EU's 2004 enlargement and its implications for the UK. I use a new variation in exposure to immigration based on migrant flows across various industries coupled with the employment structure in each region. Addressing potential concerns of endogeneity, I introduce a novel shift-share IV design, harnessing the industry-specific flow of migrants to regions outside the UK within the pre-2004 EU. The findings reveal a significant impact on support for the right-wing UK Independence Party and the Brexit Leave campaign, accompanied by a decline in Labour Party support. Moreover, the research indicates that voters' social attitudes toward immigration become more adverse in response to immigration. Political parties, particularly Conservatives, are also observed to increasingly engage with the topic of immigration in constituencies most affected by immigration, typically marked by negative rhetoric. The paper reconciles these findings by highlighting how immigration shocks entrench immigration cleavage, realigning political conflict from traditional economic lines to new cultural dimensions.
    Keywords: immigration, political realignment, industry-specific migration, EU enlargement
    Date: 2024–03–04
  7. By: Biljana Meiske
    Abstract: This work studies the dynamics of inter-minority relations and attempts to uncover the influence of status position of the established immigrants on their attitudes towards new waves of immigration. I hypothesize that relative status deprivation, that is, the degree to which own in-group is ranked low in the ethnic status hierarchy of the host country, has a negative impact on group members’ attitudes toward an even lower ranked status group (such as refugees). In an online experiment (N=1, 159), participants with migration background residing in Germany receive either a positive or a negative evaluation of their own ethnic/national in-group, as evaluated by a group of ethnic German participants, while keeping constant the evaluations of other immigrant groups. The results show that participants whose in-group received a negative evaluation are systematically less willing to donate to an organization supporting refugees. Furthermore, receiving negative evaluation impacts participants’ perceived descriptive norms regarding expression of non-acceptance of refugees (and other low-status out-groups) among majority population. Additionally, I study the role of indirect reciprocity as a possible moderator of observed treatment effects.
    Keywords: Immigration attitudes, Discrimination, Status
    JEL: C90 J15 J71
    Date: 2022–06
  8. By: Eva Moreno Galbis (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Felipe Trillos Carranza (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: The massive shift towards teleworking during the COVID pandemic relatively deteriorated working conditions of people occupying positions that could not be teleworked because they were more exposed to the risk of infection. Exploiting French data, we analyse the differential changes in sorting across occupations of immigrants and natives during years preceding the pandemic. Immigrants sorted relatively more into occupations intensive in non-routine manual tasks. These occupations cannot be teleworked. We find an increase in immigrants' sorting into occupations intensive in non-routine interactive and analytical tasks. However, in contrast with natives, immigrants were moving away from occupations intensively using new technologies.
    Keywords: task specialization, health-status, immigrants, gender, jobs
    Date: 2023–06
  9. By: Berger, Valentin; Bjerre, Liv; Breyer, Magdalena; Helbling, Marc; Römer, Friederike; Zobel, Malisa
    Abstract: The Immigration Policies in Comparison (IMPIC) database includes data on migration policies for 33 OECD countries and the period 1980-2018. The dataset is presented in Helbling, Marc, Liv Bjerre, Friederike Römer and Malisa Zobel (2016) "Measuring Immigration Policies: The IMPIC-Database", European Political Science 16 (1): 79-98. This technical report provides additional information on the data collection (part 1), the codebook of the dataset (part 2), a glossary that defines the relevant terms and concepts that have been used (part 3) and the questionnaire that has been used to collect the data (part 4). This second version of the technical report also includes information on the update of the dataset for the years 2011-2018.
    Keywords: immigration, policy, measurement, aggregation
    Date: 2024

This nep-mig issue is ©2024 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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