nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2023‒05‒22
seven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. The Effect of the Out of Africa Migration on Cultural Diversity By Wainstock, Daniel Crisóstomo; Galor, Oded; Klemp, Marc
  2. The Push of Big City Prices and the Pull of Small Town Amenities By Heidi Artigue; Jeffrey Brinkman; Svyatoslav Karnasevych
  3. Who Are Leaving Metropolitan Areas in the Post-COVID-19 Era:An Analysis of Urban Residents' Migration Decisions in Japan By PENG, Xue; DAI, Erbiao
  4. Coping with Compounding Challenges in Conflict Crises: Evidence from North-east Nigeria By Wolfgang Stojetz; Tilman Brück
  5. Federal-Local Partnerships on Immigration Law Enforcement: Are the Policies Effective in Reducing Violent Victimization? By Eric P. Baumer; Min Xie
  6. International Migration in Ireland, 2022 By Philip J. O’Connell
  7. The political economy of remittances:the case of Sub-Saharan Africa By Judit Kiss

  1. By: Wainstock, Daniel Crisóstomo (Brown University); Galor, Oded (Brown University); Klemp, Marc (University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: Evidence suggests that the Out of Africa Migration has impacted the degree of intra-population genetic and phenotypic diversity across the globe. This paper provides the first evidence that this migration has shaped cultural diversity. Leveraging a folklore catalogue of 958 oral traditions across the world, we show that ethnic groups further away from East Africa along the migratory routes have lower folkloric diversity. This pattern is consistent with the compression of genetic, phenotypic, and phonemic traits along the Out of Africa migration routes, setting conditions for the emergence and proliferation of differential cultural diversity and economic development across the world.
    Keywords: diversity, culture, Out of Africa migration, folklore
    JEL: O10 Z10
    Date: 2023–04
  2. By: Heidi Artigue; Jeffrey Brinkman; Svyatoslav Karnasevych
    Abstract: As house prices continue to rise in large, supply-constrained cities, what are the implications for other places that have room to grow? Recent literature suggests that amenities that improve quality of life are becoming increasingly important in location decisions. In this paper, we explore how location amenities have differentially driven population and price dynamics in small towns versus big cities, with a focus on the role of housing supply. We provide theory and evidence that demand for high-amenity locations has increased in recent decades. High-amenity counties in large metropolitan areas have experienced relatively higher price increases, while high-amenity counties in small metros and rural areas have absorbed increased demand through population growth. This divergence in population dynamics between big cities and small towns was driven by domestic migration, with high-amenity small towns and rural areas experiencing significant domestic in-migration.
    Keywords: housing supply; amenities; population dynamics; domestic migration
    JEL: R11 R31 R23
    Date: 2022–12–21
  3. By: PENG, Xue; DAI, Erbiao
    Abstract: Japan's central and local governments have implemented various measures to encourage internal migration from metropolitan areas to local areas to address issues related to population decrease and unbalanced regional development. However, despite a significant decrease in net migration flow from Japan's local areas to main metropolitan areas over the past 50 years, the net outflow from metropolitan to local areas has remained negative. This suggests that Japan's population migration spatial pattern is more difficult to change than that of developed countries in Europe and America. On the other hand, the three-year-long COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant changes to people's work, consumption, learning, and daily life. Will such changes affect Japanese residents' residential location choices and migration patterns? This paper uses data from "The Fifth Survey on Residents' Life Consciousness and Behavior Changes under the Influence of COVID-19" and a multinomial logit model to conduct empirical analysis. Our findings suggest that individuals who are more likely to leave metropolitan areas are those with relatively low job opportunity costs in metropolitan areas and high employment probabilities in local areas, young adults who have entered the labor market within the past ten years, individuals who have been retired for a few years, and those who prioritize their well-being. In contrast, household-related factors such as marital status, having underage children, and the work status of residents' spouse did not significantly affect their decision to move. These results provide new evidence to support major migration theories. Based on our analysis, policy recommendations are also discussed.
    Keywords: leaving metropolitan areas, migration decision, Japan, the post-Covid-19 era, leaving metropolitan areas, migration decision, Japan, the post-Covid-19 era
    Date: 2023–03
  4. By: Wolfgang Stojetz (ISDC – International Security and Development Center, Berlin, Germany; and Humboldt University Berlin, Germany); Tilman Brück (ISDC – International Security and Development Center, Berlin, Germany; Leibniz Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops, Großbeeren, Germany; and Humboldt University Berlin, Germany)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes how the intersectionality of gender, forced displacement, and collective violence shapes coping behaviors in conflict crises, paying particular attention to household composition by gender and age. Drawing on survey data from 17, 951 individuals in North-east Nigeria, the analysis finds that coping behaviors at the household, adult, and child levels are interlinked and strongly shaped by compounding challenges stemming from individual gender, household forced displacement status, and local violence shocks. These challenges have significant welfare implications and create severe vulnerabilities and special needs for specific groups of households and individuals, such as rural communities affected by violence, large households with many children, female breadwinners, and displaced girls. The findings emphasize the need for and potential of concerted policy approaches that account for the intersectionality of gender, displacement, and violence in conflict settings and pay particular attention to specific types of communities, households, and individuals.
    Keywords: violent conflict, gender, forced displacement, conflict crisis, internally displaced persons
    JEL: D74 J16 J24 O15
    Date: 2023–03
  5. By: Eric P. Baumer; Min Xie
    Abstract: Our understanding of how immigration enforcement impacts crime has been informed by data from the police crime statistics. This study complements existing research by using longitudinal multilevel data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) for 2005-2014 to simultaneously assess the impact of the three predominant immigration policies that have been implemented in local communities. The results indicate that the activation of Secure Communities and 287(g) task force agreements significantly increased violent victimization risk among Latinos, whereas they showed no evident impact on victimization risk among non-Latino Whites and Blacks. The activation of 287(g) jail enforcement agreements and anti-detainer policies had no significant impact on violent victimization risk during the period.Contrary to their stated purpose of enhancing public safety, our results show that the Secure Communities program and 287(g) task force agreements did not reduce crime, but instead eroded security in American communities by increasing the likelihood that Latinos experienced violent victimization. These results support the Federal government’s ending of 287(g) task force agreements and its more recent move to end the Secure Communities program. Additionally, the results of our study add to the evidence challenging claims that anti-detainer policies pose a threat to violence risk.
    Keywords: immigration policy, secure communities, 287(g), anti-detainer, crime, victimization
    Date: 2023–04
  6. By: Philip J. O’Connell (University College Dublin)
    Abstract: This working paper is the Irish report to the OECD Expert Group on Migration. As such, the focus of the report is largely shaped by the reporting requirements for the preparation of the annual OECD International Migration Outlook. The purpose of the paper is to outline major developments and trends in migration and integration data and policy. The principal reference year is 2021, although information relating to early-2022 is included where available and relevant. The Executive Summary provides an overview of the main findings of the report. Section 2 discusses the main developments in migration and integration policy in Ireland in 2021. Section 3 discusses the statistics on inward and outward migration movements. Section 4 examines trends in the population. Migration and the labour market are discussed in Section 5.
    Keywords: Migration, labour market, Legislation and Policy
    Date: 2023–04–24
  7. By: Judit Kiss (Institute of World Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, ELRN)
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to introduce and analyse the positive and negative micro- and macroeconomic effects of remittances in its complexity, in the migration-remittances- development context and to draw the overall balance from a political economy perspective in the case of Sub-Saharan Africa. The impact of remittances is mainly determined by the motivation to remit and the determinants of remittances. In the case of Africa, the main motivation is still altruism mixed with self-interest based on endogenous migration-, exchange- and portfolio- approaches with countercyclical and procyclical nature. The size and frequency of fixed and discretionary remittances inflow depend on the stock, type, legal status, personal character, individual behaviour, qualification and educational attainment of migrants, the political and economic situation of the host and the home country, and the transaction costs. The micro- and macroeconomic impacts of the yearly 50 billion remittances inflow is analysed according to remittance-developmental pluralist school of thought where the causes and the use of remittances are also considered. Though the results are not in all cases straightforward, Africa should promote and sustain the inflow of remittances as an alternative, non-debt generating source of financing development and strengthen the positive impact on economic growth, savings and investment, financial and human development, poverty and inequality reduction, and minimize/handle the negative consequences, like corruption, inflation, moral hazard, brain drain, Dutch disease
    Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa, remittances, micro and macroeoconomic impacts
    JEL: F F
    Date: 2023–04

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