nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2023‒05‒01
five papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Global flows and rates of international migration of scholars By Aliakbar Akbaritabar; Tom Theile; Emilio Zagheni
  2. Visa Policy and International Student Migration: Evidence from the Student Partners Program in Canada By Jérôme Gonnot; Mauro Lanati
  3. Female Labor Force Participation in Japan: An epidemiological approach using native and immigrant data By LIU Yang; HAGIWARA Risa
  4. The Spatial Distribution of Public Spending, Commuting, and Migration By Wookun Kim
  5. Measurement Quality of Life of Rural to Urban Migrants in Ho Chi Minh City by Using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Model By Tien Ha Duong, My; Nguyen, Quyen Le Hoang Thuy To; Nguyen, Phong Thanh

  1. By: Aliakbar Akbaritabar (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Tom Theile (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Emilio Zagheni (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    Abstract: Lack of reliable and comprehensive migration data is one of the major reasons that prevents advancements in our understanding of the causes and consequences of migration processes, including for specific groups like high-skilled migrants. We leverage large-scale bibliometric data from Scopus and OpenAlex to trace the global movements of a specific group of innovators: scholars. We developed pre-processing steps and offered best practices for the measurement and identification of migration events from bibliometric data. Our results show a high level of correlation between the count of scholars in Scopus and OpenAlex for most countries. While the magnitude of observed migration events in OpenAlex is larger than in Scopus, the bilateral flows among top pairs of origin and destination countries are consistent in the two databases. Even though OpenAlex has a higher coverage of non-Western countries, the highest correlations with Scopus are observed in Western countries. We share our aggregated estimates of international migration rates, and bilateral flows, at the country level, and expect that our estimates will enable researchers to improve our understanding of the causes and consequences of migration of scholars, and to forecast the future mobility of global academic talent.
    Keywords: Europe, World, international migration, migration, migration flow
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2023
  2. By: Jérôme Gonnot; Mauro Lanati
    Abstract: This paper examines how visa policy affects international student migration. Using administrative data on community colleges in Canada, we evaluate a reform that introduced a new visa stream - the Student Partners Program (SPP) - with shorter processing times and higher approval rates for student visa applicants able to demonstrate that they have the financial resources and language skills to succeed academically. Using a triple difference estimator, we find that SPP increased student migration from treated countries by 33% relative to what would have occurred without the reform. In line with our theoretical model, we further show that SPP had a large and positive effect on international enrollment only in countries where migration fraud was a major concern, and that higher enrollment was driven by an increase in both the approval rate and the volume of applications to study at treated institutions. We also leverage the SPP reform to investigate potential crowding-out effects. While we find no evidence that the enrollment of international students took place at the expense of domestic students, our results indicate that the recruitment of students from countries eligible to SPP had a crowding-in effect on noneligible foreign students.
    Keywords: International Migration;Students;Visa Policy;Information
    JEL: F22 H52 I23 O15
    Date: 2023–03
  3. By: LIU Yang; HAGIWARA Risa
    Abstract: This is the first study to examine Japanese female labor force participation (LFP) applying the epidemiological approach in economics (EAE), which identifies the roles of cultural and economic factors in determining economic outcomes using native and immigrant data. Although certain economic and social factors discourage women from working, we find that the probability of married female LFP of long-term immigrants is significantly higher than that of natives, controlling for human capital, family, and region of residence. The estimation results indicate that the LFP decision is significantly affected by both economic and cultural factors, that is, the social attitude toward being a housewife in the country of origin. Finally, the decomposition results show that our estimation model successfully explains 93.6% of female LFP difference between natives and long-term immigrants, with culture having the largest contribution, greater than that of the women’s own education and that of their husbands.
    Date: 2023–03
  4. By: Wookun Kim (Southern Methodist University)
    Abstract: What are the aggregate welfare consequences of fiscal transfers across local governments that finance their spending? Answering these questions requires understanding of how much people value local public spending. I develop a spatial equilibrium framework in which people's simultaneous migration and commuting choices reveal preferences. I combine this framework with unique data from South Korea and tax reforms as a source of exogenous variation. The estimated mobility responses imply that workers value an additional dollar of per-capita local government spending by 75 cents of their after-tax income. The general-equilibrium counterfactuals imply that a fiscal arrangement with lower redistribution would result in aggregate gains. A key aspect of my analysis is that bilateral migration and commuting decisions are made jointly. Ignoring any of these margins biases the estimates of preferences for public goods, and of distance elasticities of migration or commuting which play a central role in quantitative spatial models.
    Keywords: local public finance, redistribution, gravity equation, migration, commuting, quan-titative spatial model
    JEL: H3 H77 J61 R12 R13 R5
  5. By: Tien Ha Duong, My; Nguyen, Quyen Le Hoang Thuy To; Nguyen, Phong Thanh
    Abstract: Ho Chi Minh City is among the top cities in Vietnam with a high proportion of rural to urban migration. This strongly contributes to the economic growth of the city but challenges the infrastructure, social security services, health care, clean water, education, traffic, safety, and social order which negatively impacts the quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore the life quality of rural to urban migrants in Ho Chi Minh City. A quantitative method was employed to confirm the measurement model and structural model. Probability sampling was applied for the field survey. The final data of 272 migrants have been analyzed, using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM). Social capital, a special resource of the vulnerable like rural to urban migrants has been investigated. This contributes to the theory that both social capital and quality of life have been approached multi-dimensionally. Bonding, bridging, and linking dimensions have all been approached to construct the social capital measurement model. Five aspects of life quality including work, housing, environment, finance, and social cohesion have been measured to reflect the quality of life multi-dimensionally. The research results showed the reliability and validity of the measurement model. The positive impact of social capital on quality of life has empirically been confirmed. The findings implied the prompt strategies for mobilizing social capital effectively and efficiently, including the exploitation of bonding, bridging, and linking to improve the quality of life.
    Keywords: PLS-SEM, Quality of Life, Social Capital, Migrant, Vietnam
    JEL: I3 J17 O18 P25
    Date: 2022–04

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