nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2023‒02‒06
four papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Border Apprehensions and Federal Sentencing of Hispanic Citizens in the United States By Bertoli, Simone; Laouénan, Morgane; Valette, Jérôme
  2. Employment effect of citizenship acquisition:Evidence from the Belgian labour market By Sousso Bignandi; Céline Piton
  3. Native-born-immigrant wage gap revisited: The role of market imperfections in Canada By Aydede, Yigit; Dar, Atul A.
  4. Immigrant workers and firm resilience on the export market By Léa Marchal; Giulia Sabbadini

  1. By: Bertoli, Simone (CERDI, Université Clermont Auvergne); Laouénan, Morgane (CNRS); Valette, Jérôme (CEPII, Paris)
    Abstract: We provide evidence that Hispanic citizens receive significantly longer sentences than non-Hispanic citizens in the Federal Criminal Justice System in the United States when a higher number of illegal aliens are apprehended along the southwest border. Apprehensions can increase the salience of Hispanic ethnic identity, which is associated with persistent negative stereotypes, and can also deteriorate attitudes toward Hispanics. We rule out concerns that apprehensions might be conveying legally relevant information to judges. Thus, we provide direct evidence for time-varying discrimination toward Hispanic defendants. Our estimated effect is only at play for defendants without a heavy previous criminal record.
    Keywords: immigration, ethnic identity, discrimination, attitudes, salience, sentences
    JEL: K42 J15 F22
    Date: 2023–01
  2. By: Sousso Bignandi (: ULiège (HEC-Liege & CEDEM)); Céline Piton (Economics and Research Department, NBB and and Université libre de Bruxelles (SBS-EM, CEBRIG, DULBEA))
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether citizenship acquisition affects immigrants’ employment in Belgium. To do so, we rely on a longitudinal database, over the period 2008-2014, coupling administrative data from the Crossroads Bank for the Social Security (CBSS) and survey data from the Labour Force Surveys (LFS). During this period, citizenship was open to all immigrants who have been legally resident for at least 7 years, without any language or integration requirements. This allows us to study naturalisation in a liberalised context, avoiding part of the selection bias. The econometric analysis has been carried out using panel data fixed effects techniques applied to a programme evaluation model. We find that citizenship acquisition increases immigrants’ employment by 7 percentage points after naturalisation. This effect persists even after controlling for endogeneity by exploiting an instrument for naturalisation and thus confirms the existence of citizenship premium in Belgium. Furthermore, the analysis by type of employment shows that citizenship has a positive effect on migrants' entrepreneurship as well as on their probability of finding a better and more stable job. Finally, using cross-section administrative data from the CBSS, covering the entire population, we find that citizenship effect is stronger for individuals with a non-EU origin.
    Keywords: Employment, Immigration, citizenship, labour market integration, Belgium
    JEL: J15 J16 J18 J21
    Date: 2022–12
  3. By: Aydede, Yigit; Dar, Atul A.
    Abstract: Most studies investigating the poor earnings performance of immigrants implicitly assume that human capital endowments determine actual earnings, and that immigrant-nativeborn wage gaps can be analyzed in terms of those earnings. In this study we claim that this assumption is not validated by evidence and that wage gaps should be analyzed by examining earning potentials rather than actual wages that are also influenced by market imperfections. We apply a two-tier stochastic wage frontier, which allows us to separate potential wage earnings from actual wage earnings and to identify how much of the observed wage gap between immigrant and native-born workers in Canada is attributable to departures from their potential wage earnings due to imperfect information on the demand and supply side of labour markets. Using the 2006 population census data, our results suggest that, although the ethnic background plays an important role in determining the observed wage, a significant part of the wage gap between immigrants and native-born workers is not driven by worker and employer imperfect information, but by differences in human capital endowments.
    Keywords: Imperfect information in labour markets, returns to education, occupational mismatch, stochastic frontier
    JEL: J6 J15 J61
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Léa Marchal (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IC Migrations - Institut Convergences Migrations [Aubervilliers], UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne); Giulia Sabbadini (DICE - Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics - Heinrich Heine Universität Düsseldorf = Heinrich Heine University [Düsseldorf])
    Abstract: This paper studies whether firms employing immigrant workers are more resilient to an increase in competition in their export markets. Exploiting the surge of Chinese imports following its accession to the World Trade Organization and using a sample of French manufacturing exporters from 2002 to 2015, we find that an increase in the growth rate of Chinese competition in a foreign market has a negative effect on both the two-year survival and growth rate of sales of French exporters on that foreign market. This negative effect on firm performance is mitigated by the employment of immigrant workers.
    Keywords: Firm Heterogeneity Immigrant workers Import competition Productivity JEL Codes: F14 F22 F16, Firm, Heterogeneity, Immigrant workers, Import competition, Productivity JEL Codes: F14 F22 F16
    Date: 2022–11–04

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