nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2023‒10‒02
eight papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura,  La Trobe University

  1. Adolescent Refugee Girls’ Secondary Education in Ethiopia: An Empirical Analysis of Multiple Vulnerabilities in Low-Resource Displacement Settings By Shelby Carvalho
  2. Gender Norms and the Gender Gap in Higher Education By Stefanie J. Huber; Hannah Paule-Paludkiewicz
  3. Sub-national disparities in the global mobility of academic talent By Aliakbar Akbaritabar; Maciej J. Dańko; Xinyi Zhao; Emilio Zagheni
  4. The Role of Firms and Job Mobility in the Assimilation of Immigrants: Former Soviet Union Jews in Israel By Arellano-Bover, Jaime; San, Shmuel
  5. Entrepreneurship and the Efficiency Effects of Migration By Gustavo González
  6. National Identity and Migration Policy Dynamics: Analysing the Effect of Swedish National Identity on Its Granting Asylum Policy to Syrian Refugees in 2013 By Desak Sinta Putu Suryani, Abdul Razaq Cangara
  7. Immigration and Nationalism in the Long Run By Valentin Lang; Stephan A. Schneider
  8. Internal Migration, Remittances and Economic Development By Xiameng Pan; Chang Sun

  1. By: Shelby Carvalho (Harvard University; The Center for Global Development)
    Abstract: Refugee girls are one of the most marginalized groups in the world when it comes to school participation, with girls half as likely to enroll in secondary school as their male peers. Gender disparities can be made worse by conflict and displacement and increase as children get older. As many low- and middle-income host countries move toward more inclusive models of refugee education, it’s critical to identify barriers that may differentially limit refugee girls’ inclusion. This paper uses two unique household surveys in Ethiopia to examine household and community factors shaping participation in secondary school. The findings suggest that the magnitude and sources of disadvantage vary across groups. Domestic responsibilities at home and concerns about safety in the community are more likely to limit secondary school participation for refugee girls compared to boys and host community girls, while other factors including parental education and exposure to gender-based violence are less likely to differ between refugees and host communities. These findings have implications for policies targeting girls’ education for both refugees and host communities.
    Keywords: education, gender, refugees, displacement, education in emergencies, sub-Saharan Africa, Ethiopia
    JEL: F22 I21 I24 J16 O15 N37
    Date: 2022–01–13
  2. By: Stefanie J. Huber (Department of Economics, University of Bonn and ECONtribute, Germany and Department of Economics, University of Amsterdam and Tinbergen Institute, The Netherlands); Hannah Paule-Paludkiewicz (Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt, Germany)
    Abstract: Cross-country differences in the gender gap of higher education attainment are large. In this paper, we study the role of gender norms for this particular gender gap. To isolate the effect of gender norms from institutional and economic factors, we investigate the decisions of second-generation immigrants in the United States to achieve at least a bachelor’s degree. We measure gender norms using economic outcomes as well as beliefs prevailing in the migrants’ parents’ country of origin. We find that gender norms explain part of the observed differences in the gender gap in attaining at least a bachelor’s degree. There is also a sizable effect of gender norms on gender gaps in higher educational attainment levels, such as a master’s degree or a PhD. We confirm the gender norms effect using a sample of siblings, which allows us to hold unobservable and observable household characteristics constant.
    Keywords: gender gap, tertiary education, gender norms, culture, second-generation migrants, sibling fixed effects
    JEL: I23 I24 J15 J16 J24 Z10
    Date: 2023–09
  3. By: Aliakbar Akbaritabar (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Maciej J. Dańko (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Xinyi Zhao (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Emilio Zagheni (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    Abstract: The migration of scholars has been often studied across countries, however, these studies have rarely focused on sub-national regions. We used data on 28+ million Scopus publications of 8+ million unique authors and geo-coded the affiliation addresses. Our results show that by focusing on the sub-national regions, the share of mobile scholars increases from 8% to 12.4%. We found that in all continents when a sub-national region is attractive for international migrants, it is also attractive for internal ones. The reverse is not true, though. For most continents, a depopulation is happening where scholars move abroad and their position is filled by scholars arriving from other sub-national regions inside the country. In the US, as an example, states in the mid-eastern area have the highest net rate of scholars leaving for other destinations inside the US, mostly on the west coast. In Europe, multiple countries show a similar trend that more developed provinces receive scholars from internal origins and send scholars to international destinations. Our results have implications for the global circulation of academic talent by adding more nuance to the generally accepted image of brain drain and brain gain. We highlight the interrelation between internal and international migration, specifically for regions constantly losing their academic workforce.
    Keywords: World, internal migration, international migration, migration
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2023
  4. By: Arellano-Bover, Jaime (Yale University); San, Shmuel (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem)
    Abstract: We study how job mobility, firms, and firm-ladder climbing can shape immigrants' labor market success. Our context is the migration of former Soviet Union Jews to Israel during the 1990s. This setting presents unique institutional features—including the lack of barriers posed by migration regulations—and rich data availability. Differential sorting across firms and differential pay-setting within firms both explain important shares of immigrant-native wage gap levels and dynamics. Immigrants are persistently more mobile than natives and faster at climbing the firm ladder. We uncover a novel, sizable job utility immigrant-native gap when incorporating non-wage amenities into the analysis.
    Keywords: immigrants, firms, job mobility, firm ladder, assimilation
    JEL: J31 J61 F22
    Date: 2023–08
  5. By: Gustavo González
    Abstract: This paper constructs and calibrates a parsimonious two-country dynamic general equilibrium model of entrepreneurship and migration. Countries differ in their TFP and degree of financial frictions. The model is calibrated to replicate the economic and migratory situation of the United States and the rest of the world. I evaluate the impact of changing migration barriers on GDP per capita, average firms productivity, business ownership rates, and consumption on both regions. I find that migration barriers have a non-monotone impact on the average productivity of the host coun-try, depending this on the entrepreneurial skill and mass of people that move in and are displaced by entrants. A migration policy that favors the entry of foreign people with a higher entrepreneurial drive would reduce profits of native entrepreneurs, but would make the economy more efficient and would lift the welfare of workers of the host economy.
    Date: 2023–07
  6. By: Desak Sinta Putu Suryani, Abdul Razaq Cangara
    Abstract: The Syrian conflict in 2011 has inevitably led to the massive forced migration of asylum seekers and refugees. Most of them fled to neighbouring and several countries in Europe. As a result of the European Union (EU) 's open border policy, their influx into Europe was reckoned a problem for many European countries due to increasing crimes and threats to its members' national security. Some European Union countries chose to be cautious by refusing or only providing financial assistance. Contrastingly, as an EU member state, Sweden received thousands of Syrian refugees until 2013. On October 3, 2013, the Swedish government announced an asylum policy of guaranteed housing provision and the right to bring families to Syrian asylum seekers until they obtain UNHCR refugee status. Such granting asylum policy to Syrian refugees shows differences in the identity of social security construction both in the society and its decision-makers compared to other EU countries. This article exposes the identity influence on the Swedish government's decision to grant asylum to Syrian refugees in 2013. This article employs the "aspirational constructivism" theory by Anne Clunan, arguing that a state's policy is based on a national identity sourced from society's historical reflections and the political elite's future aspirations. This article finds that Swedish society's history experienced cultural homogenization, known as a multicultural country, and the Social-Democracy and folkhemmet ("Home for the People") idea of the political elites resulted in the granting of asylum policy to Syrian refugees in October 2013.
    Date: 2022–12–27
  7. By: Valentin Lang; Stephan A. Schneider
    Abstract: During recent waves of immigration, support for nationalist parties has increased in many countries, but the political backlash against immigration differs strongly across regions. We identify an underlying cause for these differences by studying how local experience with immigration shapes nationalist sentiment and electoral reactions to current immigration in the long run. Our analysis draws on a natural experiment in post-war Germany, where a short-term demarcation of occupation zones led to a discontinuous and quasi-exogenous distribution of forced migrants. Across this border, the population share of migrants differed by 12 percentage points. Applying a spatial regression discontinuity design, we combine historical migration records with panel data at the municipality level for the 1925-2021 period. The results reveal a substantially weaker backlash against contemporary immigration in regions where more migrants settled in the late 1940s. This historical experience reduces the nationalist backlash by about 20 percent. High levels of immigration activate this effect over a period of at least 70 years. To study the mechanisms, we conduct a geocoded survey with a randomized experiment and open-ended questions in the study region. We find that both family history and local collective memory of successful immigrant integration contribute to these effects. The results of the randomized experiment are consistent with the natural experiment, revealing how experience with immigration can curb nationalism.
    Keywords: migration, nationalism, persistence, voting behavior
    JEL: D72 O15
    Date: 2023
  8. By: Xiameng Pan; Chang Sun
    Abstract: We develop a quantitative spatial equilibrium model with endogenous migration and remittance decisions within households to examine the joint effect of migration and remittances on economic development. We apply the model to internal migration in China. Counterfactual analysis of the calibrated model shows that the presence of remittances increases migration and welfare, reduces regional inequality and facilitates structural change. Compared to a conventional single-person migration model, our household model suggests a larger reduction in regional inequality and stronger reallocation of employment from agriculture to manufacturing and services in response to the decline in migration costs over the period of 2000 to 2010.
    Keywords: remittances, migration, structural change, spatial equilibrium
    JEL: O10 R10 R20
    Date: 2023

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