nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2023‒09‒25
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura,  La Trobe University

  1. Market Access and Migration: Evidence from the Panama Canal Opening during the First Great Migration By Sebastian Galiani; Luis F. Jaramillo; Mateo Uribe-Castro
  2. Learning from the Origins By Yarkin, Alexander
  3. The Role of Social Costs in Response to Labor Market Opportunities: Differences across Race By Kalee Burns; Julie L. Hotchkiss
  4. Barriers to the Integration of Venezuelan Migrants and Refugees in Colombia By Dávalos, María Eugenia; Ardila Vargas, Luz Karine; Garcia-Suaza, Andres
  5. Immigrant Assimilation in the Greek Labor Market By Roupakias, Stelios
  6. The externality impact of internal migration in China: Linear and nonlinear approaches By Shanfei Zhang
  7. Which Mexicans Are White? Enumerator-Assigned Race in the 1930 Census and the Socioeconomic Integration of Mexican Americans By Duncan, Brian; Trejo, Stephen
  8. Econometrics Modelling Approach to Examine the Effect of STEM Policy Changes on Asian Students Enrollment Decision in USA By Prathamesh Muzumdar; George Kurian; Ganga Prasad Basyal; Apoorva Muley
  9. Situation of Brain Drain in Pakistan, with a focus on the Healthcare Sector By Sameen Zafar

  1. By: Sebastian Galiani; Luis F. Jaramillo; Mateo Uribe-Castro
    Abstract: This paper examines the influence of transportation infrastructure on migration decisions in the context of the Great Migration in the United States. Focusing on the opening of the Panama Canal in 1920, we isolate the effect of improved economic opportunities from reduced migration costs. Using full-count Census data, we find that Southern African American migrants preferred areas with enhanced market access, leading to higher inflows after 1920. The study highlights the inter- play between migrant networks and labor markets in shaping migration patterns. Our findings underscore the significance of local market conditions induced by improvements in local market access in influencing migration decisions during the Great Migration.
    JEL: J16 N32 N72
    Date: 2023–08
  2. By: Yarkin, Alexander
    Abstract: How do political preferences and voting behaviors respond to information coming from abroad? Focusing on the international migration network, I document that opinion changes at the origins spill over to 1st- and 2nd-generation immigrants abroad. Local diasporas, social media, and family ties to the origins facilitate the transmission, while social integration at destination weakens it. Using the variation in the magnitude, timing, and type of origin-country exposure to the European Refugee Crisis of 2015, I show that salient events trigger learning from the origins. Welcoming asylum policies at the origins decrease opposition to non-Europeans and far-right voting abroad. Transitory refugee flows through the origins send abroad the backlash. Data from Google Trends and Facebook suggests elevated attention to events at the origins and communication with like-minded groups as mechanisms. Similar spillovers following the passage of same-sex marriage laws show the phenomenon generalizes beyond refugee attitudes.
    Keywords: Immigration, Social Networks, Spillovers, Political Attitudes, Integration
    JEL: O15 Z13 D72 D83 P00 J61 F22
    Date: 2023
  3. By: Kalee Burns; Julie L. Hotchkiss
    Abstract: Using the American Community Survey between 2005 and 2019, this paper investigates the role constraints to migration might play in explaining racial/ethnic disparities in the labor market. We find that Black workers are typically less responsive than White workers to changes in job opportunities, but responsiveness increases when those opportunities present themselves in locations with a higher share own-minority population. We construct an education/race specific Bartik shift-share instrument to control for potential endogeneity of growth in job opportunities.
    Keywords: racial labor market disparities; migration costs; Delta index; social costs; place-based; people-based; mismatch
    JEL: J61 J15 J18
    Date: 2023–07–14
  4. By: Dávalos, María Eugenia (World Bank); Ardila Vargas, Luz Karine (World Bank); Garcia-Suaza, Andres (Universidad del Rosario)
    Abstract: Integration migrants has become a central challenge and opportunity for public policy in the medium term, to mitigate the impacts and maximize the benefits. This study explores the factors that enhance or reduce barriers to accessing opportunities. Based on data from the Migration Pulse (MP) survey, our analysis finds that access to information, contact networks, and documents for migratory status regularization play an important role in facilitating access to services and improving this group’s employability. Thus, the findings show the interrelationship between integration policies and their complementarity, such as those related to healthcare access and the regularization process. Overall, the results provide evidence supporting the convenience of place-based policies.
    Keywords: Migration; integration; regularization; Colombia
    JEL: F22 O15 R23
    Date: 2023–08–18
  5. By: Roupakias, Stelios
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the economic integration of immigrants in Greece, employing microdata from the 2001 and 2011 decennial Censuses combined with aggregate data from the 2006 Structure of Earnings Survey. By means of probit and multinomial logit regressions, we document that migrants are, upon arrival, less likely to be employed relative to similar natives. On the contrary, their odds of being overeducated or holding a low-paying job are higher. There is, however, substantial heterogeneity between the different origin groups considered. Residence in Greece helps migrants to narrow the initial employment gap, whilst its impact on occupational mobility appears to be limited. The assimilation process of female migrants is much slower than that of their male counterparts.
    Keywords: Immigrant assimilation
    JEL: J60 J62
    Date: 2023–08–22
  6. By: Shanfei Zhang (University of East Anglia)
    Abstract: I analyze the influence of Chinese internal migration on the local labor market outcomes. In this presentation, both linear and quadratic equations are estimated to explore a comprehensive relationship between migrant share and native workers' wages in a city. My findings are twofold. In the ordinary least-squares regression model, every 10% increase in immigrants would lead to a 5.67% decrease in local labor wages. However, in the nonlinear model a turning point is observed. The average wage level decreases when the migrant share is lower than 27.82%, while increases with the migrant share larger than 27.82% are complementary, by IV regression.
    Date: 2023–08–11
  7. By: Duncan, Brian (University of Colorado Denver); Trejo, Stephen (University of Texas at Austin)
    Abstract: The authors explore unique complete-count data from the 1930 Census in which a respondent's race was assigned by enumerators and "Mexican" was one of the possible responses. Census enumerators frequently and selectively assigned a non-Mexican race— predominantly "white"—to U.S.-born individuals of Mexican ancestry. As a result, using enumerator-assigned race to identify Mexican Americans misses a sizeable fraction of the relevant population and significantly understates this group's socioeconomic attainment. The propensity for Census enumerators to identify Mexican Americans as white varied enormously across U.S. counties, and this variation is strongly associated with both the educational attainment of U.S.-born Mexican Americans observed in the 1940 Census and the amount of return migration by Mexican immigrants during the 1930s. As such, this variation may help to identify local environments that were more favorable for the integration of Mexican Americans.
    Keywords: race, ethnicity, Mexican Americans, immigrant assimilation, intergenerational progress
    JEL: J15
    Date: 2023–08
  8. By: Prathamesh Muzumdar; George Kurian; Ganga Prasad Basyal; Apoorva Muley
    Abstract: Academic research has shown significant interest in international student mobility, with previous literature primarily focusing on the migration industry from a political and public policy perspective. For many countries, international student mobility plays a crucial role in bolstering their economies through financial gains and attracting skilled immigrants. While previous studies have explored the determinants of mobility and country economic policies, only a few have examined the impact of policy changes on mobility trends. In this study, the researchers investigate the influence of immigration policy changes, particularly the optional practical training (OPT) extension on STEM programs, on Asian students' preference for enrolling in STEM majors at universities. The study utilizes observational data and employs a quasi-experimental design, analysing the information using the difference-in-difference technique. The findings of the research indicate that the implementation of the STEM extension policy in 2008 has a significant effect on Asian students' decisions to enroll in a STEM major. Additionally, the study highlights the noteworthy role of individual factors such as the specific STEM major, terminal degree pursued, and gender in influencing Asian students' enrollment decisions.
    Date: 2023–08
  9. By: Sameen Zafar (Suleman Dawood School of Business, Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS))
    Abstract: In this brief, we draw attention to Pakistan with the purpose of diversifying research on brain drain of individuals who migrate from the country primarily in search of a better quality of life and institutions, particularly focusing on the healthcare sector. Brain drain in Pakistan has become a perpetually rising phenomenon with more and more highly skilled workers leaving the country, yet there is relatively less research on this group. Pakistan offers a unique insight into migration of skilled workers from developing states due to the recent economic turmoil, as well as the consequent effects on the country, the repercussions for those who remain behind, and policy instruments used to maximize benefits for all stakeholders. Brain drain in the country has led to a shortage of highly qualified medical professionals, and poor returns on investment by the government.
    Keywords: Brain drain, Developing Country, Healthcare Sector, Migration, Pakistan,
    Date: 2023

This nep-mig issue is ©2023 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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