nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2024‒01‒01
six papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura,  La Trobe University

  1. Labor Market Stability and Fertility Decisions By Joan Monras; Eduardo Polo-Muro; Javier Vazquez-Grenno
  2. Migration Drivers in Carbon-intensive Regions in the EU By Stefan Jestl; Roman Römisch
  3. Exploring how land inheritance shapes youth migration and work choices in rural Nigeria By Amare, Mulubrhan; Andam, Kwaw S.; Mavrotas, George; Ogunniyi, Adebayo
  4. wiiw Studies on the Integration of Middle Eastern Refugees in Austria, Based on FIMAS Surveys and Register-based Labour Market Career Data By Stefan Jestl; Michael Landesmann; Sebastian Leitner; Sandra M. Leitner; Isilda Mara; Maryna Tverdostup
  5. Enhancing Welfare and Rights of Migrants and Migrant Communities: Role of National Budget By Khondaker Golam Moazzem; ASM Shamim Alam Shibly; Moumita A Mallick
  6. Migrants, Trade and Market Access By Barthélémy Bonadio

  1. By: Joan Monras; Eduardo Polo-Muro; Javier Vazquez-Grenno
    Abstract: This paper studies how fertility decisions respond to an improvement in job stability using variation from the large and unexpected regularization of undocumented immigrants in Spain implemented during the first half of 2005. This policy change improved substantially the labor market opportunities of affected men and women, many of which left the informality of house keeping service sectors toward more formal, stable, and higher paying jobs in larger firms (Elias et al., 2023). In this paper, we estimate the effects of the regularization on fertility rates using two alternative difference-in-differences strategies that compare fertility behavior of “eligible” and “non-eligible” candidate women to obtain the legal status, both on aggregate and at the local level. Our findings suggests that gaining work permits leads to a significant increase in women fertility. Our preferred estimates indicate that the regularization increased fertility rates among affected women by around 5 points, which is a 10 percent increase.
    Keywords: labor markets; stability; fertility; immigration policy
    JEL: J13 J61 K37
    Date: 2023–11–14
  2. By: Stefan Jestl (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Roman Römisch (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: The paper analyses drivers of migration in carbon-intensive and non-carbon-intensive regions in the EU. Using a mix of econometric methods, such as spatial panel and spatial cross-sectional methods, as well as geographically weighted regressions on data for EU NUTS-2 and NUTS-3 regions, the results indicate that particularly carbon-intensive regions in Central and Eastern Europe are not only challenged by a potential decline in carbon-intensive employment but also by outward migration flows that could diminish their prospects for longer-term economic prosperity. From a policy point of view, the results indicate that policies focusing on the replacement of the lost jobs in carbon-intensive industries might not be enough for the carbon-intensive regions in Central and Eastern Europe. Instead, these regions need a simultaneous package of additional policies to improve their attractiveness.
    Keywords: carbon-intensive regions, green transition, regional migration
    JEL: Q50 R11 R23
    Date: 2023–11
  3. By: Amare, Mulubrhan; Andam, Kwaw S.; Mavrotas, George; Ogunniyi, Adebayo
    Abstract: Policymakers in Nigeria and other countries in Africa south of the Sahara (SSA) are relying on agriculture to generate employment for the growing youth population. However, there is concern that youth engagement in agricultural production is declining in favor of other economic activities. “Rural-urban-rural†migra tion occurs mainly during intercrop intervals, as the cyclical nature of crop-related activities prompts African youth to seek more economic stability from nonagricultural employment during the off season (Yeboah and Jayne 2018). While comprehensive data on youth’s departure from Nigeria’s agriculture sector remain elusive, various studies indicate a heightened exit rate, particularly post-discovery of oil resources, and a notable 63 percent reduction in the time Nigerian youth spend in farming activities compared to adults (UNECA 2017). In general, discourse on youth unemployment, with specific pertinence to Africa, underscores the pivotal role of different economic structural transformations that are hindering the formation of “quality†employment opportunities (McMillan, Rodrik, and Verduzco-Gallo 2014).
    Keywords: NIGERIA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; agriculture; youth employment; migration; economic aspects; land ownership; urbanization; education
    Date: 2023
  4. By: Stefan Jestl (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Michael Landesmann (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Sebastian Leitner (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Sandra M. Leitner (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Isilda Mara (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Maryna Tverdostup (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: This Policy Note reports on the analyses undertaken in a number of wiiw Working Papers that are the output of two projects financed by the Anniversary Fund of the Austrian National Bank (Project no. 18474 and no. 17166). Four of the papers are based on survey data from the FIMAS dataset, which has been compiled over the years by the International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD), together with wiiw, and which document the experiences of recent waves of refugees from Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq and Syria. The topics covered in these four papers are as follows. First, an analysis of the pattern of occupational status loss (or gain) that refugees experience in the course of the move from their home countries to the destination country (Austria), focusing on the move from the jobs they had prior to the move, to their first job in Austria and then to their second or current job. Second, an examination of the effectiveness of two of the labour market integration programmes offered by the Austrian public employment service (AMS) the Competence Check and the Voluntary Integration Year programme. Third, an investigation into the interrelationships between aspects of the ‘social integration’ and the ‘labour market integration’ of refugees. Fourth, an analysis of the factors determining (or related to) the mental health problems that this wave of refugees has had to cope with. A fifth paper is based on the register-based labour market career data provided by Statistics Austria it examines a number of issues (job entry, job quality, job stability) related to the trajectories of refugees’ labour market experiences in Austria, compared to other non-European migrants from low- and medium-income countries.
    Keywords: Refugees, labour market integration, occupational trajectories, refugee integration programmes, social integration, mental health
    JEL: C13 C41 F22 H43 I10 J15 J24 J62 J68
    Date: 2023–12
  5. By: Khondaker Golam Moazzem; ASM Shamim Alam Shibly; Moumita A Mallick
    Abstract: Migrant workers make significant contributions to national development, yet their essential needs are frequently overlooked in national budget allocations. The FY2023–24 budget lacks migrant-focused programmes. Challenges persist in the different stages of migration: pre-migration, in the destination countries, and during reintegration. The Ministry of Expatriates’ Welfare and Overseas Employment is not solely responsible for the welfare and rights of migrant workers. This study identified eleven different ministries and divisions that are responsible for the implementation of welfare projects targeted towards migrant workers. This study examines these issues, reviews previous budgetary allocations, and suggests a BDT 4, 550 crore budget for the three stages of migration to strengthen ministries’ assistance for migrants. This research emphasises targeted measures to improve migrant welfare and recognises their critical economic contribution.
    Keywords: Migrant workers, Migrant Communities, Welfare and Rights, National Budget, FY2023–24
    Date: 2023–09
  6. By: Barthélémy Bonadio
    Abstract: Migrants shape market access: first, they reduce international trade frictions and second, they change the geographical location of domestic demand. This paper shows that both effects are quantitatively relevant. It estimates the sensitivity of exports and imports to immigrant population and quantifies these effects in a model of inter- and intra-national trade and migration calibrated to US states and foreign countries. Reducing US migrant population shares back to 1980s levels increases import (export) trade costs by 7% (2.5%) on average and decreases US natives’ real wages by more than 2%. States with higher exposure to immigrant consumer demand (both from within the state and from other states) than to migrant labor supply competition suffer more from the removal of migrants. States with higher export and import exposure suffer more from the increased trade costs.
    Keywords: migration, market access, trade
    JEL: F16 F22
    Date: 2023

This nep-mig issue is ©2024 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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