nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2023‒12‒18
eleven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura,  La Trobe University

  1. A Comparative Analysis of the Social Situation Between Carbon-intensive and Noncarbon-intensive Regions By Roman Römisch; Larysa Tamilina
  2. Cultural similarity and migration: New evidence from a gravity model of international migration By Grohmann, Tobias
  3. Skilled Immigration in South Africa: An input into the Operation Vulindlela review of Critical Skills and General Work visas By Zaakhir Asmal; Haroon Bhorat; David de Villiers; Lisa Martin
  4. Leaving for life: using online crowd-sourced genealogies to estimate the migrant mortality advantage for the United Kingdom and Ireland during the 18 th and 19 th centuries By Elena Pojman; Duke Elijah Mwedzi; Orlando Olaya Bucaro; Stephanie Zhang; Michael Chong; Monica Alexander; Diego Alburez-Gutierrez
  5. Labour Market Integration Programmes for Refugees in Austria: Do they Really Work and for Whom? By Isilda Mara
  6. Development of Mental Distress of Refugees in Austria During their Economic and Social Integration in 2017-2022 By Sebastian Leitner
  7. Regional Determinants of Attitudes Towards Immigrants By Julia Peter; Silke Uebelmesser
  8. Pre-Afghan Taliban Refugee Exodus and the Complexities of Returning Home By Muhammad Ajmal Khan
  9. Recent Migration and Visa Trends in New England and Implications for the Labor Market By Riley Sullivan
  10. Les migrations au-delà de l’immigration : considérer les départs depuis la France métropolitaine By Louise Caron; Cris Beauchemin; Inès Munoz-Bertrand
  11. Parents et enfants dans les familles immigrées : vivre ensemble ou séparés By Cris Beauchemin; Julia Descamps; Ariane Pailhé

  1. By: Roman Römisch (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Larysa Tamilina
    Abstract: This study focuses on the social situation in carbon-intensive regions and the role of migration in defining its quality. The analysis examines whether carbon-intensive areas, especially those with large outward migration, are more vulnerable to adverse social trends than other regions. Our findings reveal a robust association between the processes of decarbonisation and migration, which collectively exert a significant impact on the social conditions within EU regions. This influence is assessed using various indicators, such as the Social Progress Index, employment rates, availability of hospital beds, access to preschool education, and the prevalence of severe material deprivation. We demonstrate that compared to noncarbon-intensive regions, carbon-intensive regions, compelled as they are to undergo structural changes to meet environmental requirements, have a diminished capacity to offer their residents satisfactory employment opportunities and a high quality of social life. Moreover, if carbon-intensive regions experience the challenge of negative net migration, their social development is highly likely to face a notable deterioration. On the other hand, in cases where inward migration predominates, regions at risk of decarbonisation tend to exhibit minor deterioration – and even outperform the noncarbon-intensive group experiencing outward migration.
    Keywords: decarbonisation, migration, social situation, EU-SPI, EU regions
    JEL: Q01 R23 I31
    Date: 2023–11
  2. By: Grohmann, Tobias
    Abstract: Theory suggests that cultural similarity increases migration flows between countries. This paper brings best practices from the trade gravity literature to migration to test this prediction. In my preferred specification, I use lags of time-varying similarity variables in a panel of international and domestic migration flows (>200 countries, 1990-2019, 5-year intervals) and estimate a theory-consistent structural gravity model with origin-year, destination-year, and corridor fixed effects. The results do not show the hypothesized positive effect of cultural similarity on migration. Instead, religious similarity has a significant negative effect on migration, while WVS-based attitudinal similarities regarding individualism, indulgence, and trust are insignificant. Additional results suggest that cultural selection and sorting can explain these findings, where migrants are attracted by destinations that are culturally similar to their personal cultural beliefs rather than the average cultural beliefs of their home country. Results of a two-stage fixed effects (TSFE) procedure and a gravity-specific matching estimator, which both allow the estimation of time-invariant similarity variables, confirm that the relationship between cultural similarity and migration is more nuanced than previously thought.
    Keywords: international migration, culture, gravity model of migration
    JEL: F22 O15 Z10
    Date: 2023
  3. By: Zaakhir Asmal; Haroon Bhorat; David de Villiers; Lisa Martin (Development Policy Research Unit, University of Cape Town)
    Abstract: Currently, the process of obtaining Critical Skills Visas and General Work Visas is perceived to be lengthy, onerous and ineffective at solving short-term skills shortages. The administrative process represents a significant barrier to entry. A consequence identified in the Economic Reconstruction and Recovery Plan (ERRP) is that the growth of multiple economic sectors is constrained by insufficient skills (Republic of South Africa, 2020). This is further exacerbated by skilled emigration and competition for scarce skills between countries. Operation Vulindlela has engaged with the Department of Home Affairs (DHA) in order to undertake a comprehensive review of the regulatory framework and processes for the Critical Skills and General Work visas in order to improve the efficiency of the policy framework and processes. Within the context of this review, this paper considers a number of issues related to the need for high skilled immigrant labour to be imported into the country against a backdrop of hhigh unemployment. Specifically, this paper considers the following as inputs into the broader work being done by Operation Vulindlela: Evidence of the benefits associated with skilled immigration in countries; An analysis of firm experiences with the visa application process using responses from a survey of firms; A review of the operational and structural inefficiencies within the current visa application processes in South Africa, taking into consideration the nature of unemployment in South Africa and the role of Employment Services of South Africa (ESSA) data and the Critical Skills List in skilled immigration visa application assessments.
    Keywords: South Africa; labour migration; skilled immigration; unemployment; policy & regulatory frameworks; work visas; wage inequality; foreign labour
    JEL: N3 N17 E24 J08 J21 J24 J61
    Date: 2023–05
  4. By: Elena Pojman (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Duke Elijah Mwedzi (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Orlando Olaya Bucaro (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Stephanie Zhang (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Michael Chong; Monica Alexander (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Diego Alburez-Gutierrez (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    Abstract: Demographic studies consistently find a mortality advantage among migrants, but a lack of longitudinal data tracking individuals across national borders has limited the study of historical international migration. To address this gap, we use the crowd-sourced online genealogical database Familinx to estimate the migrant mortality advantage for migrants from the United Kingdom and Ireland between 1750 and 1910. We compare age at death for non-migrants and migrants to Canada, the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, and Australia using mixed-effects regression models that account for unobserved factors shared between siblings. Results suggest an overall expected migrant advantage of 5.9 years, 95% CI [5.7, 6.2] even after accounting for between-family variation, with migrants estimated to live an additional 2.6 [1.1, 4.0] to 8.7 [6.3, 11.2] years depending on the country of destination. This study contributes to the understanding of the migrant mortality advantage in a historical context and shows the potential for online genealogies to contribute to demographic research. Keywords: crowd-sourced genealogies, migrant mortality advantage, United Kingdom, Ireland, sibling effects
    Keywords: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, USA, genealogy, migration, mortality, siblings
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2023
  5. By: Isilda Mara (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: In this study, we evaluate the effectiveness of the participation of refugees in integration programmes intended to help them gain employment. The specific programmes considered are the Competence Check programme and the Integration Year programme that were introduced in Austria around the time of the 2015 crisis, when refugees poured from the Middle East into the EU. The study is based on the fourth and fifth waves of a survey (FIMAS) of refugees from Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran and Syria in Austria, and it uses matching models to evaluate the effects on employment of participation in those two programmes. More specifically, it applies multivariate matching methods that ensure better balancing properties between the control and the treated groups. We find especially positive effects of the programmes on the employability of women, the poorly educated, younger and older age cohorts. These programmes thus seem to work specifically for those that find themselves in a more vulnerable labour market situation.
    Keywords: refugees, matching methods, multivariate distance matching, labour market integration, labour market policies
    JEL: J68 H43 C13
    Date: 2023–11
  6. By: Sebastian Leitner (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: Refugees are more likely to develop mental diseases as most of them have been exposed to potentially traumatic events and fundamental stressors in their home countries, during migration and after resettling in the host countries. This diminishes their prospects for social and economic integration, which also may have detrimental effects on their mental health. We examine the prevalence of mental disorders in the refugee population from Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran and Syria who arrived in Austria recently, drawing on data from four waves of the FIMAS refugee survey project. Interviews were conducted between December 2017 and April 2022 in Austria, with a specific focus on Vienna, Salzburg, Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. We found a high share of refugees (31% in 2017/2018, declining to 26% in 2022) who showed moderate or severe levels of mental distress. Women were found to have a significantly higher risk of mental illness. We also investigate the effects of mediators on mental health, applying pooled and panel regression model. A positive association was found, for example, in the cases of discrimination experienced in Austria and obviously potentially traumatic events experienced during migration. Negative correlations were detected for certain mitigating factors that foster resilience, such as proficiency in the German language, living in the same household with one’s partner and children, being employed, having more supportive relationships, and being more satisfied with the housing situation.
    Keywords: refugees, mental health, social integration, labour market integration, longitudinal study
    JEL: I10 J15 F22
    Date: 2023–11
  7. By: Julia Peter (Friedrich Schiller University Jena); Silke Uebelmesser (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, and CESifo)
    Abstract: Attitudes toward immigrants play a crucial role in voting behaviour and political decision-making. Such attitudes are shaped by individual characteristics, but the regional environment may also be important. This paper examines how individual attitudes toward immigrants are related to the economic, political, and social environment. We use individual-level data based on a large-scale representative survey and district-level administrative data. Specifically, we examine regional variation in economic growth, voting patterns, and characteristics of the immigrant population and their relation to beliefs about and attitudes toward immigrants. We also use an information experiment in which information about the actual characteristics of the immigrant population in Germany is provided and assess its impact on attitudes toward immigrants in the regional context. Our results suggest that the impact of the environment - over and above individual characteristics - is small and depends on the type of attitude.
    Keywords: attitudes, immigrants, regional determinants, economic concerns, policy preferences
    JEL: C90 D83 F22 J15 R11 R23
    Date: 2023–11–22
  8. By: Muhammad Ajmal Khan (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: This study is designed to address some key questions regarding Afghan refugee’s exodus. Such as, when did Afghan refugees migrate to Pakistan? What are the prominent factors which compiled Afghan Refugees to flee Afghanistan? What they deem about the future destination? Are they willing to repatriate to Afghanistan? why/why not? In the first step, this study has discussed the recent Afghan repatriation policy of the caretaker government, and identified either the Afghan refugee’s migration was voluntary or involuntary, similarly is the repatriation forced or voluntary? Moreover, this study provides a brief history of Afghan refugee’s migration. In the second part, this study has empirically, addressed the eminent questions. And finally, suggest policy proposal regarding sustainable repatriation of Afghans to Afghanistan.
    Date: 2023
  9. By: Riley Sullivan
    Abstract: From 2010 to 2021, 56 percent of the total population growth in New England came from increases in foreign-born residents. The labor force participation rate of foreign-born residents in the region in 2022 was 4 percentage points higher than that of native-born residents. While numbers of J-1 visa workers and international students in the region have declined, overall temporary employment visa use in the region has continued to rise.
    Keywords: New England; NEPPC; labor market; immigration; visas; international students; foreign-born workers; COVID-19
    Date: 2023–11–28
  10. By: Louise Caron; Cris Beauchemin; Inès Munoz-Bertrand
    Abstract: Si les migrations sont souvent pensées comme des mouvements unidirectionnels, les immigré·es étant supposés s’installer définitivement dans un unique pays de destination, les parcours migratoires sont plus complexes, et les re-migrations hors de la société d’accueil ne sont pas rares. L’objectif de ce travail est d’étudier les mouvements d’émigration depuis l’Hexagone. Dépassant la conception traditionnelle de l’immigration, nous élargissons la perspective en considérant la possibilité de départs non seulement pour les immigré·es, mais aussi pour l’ensemble des individus résidant en France en les distinguant selon leur rapport individuel ou familial à la migration (enfants d’immigré·es, migrant·es des Outre-mer et Français·es de l’étranger de 1ère et 2ème génération, natif·ves). Nous tirons profit de l’enquête Trajectoires et Origines 2 (TeO2), qui contient des données rétrospectives sur les allers-retours effectués depuis et vers l’Hexagone, et des données prospectives sur les intentions migratoires. Nos analyses distinguent également le type de destination, et montrent des processus différents selon qu’il s’agit d’un retour dans le pays d’origine, ou d’une migration vers une destination tierce. Les résultats donnent à voir l’importance de ces mouvements, réels ou envisagés, qui ne se limitent pas aux seul·es immigré·es. Ces mobilités sont marquées chez les migrant·es d’Outre-mer, et une proportion importante des enfants d’immigré·es du Maghreb et de l’Afrique sub-saharienne ont séjourné plusieurs années dans le pays de naissance de leurs parents, notamment avant 18 ans. Les intentions de vivre hors de France sont également répandues au sein de la population dans son ensemble, et en particulier pour les deuxièmes générations du Maghreb et d’Afrique sub-saharienne.
    Keywords: Immigration, émigration, intentions migratoires, allers-retours, migrations circulaires, immigrés, enfants d’immigrés, parcours migratoire, immigration, emigration, migration intentions, circular migrations, immigrants, second-generation immigrants, enquête TeO2, TeO2 survey, France, MIGRATION DE RETOUR / RETURN MIGRATION, IMMIGRATION / IMMIGRATION, ENQUETE SUR LES MIGRATIONS / MIGRATION SURVEYS, EMIGRATION / EMIGRATION, DESCENDANTS D'IMMIGRES / DESCENDENTS OF IMMIGRANTS, IMMIGRE / IMMIGRANTS, FRANCE / FRANCE, MIGRATION CIRCULAIRE / CIRCULAR MIGRATION, MOBILITE GEOGRAPHIQUE / GEOGRAPHIC MOBILITY
    Date: 2023
  11. By: Cris Beauchemin; Julia Descamps; Ariane Pailhé
    Abstract: La corésidence des enfants avec leurs parents est l’une des normes les mieux établies du « faire famille ». Dans la France contemporaine, en dépit de la diversification des modèles familiaux, la trajectoire de résidence supposée normale des enfants est celle d’une vie commune avec leurs parents de leur naissance jusqu’au passage à l’âge adulte. Ce modèle n’est pas universel : les pratiques de cohabitation parents-enfants peuvent varier à la fois pendant l’enfance et au moment du passage à l’âge adulte. Dans quelle mesure l’expérience de la migration affecte-t-elle les configurations résidentielles des familles ? A quel point les immigrés adoptent-ils des modes spécifiques d’habiter entre parents et enfants ? Les résultats montrent que 25% des immigrés ont eu au moins un enfant né à l’étranger. La moitié de ces enfants a migré avec leur(s) parent(s), un quart a rejoint son/ses parent(s) en France, le dernier quart résidant toujours à l’étranger au moment de l’enquête. Le regroupement familial apparait comme un processus à la fois lent et partiel, en particulier parmi les Subsahariens : dix ans après le départ de leur(s) parent(s), près de 70% des enfants d’immigrés d’Afrique subsaharienne sont encore dans leur pays de naissance. Au moment du passage à l’âge adulte, des singularités sont également observées. Les enfants d’immigrés sont bien moins souvent indépendants : parmi les 18-35 ans, ils sont 55% à vivre en dehors du domicile parental, quand la proportion atteint 75% en population majoritaire. Leur sortie du domicile parental est plus tardive et, lorsqu’ils prennent leur indépendance, ils ont davantage tendance que les personnes de la population majoritaire à demeurer à proximité de leurs parents (28% des fils et filles d’immigrés qui ont décohabité résident dans la même ville que leurs parents contre 18% et 20% chez ceux et celles de la population majoritaire parmi les 18-35 ans). Le chapitre examine ce qui, dans ces spécificités, relève de contraintes structurelles (politiques ou socioéconomiques) et/ou de particularités socioculturelles.
    Keywords: Migrations familiales, regroupement familial, réunification, immigrés, descendants d'immigrés, familles immigrées, enfant, parent, cohabitation, décohabitation, indépendance résidentielle, passage à l’âge adulte, Enquête Trajectoires et Origines 2, France, MIGRATION FAMILIALE / FAMILY MIGRATION, DECOHABITATION / LEAVING HOME, COHABITATION / COHABITATION, DESCENDANTS D'IMMIGRES / DESCENDENTS OF IMMIGRANTS, ENFANT / CHILDREN, PASSAGE A L'AGE ADULTE / TRANSITION TO ADULTHOOD, IMMIGRE / IMMIGRANTS, REGROUPEMENT FAMILIAL / FAMILY REUNIFICATION, PARENT / PARENTS, FRANCE / FRANCE, FAMILLE / FAMILY
    Date: 2023

This nep-mig issue is ©2023 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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