nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2023‒01‒09
nineteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Do Immigrants Ever Oppose Immigration? By Kaeser, Aflatun; Tani, Massimiliano
  2. Child Growth and Refugee Status: Evidence from Syrian Migrants in Turkey By Murat Demirci; Andrew D. Foster; Murat G. Kirdar
  3. Culture and the Labor Supply of Female Immigrants By Bredtmann, Julia; Otten, Sebastian
  4. Immigrant Peers and Foreign Language Acquisition By Green, Colin P.; Haaland, Kristine Bekkeheien; Vaag Iversen, Jon Marius
  5. Citizenship and Integration By Gathmann, Christina; Garbers, Julio
  6. Amidst refugee flows, irregular migration, and authoritarianism: The politics of citizenship in Turkey By Yeğen, Mesut
  7. The impact of corruption on migration flows: evidence from Sub Saharan African countries By Bianca Balsimelli Ghelli; Elton Bequiraj; Marilena Giannetti
  8. How Foreign Aid Affects Migration: Quantifying Transmission Channels By Léa Marchal; Claire Naiditch; Betül Simsek
  9. Characteristics of migration flows and settlement of migrants in the South of Russia By Kazenin Konstantin
  10. Hispanic Americans in the Labor Market: Patterns over Time and across Generations By Antman, Francisca M.; Duncan, Brian; Trejo, Stephen
  11. The socio-cultural integration of immigrants in Germany: Changes across generations By Giovanis, Eleftherios; Akdede, Sacit Hadi
  12. Rural-Urban Migration and the Re-organization of Agriculture By Raahil Madhok; Frederik Noack; Ahmed Mushfiq Mobarak
  13. Bargaining for working conditions and social rights of migrant workers in Central East European countries (BARMIG), National report: Serbia By Tibor T Meszmann
  14. Preference for Redistribution, Poverty Perception among Chinese Migrants By Zhou Xun; Michel Lubrano
  15. Climate change and migration: Reviewing the role of access to agricultural adaptation measures By Mukherjee, Manisha
  16. When Immigrants Meet Exporters: A Reassessment of the Immigrant Wage Gap By Léa Marchal; Guzman Ourens; Giulia Sabbadini
  17. Poverty, Unemployment and Displacement in Ukraine: three months into the war By Maksym Obrizan
  18. Where to go? High-skilled individuals' regional preferences By Jeworrek, Sabrina; Brachert, Matthias
  19. Agglomeration and emigration: The economic impact of railways in post-Famine Ireland By Fernihough, Alan; Lyons, Ronan C.

  1. By: Kaeser, Aflatun (Utah State University); Tani, Massimiliano (University of New South Wales)
    Abstract: This paper analyses immigrants' views about immigration, filling an important void in the immigration literature. In particular, it explores the role of statistical discrimination as a cause of possible opposition to immigration in absence of stringent immigration policies and large volumes of undocumented immigration. We test this hypothesis using US data from the 7th wave of the World Value Survey finding that successful immigrants in the US – i.e. those in the highest socio-economic group – have negative views about immigration especially with respect to its contribution to unemployment, crime, and the risk of a terrorist attack. This effect does not arise in the case of host countries that apply stricter controls on immigration, like Australia, Canada and New Zealand, or do not attract large volumes of undocumented immigrants. We interpret these results as evidence that undocumented or uncontrolled immigration negatively affects the standing of existing high socio-economic status immigrants by lowering it in the eyes of US natives, hence triggering an anti-immigration view as a response.
    Keywords: immigration, beliefs, attitudes, behaviors
    JEL: D1 D89 D90 F22 J15
    Date: 2022–12
  2. By: Murat Demirci (Department of Economics, Koc University); Andrew D. Foster (Department of Economics and Population Studies and Training Center, Brown University); Murat G. Kirdar (Department of Economics, Bogazici University and Population Studies and Training Center, Brown University)
    Abstract: This study examines disparities in health and nutrition among native and Syrian-refugee children in Turkey. With a view toward understanding the need for targeted programs addressing child well-being among the refugee population, we analyze, in particular, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS). The TDHS is one of few data sets providing representative data on health and nutrition for a large refugee and native population. We find no evidence of a difference in infant or child mortality between refugee children born in Turkey and native children. However, refugee infants born in Turkey have lower birthweight and age-adjusted weight and height than native infants. When we account for a rich set of birth and socioeconomic characteristics that display substantial differences between natives and refugees, the gaps in birthweight and age-adjusted height persist, but the gap in age-adjusted weight disappears. Although refugee infants close the weight gap at the mean over time, the gap at the lower end of the distribution persists. The rich set of covariates we use explains about 35% of the baseline difference in birthweight and more than half of the baseline difference in current height. However, even after that, refugee infants’ average birthweight is 0.17 standard deviations (sd) lower and their current height is 0.23 sd lower. These gaps are even larger for refugee infants born prior to migrating to Turkey, suggesting that remaining deficits reflect conditions in the source country prior to migration rather than deficits in access to maternal and child health services within Turkey.
    Keywords: Syrian refugees, birthweight, anthropometric measures, forced displacement, Turkey.
    JEL: J61 O15 F22 R23 R58
    Date: 2022–12
  3. By: Bredtmann, Julia (RWI); Otten, Sebastian (RWI)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of source-country culture on the labor supply of female immigrants in Europe. We find that the labor supply of immigrant women is positively associated with the female-to-male labor force participation ratio in their source country, which serves as a proxy for the country's preferences and beliefs regarding women's roles. This suggests that the culture and norms of their source country play an important role for immigrant women's labor supply. However, contradicting previous evidence for the U.S., we do not find evidence that the cultural effect persists through the second generation.
    Keywords: female labor force participation, immigration, integration, cultural transmission, epidemiological approach
    JEL: J16 J22 J61
    Date: 2022–12
  4. By: Green, Colin P. (Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)); Haaland, Kristine Bekkeheien (Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)); Vaag Iversen, Jon Marius (Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU))
    Abstract: Immigrants change the school environment. A focus has been on negative spillovers on native students' educational attainment. Yet, exposure to immigrant peers has the potential for a wider range of effects. This paper examines effects on foreign language acquisition focusing on Norway. In Norway all students are taught, and are assessed, in English from an early age. We demonstrate that exposure to native English-speaking peers increase Norwegian students' English language skills. We provide evidence that these spillover effects likely occur outside of the classroom. They are solely present for English language skills and provide evidence of positive spillovers from immigrant diversity in schools that is missing from the existing literature. Our results have implications for the wider social effects of immigration and how foreign languages are taught in schools.
    Keywords: immigration, English language attainment, educational attainment
    JEL: J15 I21
    Date: 2022–11
  5. By: Gathmann, Christina (LISER); Garbers, Julio (LISER)
    Abstract: Several European countries have reformed their citizenship policies over the past decades. There is much to learn from their experience of how citizenship works; for whom it works; and what rules and policies matter for integration. The article surveys recent quasi-experimental evidence and field experiments from the social sciences on the link between eligibility rules, take-up and integration outcomes. Across countries and reforms, the evidence shows that faster access to citizenship increases take-up and improves the economic, educational, political and social integration of immigrants. Other eligibility rules like civic knowledge tests or application fees also impact who naturalizes and therefore benefits from citizenship. Birthright citizenship, which is much less common in Europe, turns out to be a powerful tool for getting second-generation immigrants off to a good start. Together, citizenship acts as a powerful catalyst benefiting immigrants as well as host countries.
    Keywords: citizenship, integration, immigration
    JEL: J15 J2 J31 J61 K37
    Date: 2022–12
  6. By: Yeğen, Mesut
    Abstract: With the background of the Syrian crisis, irregular migration, and authoritarianism - strengthened by the collapse of the Peace Process of the Turkish state with the Workers' Party of Kurdistan (PKK) in 2015 and the 2016 coup attempt - the Turkish government has amended the Citizenship Law, changed policies concerning refugees and irregular migrants, and re-designed access to basic citizenship rights in the last decade. Due to these amendments and changes, tens of thousands of Syrians have been awarded Turkish citizenship. A few millions of them are now settled in Turkey and exercising social and education rights without being Turkish citizens. This state of affairs contradicts previous Turkish policies for citizenship and supports the claims that the government under the Justice and Development Party (AKP) has been constructing a more Islamic and less secular Turkish nationhood. Concomitantly, the basic citizenship rights of Kurds and members of the Gulen community have been massively violated. This indicates that being Muslim or Turkish does not protect citizens from discrimination.
    Keywords: Turkey,Citizenship Law,Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP),Workers' Party of Kurdistan (PKK),Justice and Development Party (AKP),Gulen community,Kurds,Turkification,Syrians,Afghans,refugees,migrants
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Bianca Balsimelli Ghelli; Elton Bequiraj; Marilena Giannetti
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of corruption on the migration flows from SSA countries to the OECD countries between 2000 and 2019. Fixed-effects and system GMM (generalized method of moments) estimation techniques are used to establish a relationship between emigration and corruption. The empirical results indicate that when corruption increases, migration flows also increase, where corruption is measured on a scale of 0 (not corrupt) to 100 (totally corrupt). Splitting the sample by income inequality suggests that increased inequality doesn't reduce the ability to emigrate. Indeed, below and above the threshold the results are the same. Finally, splitting the sample by corruption level suggests that a high level of corruption in the home country doesn't affect the migration decision.
    Keywords: Corruption; Migration; SSA countries
    JEL: F22 O55 D73
    Date: 2022–12
  8. By: Léa Marchal (Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne); Claire Naiditch (LEM, Université de Lille); Betül Simsek (ILE, Hamburg University)
    Abstract: This is the first global study that quantifies the transmission channels through which foreign aid impacts migration to donor countries. We estimate a gravity model derived from a RUM model, using OECD data between 2011 and 2019 an instrumentation strategy. Our identification takes advantage of data on multilateral aid provided by multilateral agencies which is non-donor specific. We find evidence that aid donated by a country increases migration to that country through an information channel. If that channel were the only one at play, a 1% increase in bilateral aid would induce a 0.17% increase in migration. In addition, a 1% increase in multilateral aid reduces migration from the less poor origin countries by 0.05% via a development channel
    Keywords: Aid; Gravity; Migration
    JEL: F22 F35 O15
    Date: 2022–11
  9. By: Kazenin Konstantin (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: This preprint examines the migration of the population of the regions of the South of Russia in the second half of the 20th - early 21st centuries. Migration processes are considered in two “dimensions”. On the one hand, their development is investigated in a historical perspective, in connection with which migration in the Soviet and post-Soviet times is considered separately. On the other hand, migration flows are opposed to each other in terms of "distance", for which intraregional and interregional migrations are separately characterized.
    Keywords: analysis of migration flows, demographic studies
    Date: 2021–01
  10. By: Antman, Francisca M. (University of Colorado, Boulder); Duncan, Brian (University of Colorado Denver); Trejo, Stephen (University of Texas at Austin)
    Abstract: This article reviews evidence on the labor market performance of Hispanics in the United States, with a particular focus on the US-born segment of this population. After discussing critical issues that arise in the US data sources commonly used to study Hispanics, we document how Hispanics currently compare with other Americans in terms of education, earnings, and labor supply, and then we discuss long-term trends in these outcomes. Relative to non-Hispanic Whites, US-born Hispanics from most national origin groups possess sizeable deficits in earnings, which in large part reflect corresponding educational deficits. Over time, rates of high school completion by US-born Hispanics have almost converged to those of non-Hispanic Whites, but the large Hispanic deficits in college completion have instead widened. Finally, from the perspective of immigrant generations, Hispanics experience substantial improvements in education and earnings between first-generation immigrants and the second-generation consisting of the US-born children of immigrants. Continued progress beyond the second generation is obscured by measurement issues arising from high rates of Hispanic intermarriage and the fact that later-generation descendants of Hispanic immigrants often do not self-identify as Hispanic when they come from families with mixed ethnic origins.
    Keywords: education, earnings, assimilation, immigrant, Hispanic
    JEL: J15 J31 I24
    Date: 2022–12
  11. By: Giovanis, Eleftherios; Akdede, Sacit Hadi
    Abstract: Previous studies have used language proficiency, citizenship, labour indicators, educational outcomes, and political rights as measures of migrants’ socio-cultural integration. However, little is known about the migrants’ participation in volunteering activities, music concerts, theatrical plays, and artistic activities, among others, and how this is compared to the participation of natives, defined as people of German descent and born in Germany. The study aims to investigate and compare the cultural and social involvement between migrants and natives. The analysis relies on information from the German Socio-Economic Panel Survey (GSOEP). Panel data models, in particular, the random-effects ordered Logit model, are utilised because the investigated outcomes are recorded in frequency and are ordered variables. We compare the participation in socio-cultural activities among immigrants of the first, second, and 2.5 generations. Our findings indicate that first-generation immigrants are less likely to engage in various socio-cultural activities. However, the 2.5 generation immigrants are more active than the native population, as this generation of immigrants participates more frequently. The findings highlight the importance of fostering interaction between natives and immigrants in the workplace and the social and cultural realms. Participation in social and cultural activities may increase intercultural awareness and contribute to the eradication of bias and prejudice.
    Keywords: International Migration; First and Second-Generation Immigrants; Panel Data; Socio-Cultural Participation
    JEL: Z11 Z13
    Date: 2022–12–14
  12. By: Raahil Madhok (University of British Columbia); Frederik Noack (University of British Columbia); Ahmed Mushfiq Mobarak (Cowles Foundation, Yale University)
    Abstract: This paper studies the response of agricultural production to rural labor loss during the process of urbanization. Using household microdata from India and exogenous variation in migration induced by urban income shocks interacted with distance to cities, we document sharp declines in crop production among migrant-sending households residing near cities. Households with migration opportunities do not substitute agricultural labour with capital, nor do they adopt new agricultural machinery. Instead, they divest from agriculture altogether and cultivate less land. We use a two-sector general equilibrium model with crop and land markets to trace the ensuing spatial reorganization of agriculture. Other non-migrant village residents expand farming (land market channel) and farmers in more remote villages with fewer migration opportunities adopt yield-enhancing technologies and produce more crops (crop market channel). Counterfactual simulations show that over half of the aggregate food production losses driven by urbanization is mitigated by these spillovers. This leads to a spatial reorganization in which food production moves away from urban areas and towards remote areas with low emigration.
    Date: 2022–10
  13. By: Tibor T Meszmann
    Abstract: Several push factors influence migrations from Serbia to CEE: the deteriorating quality of jobs, bad working conditions for industrial and service sector jobs, and the poor function- ing of the rule of law. Labour migration from Serbia to CEE is mostly temporary, and the largest cohort who take such jobs consists of members of the middle-aged population with secondary or elementary education. They find employment in physically hard jobs in CEE manufacturing (especially in the automotive and electronics industry), construction, and tourism. The use of labour intermediation services has rapidly increased from 2016 onwards, but employer-driven temporary migration (that is, employer posting and its hybrid forms) is gradually gaining ground. In general, an information deficit exists among migrant workers, which several important civil society organization (CSO) initiatives along with closed infor- mation flows among workers, and rudimentary cooperation among internationally active trade unions have solved. One solution for the information deficit and the related dangers of overexploitation is to link two forms of “screening” jobs and work arrangements: closed groups of migrant workers should establish regular, preferably institutionalised communi- cation channels with a trade union or other worker organization. Such links could yield both mutual and more general social benefits.
    Date: 2022–12–06
  14. By: Zhou Xun (NUFE - Nanjing University of Finance and Economics); Michel Lubrano (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, School of Economics, Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics)
    Abstract: We analyse preference for redistribution and the perceived role of "circumstances" and "effort" in China within the framework of the belief in a just world hypothesis (BJW) using the 2006 CGSS. As this very rich data base does not include Dalbert questionnaire on GBJW and PBJW, we have completed the CGSS by a survey led during the COVID episode in Shanghai and Nanjing. Thanks to this new survey, we could identify the components of PBJW and GBJW inside the traditional opinion variables about the causes of poverty and the desire for redistribution of the CGSS. Using a tri-variate ordered probit model for explaining opinions, we show how treating the decision to migrate as an endogenous variable modifies the usual results of the literature concerning migrants and the effects of the Hukou status. The correlations found validate the distinction between personal BJW and general BJW, a distinction that has important policy implications for the status of migrants.
    Keywords: Preference for redistribution, inequality perceptions, belief in a just world, Hukou and migrant workers, conditional correlations, binary endogenous, GHK simulator, marginal effects
    Date: 2022–11
  15. By: Mukherjee, Manisha (RS: GSBE MGSoG, Maastricht Graduate School of Governance, RS: UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: This study examines the moderating role of access to agricultural adaptation measures in how climate change is affecting human migration in the middle- and low-income countries. The literature on the association between climate change, agricultural production, and migration has seen a dramatic expansion in the past decade and highlighted the complexity of the process. Yet, a crucial link that is missing in the discussions is the inter-linkage between migration responses and access to in-situ agricultural adaptation measures. To address this gap, I build this study on an emerging approach that treats adaptation to climate change as an additional component of sustainable economic development. I systematically review 81 quantitative and qualitative studies on the nexus of climate change, migration, and agriculture in the middle- and low-income countries and investigate the migration responses of agricultural households in conjunction with access to agricultural adaptation measures. I find a significant overlap between the social class of farmers, their capabilities to adapt in situ, and their migration decisions. The migration responses vary across agricultural households based on access to in-situ adaptation measures. Additionally, this interaction is heavily moderated by other local contextual factors- such as easy access to credit, participation in social networks, ethnic and social fractionalization, presence of conflicts, and social structures. Based on the findings, I propose a conceptual framework that could aid in deconstructing the migration responses of agricultural households in less-developed countries. Furthermore, I highlight critical policy gaps in building climate-resilient rural economies and suggest future research agendas with regard to climate change, migration, and agricultural adaptation measures.
    JEL: O13 Q01 O15 Q15 R20
    Date: 2022–11–22
  16. By: Léa Marchal (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IC Migrations - Institut Convergences Migrations [Aubervilliers], UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne); Guzman Ourens (Tilburg University [Tilburg] - Netspar); Giulia Sabbadini (Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement - Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies [Geneva, Switzerland])
    Abstract: We use French employer-employee data to reassess the wage gap between native and foreign workers. We find that the wage gap varies with the export intensity of the firm and the occupation of the worker. A model with heterogeneous firms and workers shows that our findings are consistent with white-collar immigrants capturing an informational rent. The evidence supports this mechanism. First, we show that the wage gap is positively correlated with the complexity of the firm export activity. Second, we show that wages react to changes in export intensity when the export destination coincides with the origin of foreign workers.
    Keywords: export, firm, immigrants, wage inequality
    Date: 2022–12–18
  17. By: Maksym Obrizan
    Abstract: This paper identifies the causal effects of full-scale kremlin aggression on socio-economic outcomes in Ukraine three months into the full-scale war. First, forced migration after February 24th, 2022 is associated with an elevated risk of becoming unemployed by 7.5% points. Second, difference-in-difference regressions show that in regions with fighting on the ground females without a higher education face a 9.6-9.9% points higher risk of not having enough money for food. Finally, in the regions subject to ground attack females with and without a higher education, as well as males without a higher education are more likely to become unemployed by 6.1-6.9%, 4.2-4.7% and 6.5-6.6% points correspondingly. This persistent gender gap in poverty and unemployment, when even higher education is not protective for females, calls for policy action. While more accurate results may obtain with more comprehensive surveys, this paper provides a remarkably robust initial estimate of the war's effects on poverty, unemployment and internal migration.
    Date: 2022–10
  18. By: Jeworrek, Sabrina; Brachert, Matthias
    Abstract: We conduct a discrete choice experiment to investigate how the location of a firm in a rural or urban region affects job attractiveness and contributes to the spatial sorting of university students and graduates. We characterize the attractiveness of a location based on several dimensions (social life, public infrastructure, connectivity) and combine this information with an urban or rural attribution. We also vary job design as well as contractual characteristics of the job. We find that job offers from companies in rural areas are generally considered less attractive. This is true regardless of the attractiveness of the region. The negative perception is particularly pronounced among persons with urban origin and singles. These persons rate job offers from rural regions significantly worse. In contrast, high-skilled individuals who originate from rural areas as well as individuals with partners and kids have no specific preference for jobs in urban or rural areas.
    Keywords: discrete choice experiment,job characteristics,locational preferences,rural-urban divide
    JEL: J61 R12 R23 R58
    Date: 2022
  19. By: Fernihough, Alan; Lyons, Ronan C.
    Abstract: Ireland developed one of the world's most intensive railroad networks in the second half of the 19th century. However, the emergence of railroads occurred in tandem with a failure to industrialize and mass depopulation suggesting limited, if any, impact on the island's economy. This paper examines this claim from a trade-based market-access perspective. Matching high-resolution geospatial data for nearly 3,400 districts to existing road and waterway networks as well as Ireland's nascent railroad network, we quantify the extent of market access improvements caused by rail. Additionally, we compute an external market access measure that accounts for improved access to international ports. Our findings reveal that this distinction is vital. Improvements in domestic market access brought about by railroads had a substantial positive influence on both population density and land values, while better access to ports had the opposite, negative, effect. Overall, these conflicting forces cancel out, hiding rail's importance. However, a supplementary analysis reveals that the introduction of rail fostered a significant reorientation within the economy across two key domains: emigration and the labour-intensiveness of agriculture. Areas with relatively more access to ports experienced greater levels of emigration and a faster switch from labor-intensive tillage to pastoral farming-with differential access explaining around two-fifths of the observed shift in both variables between the Great Famine and the Great War.
    Keywords: Ireland,Railways,Market Access,Emigration
    JEL: N14 N94 O18 R12 R4
    Date: 2022

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