nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2023‒12‒11
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura,  La Trobe University

  1. Do refugees impact crime? Causal evidence from large-scale refugee immigration to Germany By Lange, Martin; Sommerfeld, Katrin
  2. Children in refugee camps and their role in refugee-host community integration By Nyambedha, Erick Otieno; Jaji, Rose; Kuhnt, Jana
  3. Gender gap dynamics among refugees and recent immigrants: Different start, similar patterns? By Kosyakova, Yuliya; Salikutluk, Zerrin
  4. Natives' gender norms and the labor market integration of female immigrants By Bredtmann, Julia; Otten, Sebastian
  5. The origins of foreign-born populations in Denmark and Sweden By Kashnitsky, Ilya; Callaway, Julia; Strozza, Cosmo
  6. Religious terrorism, forced migration, and women's empowerment: Evidence from the Boko Haram insurgency By Elice, Paola; Martínez Flores, Fernanda; Reichert, Arndt R.
  7. City formation by dual migration of firms and workers By Kensuke Ohtake
  8. Skilled Labour Migration and Firm Performance: Evidence from English Hospitals and Brexit By Kai Fischer
  9. The impact of Israel's Sub-Saharan relations on African migrants in Israel By Kohnert, Dirk

  1. By: Lange, Martin; Sommerfeld, Katrin
    Abstract: Does large-scale refugee immigration affect crime rates in receiving countries? We address this question based on the large and unexpected refugee inflow to Germany that peaked in 2015-2016. Arriving refugees were dispersed across the country based on a binding dispersal policy, yet we show that systematic regional sorting remains. Our empirical approach examines spatial correlations between refugee inflows and crime rates using the administrative allocation quotas as instrumental variables. Our results indicate that crime rates were not affected during the year of refugee arrival, but there was an increase in crime rates one year later. This lagged effect is small per refugee but large in absolute terms and is strongest for property and violent crimes. The crime effects are robust across specifications and in line with increased suspect rates for offenders from refugees' origin countries. Yet, we find some indication of over-reporting.
    Keywords: Crime, Immigration, Refugees, Dispersal Policy
    JEL: F22 J15 K42 R10
    Date: 2023
  2. By: Nyambedha, Erick Otieno; Jaji, Rose; Kuhnt, Jana
    Abstract: The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child significantly strengthened the legal basis for recognising children as actors with agency and a voice. In contrast to this, children in displacement contexts are still commonly portrayed as victims without agency. Children are dependent on adults, but that does not mean that they have no right to participate in decisions that affect their lives. This policy brief sheds light on the active role that children in displacement situations can take in their daily lives to shape refugee-host interactions and local integration in camp settings. It discusses how the role of children in the social integration of refugees can be strengthened and supported, indicating potential areas for intervention. With 40 per cent of the displaced population worldwide being below the age of 18, children form a significant part of this group (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR], 2023). However, there continues to be limited information on the perspectives and experiences of children in displacement situations, particularly those living in the Global South. Although there is some knowledge regarding interventions to support the integration of refugee children, not much has been said about their own initiatives with respect to social integration and mediating the circumstances that displacement and encampment entail. Children change the world around them and invariably impact the adult-dominated processes of migration and integration when they participate. Independently from adults, children negotiate and construct relations during their interactions in public and private spaces, such as in (pre-)schools, organised sporting events and in private meeting points. They develop friendships and share learning materials, food and language. Through their agency, children build relations that are critical for the process of integration. This can transcend adult-dominated notions about the safety and securitisation of displacement contexts, thus transforming the conflict rhetoric associated with refugee-host community relations. The role of children has become even more salient in view of efforts to facilitate integration through the Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework (CRRF), a key framework guiding refugee policy in many refugee-hosting countries in the Global South. At the same time, children's unique growth and developmental needs have to be adequately understood and incorporated into integration policies and programmes. In this policy brief, we call for a change in policy and programming to recognise and support children's critical role in social integration. We make the following recommendations to host governments, international agencies and local partners active in refugee camp settings to: - Support more data collection and analysis of children's actions in building relations that can foster integration in different displacement contexts. - Ensure that children are included as a special category in policy frameworks. Their interests and needs should be taken into account by listening to their voices and providing platforms for exchanges with adults, policy-makers and practitioners. - Create more opportunities for refugee and host community children to interact inside and outside of school environments. - Support sensitisation programmes that bring together parents of refugee and host community children to understand the role of children in the integration process and to ensure that the views of adults as parents and guardians are also listened to and addressed. - Address negative stereotypes and open conflicts between refugee and host community children that restrict free and positive interactions. This can include fostering dialogue and peaceful means to resolve conflicts as well as facilitating cooperation.
    Keywords: Forced displacement and migration, Africa
    Date: 2023
  3. By: Kosyakova, Yuliya (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany ; Univ. Bamberg); Salikutluk, Zerrin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin)
    Abstract: "In the last years, the labor market integration of immigrant women has received much attention in the migration literature. We examine gender differences in labor market integration among refugees and other new immigrants who came to Germany during a similar period from a dynamic perspective. We compare their pathways throughout the early period after arrival and study a range of conditions suggested to be relevant for gendered labor market outcomes. Using two panel data sources, which include recently arrived refugees (the IAB-BAMF-SOEP Sample of Refugees) and other immigrants (the IAB-SOEP Migration Sample) in Germany, we compare the dynamics and sources of employment gender gap among refugees and other immigrants. The results uncover narrow initial gender differences among refugees that grow over time and a reversed pattern among other immigrants. However, female refugees’ initial disadvantaged starting position maintains five years after arrival. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the explanations offered in the literature cannot fully explain the hurdles female refugees and other immigrants face when entering the labor market." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: IAB-Open-Access-Publikation ; IAB-SOEP-Migrationsstichprobe ; IAB-BAMF-SOEP-Befragung von Geflüchteten
    Date: 2023–11–27
  4. By: Bredtmann, Julia; Otten, Sebastian
    Abstract: Using data from the European Social Survey 2002-2020 covering immigrants in 25 European countries, this paper investigates the role of natives' gender norms in the labor market integration of female immigrants. To analyze the role of natives' gender norms, we exploit intertemporal, interregional, and age-specific variation in female-to-male labor force participation ratios. We find a positive and robust association between immigrant women's labor supply and the femaleto-male labor force participation ratio in their region of residence. No similar association is found among immigrant men. We provide evidence that our finding is due to the cultural assimilation of female immigrants to native women's gender norms, and not the result of exposure to similar institutions and economic conditions. Based on a gravity model of female immigrants' regional location choice, we further provide supportive evidence that the association between natives' gender norms and immigrant women's labor supply is not driven by a selective location choice of female immigrants.
    Keywords: Female labor force participation, immigration, gender norms
    JEL: J16 J22 J61
    Date: 2023
  5. By: Kashnitsky, Ilya (University of Southern Denmark); Callaway, Julia (University of Southern Denmark); Strozza, Cosmo (University of Southern Denmark)
    Abstract: This note examines the changes in the foreign-born populations of Denmark and Sweden from 1990 to 2019, using a visual representation of the proportion and composition of immigrants by country of origin. The dataviz clearly demonstrates how the diversity and size of the foreign-born populations have increased over time in both countries, and how some of the changes can be attributed to the major geopolitical and socio-economic events. It also identifies some curious patterns, such as the decline of the Finnish-born population in Sweden. The note provides a useful overview of the migration trends and dynamics in Denmark and Sweden.
    Date: 2023–10–30
  6. By: Elice, Paola; Martínez Flores, Fernanda; Reichert, Arndt R.
    Abstract: We examine the link between violent attacks of the Islamic extremist group Boko Haram, forced migration, and the empowerment of women in host communities. We find positive effects of distant attacks on the economic well-being of women, their use of modern contraceptive methods, and rejection of traditional gender views. At the same time, however, the findings show an increase in the risk that women experience domestic violence. We then examine forced displacement as a channel and its importance relative to other possible channels for the spatial effect dispersion. The results are different for Fulani pastoralist-farmer clashes over natural resources.
    Keywords: Boko Haram, Fulani, conflict, forced displacement, female labor force participation, employment, fertility, social norms, gender norms
    JEL: D74 J22 O12 O15 R23
    Date: 2023
  7. By: Kensuke Ohtake
    Abstract: This paper studies a mathematical model of city formation by migration of firms and workers. The Core-Periphery model in the new economic geography, which considers migration of workers driven by real wage inequality among regions, is extended to incorporate migration of firms driven by real profit inequality among regions. A spatially homogeneous distributions of firms and workers become destabilized and eventually forms several cities, and the number of the cities decreases as transport costs become lower.
    Date: 2023–11
  8. By: Kai Fischer
    Abstract: How do skilled migrant workers affect firms’ performance and output? I estimate the causal effect of EU nurse withdrawal after the Brexit referendum on the performance of English hospitals. Exploiting variation in the reliance on EU workers across hospital providers in pre-referendum years, I find that providers with a mean share of EU nurses before the referendum persistently face 2% more hospital-related deaths after the referendum. This translates to 5, 900 additional hospital-related deaths p.a. in England. Unexpected readmissions of patients increase by 5% and reported incidents with harm to patients by 7% respectively. Providers respond to missing EU nurses by hiring UK nurses and fostering promotions in the short run, and by recruiting non-European nurses in the long run.
    Keywords: skilled labour shortage, public healthcare, e-/immigration, Brexit
    JEL: J24 J61 I18
    Date: 2023
  9. By: Kohnert, Dirk
    Abstract: In the 1960s, sub-Saharan Africa experienced a major diplomatic offensive by Israel. Kwame Nkrumah's Ghana was the first country to establish diplomatic and economic relations. Others soon followed, so that by the mid-1960s some forty African countries were receiving agricultural and military aid from Israel and benefiting from scholarships for their students. Israel's involvement was facilitated by the CIA's activities in Africa at the time, which were conceived and funded by the United States and other Western powers as their "third force" in Africa. Since then, the situation has evolved due to Africans' growing solidarity with the Palestinians and their rejection of Israel's "apartheid" system of systematic discrimination against non-Israeli populations. Israel lost the support of most SSA countries in the early 1970s because of its collaboration with apartheid South Africa. As Nelson Mandela said, "South Africa will never be free until Palestine is free". At its 12th Ordinary Session in Kampala in 1975, the OAU for the first time identified Israel's founding ideology, Zionism, as a form of racism. Nevertheless, several African countries continued to maintain low-level contacts through thirteen foreign embassies, for example in Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda and Zaire, while educational and commercial exchanges continued, albeit on a much reduced scale and away from the public eye. But the scourge of Islamist terrorism necessitated a revival of relations. Military and security cooperation, including cyber security, is particularly intensive with Ethiopia, Zaire, Uganda, Ghana, Togo and South Africa, for example. It has also often served to prop up despotic African regimes. Today, sub-Saharan Africa is a lucrative market for the Israeli defence industry.
    Keywords: Israel; AU; Palestinians; African immigration to Israel; dispatched labour; remittances; human trafficking; smuggling; military aid; coup d'état; governance; sustainable development; informal sector; ODA; Peace and Security Council; Sub-Saharan Africa; South Africa; Nigeria; Eritrea; Rwanda; Egypt; Sudan; African Studies;
    JEL: D31 D62 D72 D74 E26 F22 F35 F51 F53 F54 F55 H12 H56 N47 Z13
    Date: 2023–10–29

This nep-mig issue is ©2023 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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