nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2022‒10‒31
twenty-two papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Immigrants and Trade Union Membership: Does Integration into Society and Workplace Play a Moderating Role? By Bedaso, Fenet Jima; Jirjahn, Uwe; Goerke, Laszlo
  2. Another battle of the have-nots? The Impact of Immigration on the Poverty Risk of Western European By Martina Bazzoli; Joan E. Madia; Federico Podestà
  3. Livelihood Impacts of Refugees on Host Communities : Evidence from Ethiopia By Walelign,Solomon Zena; Wang Sonne,Soazic Elise; Seshan,Ganesh Kumar
  4. Return Migration and Labor Market Outcomes : Evidence from South Asia By Bossavie,Laurent Loic Yves; He Wang
  5. Why Student Aid Matters ? Roadblocks to the Transition into Higher Education forForced Migrants in Chile By Blanco,Christian; Meneses,Francisco Jalles; Villamizar-Chaparro,Mateo
  6. Discrimination Toward Migrants During Crises By Chatruc,Marisol Rodriguez; Rozo Villarraga,Sandra Viviana
  7. Determinants Of Migration: Linear regression Analysis in Indian Context By Soumik Ghosh; Arpan Chakraborty
  8. Fears and Tears : Should More People Be Moving within and from Developing Countries, andWhat Stops This Movement ? By Mckenzie,David J.
  9. Building Stability Between Host and Refugee Communities : Evidence from a TVET Program inJordan and Lebanon By Ferguson,Neil T. N.; Wolfe,Rebecca J.; Amine,Laila; Ramadi,Eric; Shahin,Lina
  10. Does It Matter Where You Grow Up ? Childhood Exposure Effects in Latin America and the Caribbean By Munoz Saavedra,Ercio Andres
  11. Spatial Development and Mobility Frictions in Latin America : Theory-Based Empirical Evidence By Conte,Bruno; Ianchovichina,Elena
  12. Policy Preferences in Response to Large Migration Inflows By Gallagher,Allen William Andrew; Ruiz,Isabel; Vargas Silva,Carlos Ivan
  13. Refugees, Diversity and Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa By Bertinelli,Luisito; Comertpay,Rana; Maystadt,Jean-François
  14. The Impact of Protracted Displacement on Syrian Refugees in Jordan : The Evolution ofHousehold Composition and Poverty Rates By Santamaria,Julieth; Hanmer,Lucia C.; Rubiano Matulevich,Eliana Carolina
  15. Randization of Malawian Economy through South African Diaspora could be the rescue of Malawian forex shortage By Phiri Kampanje, Brian
  16. Inequality and Security in the Aftermath of Internal Population Displacement Shocks :Evidence from Nigeria By Ludolph,Lars; Šedová,Barbora; Talevi,Marta
  17. Hosting New Neighbors : Perspectives of Host Communities on Social Cohesion inEastern DRC By World Bank; Pham,Phuong; O’Mealia,Thomas; Wei,Carol; Bindu,Kennedy Kihangi; Makoond,Anupah; Vinck,Patrick Thierry
  18. Consequences of Forced Displacement in Active Conflict: Evidence from the Republicof Yemen By D'Souza,Anna; Favari,Eliana; Krishnaswamy,Siddharth; Tandon,Sharad Alan
  19. What it Takes to Return : UN Peacekeeping and the Safe Return of Displaced People By Bove,Vincenzo; Di Salvatore,Jessica; Elia,Leandro
  20. Distributional Policies and Social Cohesion in a High-Unemployment Setting By Agüero,Jorge M.; Fasola,Eniola
  21. Understanding the Climate Change-Migration Nexus through the Lens of Household Surveys: An Empirical Review to Assess Data Gaps By Letta,Marco; Montalbano,Pierluigi; Paolantonio,Adriana
  22. Culture Clash: Incompatible Reputation Mechanisms and Intergroup Conflict By Vasiliki Fouka; Alain Schläpfer

  1. By: Bedaso, Fenet Jima; Jirjahn, Uwe; Goerke, Laszlo
    Abstract: We hypothesize that incomplete integration into the workplace and society implies that immigrants are less likely to be union members than natives. Incomplete integration makes the usual mechanism for overcoming the collective action problem less effective. Using data from the Socio-Economic Panel, our empirical analysis confirms a unionization gap for first-generation immigrants in Germany. Importantly, the analysis shows that the immigrant-native gap in union membership indeed depends on immigrants' integration into the workplace and society. The gap is smaller for immigrants working in firms with a works council and having social contacts with Germans. Our analysis also confirms that the gap is decreasing in the years since arrival in Germany.
    Keywords: Union membership,migration,works council,social contacts with natives,years since arrival
    JEL: J15 J52 J61
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Martina Bazzoli; Joan E. Madia; Federico Podestà
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of immigration on natives’ poverty risk in Western European countries. In doing so, it contributes to the academic debate on immigration impact in two manners. First, it introduces a novel outcome in this debate, i.e. natives’ poverty risk. Second, it brings together two strands of literature: that of the immigration impact on labour market outcomes and the one on the relationship between immigration and public finance. In fact, since poverty risk significantly varies in consequence of work attachment and public programs access, the impact of immigration on the poverty risks of European natives can be coherently investigated by combining the labour market channel with the public-finance channel. Empirically, we estimate to which extent immigrants affect poverty risk of natives, measured in terms of income poverty and material deprivation. Our analysis focuses on both the overall impact, i.e., how all immigrants affect the poverty risk of all natives, and the more specific skill-composition impact, i.e., how the share of low-skilled immigrants affects the poverty risk of low-skilled natives. To this end, we analysed an aggregate panel dataset composed by EU-15 countries plus Norway and Switzerland, annually observed for the period 2005-2018. Our findings indicate that higher shares of immigration do not increase the risk of poverty and material deprivation among natives.
    Keywords: Poverty risk of natives, Immigration, Western Europe
    JEL: J61 O15 I3
    Date: 2022–10
  3. By: Walelign,Solomon Zena; Wang Sonne,Soazic Elise; Seshan,Ganesh Kumar
    Abstract: Most refugee hosting communities are characterized by high levels of poverty with precariouslivelihood conditions, low access to public services, and underdeveloped infrastructure. While the unexpected inflowof refugees might bring both constraints and opportunities for improving and maintaining local livelihoods in thesecommunities, the understanding of these effects remains limited. Using a household level micro data set from a 2018baseline survey of the Ethiopia Development Response to Displacement Impacts Project, this paper assesses the impactof refugee inflow on the livelihood strategies of host communities with respect to diversification and agriculturalcommercialization. The endogeneity of refugee inflow is addressed by exploiting differences in factors thatinfluence refugee arrival in the host communities. Specifically, the analysis uses potential refugee inflow asan instrument, which is the product of population density and intensity of conflicts (number of fatalities per event)in the closest region of the origin country to the refugee camp weighted by the distance of the refugee camp to theclosest region. The paper also constructs an aggregate index to proxy households’ livelihood diversification strategies.The findings show that refugee inflow brings substantial benefits to host communities by creating significant jobs,in which people engage as secondary occupations, and triggers an increasing demand for livestock products.Specifically, while no effect was found on diversification of activities such as a primary occupation and crop productsales, a 1 percent increase in refugee inflow leads to a 2.7 percent rise in diversification of livelihood activities asa secondary occupation and a 15.9 percent increase in the value of livestock product sales. These effects tend to beheterogeneous across refugee hosting regions and the gender of the household head: negative effects were mainly observedin Gambella region, which hosts the largest refugee population in the country, and male-headed households weremore likely to benefit from the refugee presence for the whole sample. The paper identifies households'increased engagement in different livelihood activities and access to markets as a potential mechanism for the observedeffects. The findings add to the growing literature on the socioeconomic impacts of refugee inflow on host communitiesby showing an overall positive effect on the livelihoods and welfare of receiving communities.
    Date: 2022–05–16
  4. By: Bossavie,Laurent Loic Yves; He Wang
    Abstract: Despite the magnitude of return migration from overseas to South Asia, the labor marketoutcomes of return migrants to this region have been understudied. This paper aims at filling this gap byexamining systematic differences between the labor market outcomes of return migrants and nonmigrants in Bangladesh,Nepal, and Pakistan using nationally-representative surveys that include information on past migration. Conditionalregression analysis is used with a focus on four labor market outcomes: (i) labor force status (ii) sectoral choice(iii) employment type, and (iv) earnings. The paper finds that return migrants are somewhat less likely to be employedthan nonmigrants, which is mainly driven by returnees who returned at an older age. As evidenced in other contexts,return migrants in Bangladesh and Pakistan are more likely to become entrepreneurs compared with nonmigrants.Self-employed returnees are also more likely to hire paid employees and to be engaged in non-farm activities, comparedwith nonmigrant entrepreneurs. Return migrants who become employees earn a small wage premium relative to nonmigrants,compared with contexts where temporary migrants are higher-skilled. The returnee wage premium, however, islarger in the construction sector where most temporary migrants were employed overseas.
    Date: 2022–09–14
  5. By: Blanco,Christian; Meneses,Francisco Jalles; Villamizar-Chaparro,Mateo
    Abstract: Education is a powerful tool for social mobility and cultural integration. However, it is oneof the largest hurdles for migrants—particularly for forcefully displaced migrants, given their more vulnerablecondition and lack of resources to pay for private education. This paper explores educational gaps betweenmigrants and natives in Chile, a country that provides free public education to newcomers. The paper analyzes anadministrative data set that includes all students in the Chilean educational system and follows students from 2017 to2018. Using a research discontinuity design around the cut-off for financial aid to tertiary education, this paperinvestigates whether access to financial aid generatesincentives for forced migrants to enroll in tertiary education. This research confirms previous findings thatshow that migrants have lower advancement and enrollment rates than natives at every school level. Moreover, it findsthat financial aid applications constitute a major roadblock preventing migrant students from accessing higher education.Furthermore, the paper presents suggestive evidence showing that the interaction between the type of school (vocationalvs. technical) and the migrant condition affects applications for financial aid.
    Date: 2022–06–23
  6. By: Chatruc,Marisol Rodriguez; Rozo Villarraga,Sandra Viviana
    Abstract: How do crises shape native attitudes towards migrants A common threat could pro-duce an empathychannel among natives, but the perception of competition for scarce economic resources could just as easily sparkprejudice through a resentment channel. 3,400 Colombian citizens were surveyed and randomly primed to consider theeconomic consequences of COVID-19 before eliciting their attitudes towards Venezuelan migrants. The findings suggestthat native attitudes towards migrants are substantially more suggestive of the resentment channel in the treatmentgroup. However, respondents in the so-called impressionable years—ages 18 to 25—showed more altruism towards migrantsafter priming. Interestingly, both effects disappear in response to positive news.
    Date: 2022–06–15
  7. By: Soumik Ghosh; Arpan Chakraborty
    Abstract: Environmental degradation, global pandemic and severing natural resource related problems cater to increase demand resulting from migration is nightmare for all of us. Huge flocks of people are rushing towards to earn, to live and to lead a better life. This they do for their own development often ignoring the environmental cost. With existing model, this paper looks at out migration (interstate) within India focusing on the various proximate and fundamental causes relating to migration. The author deploys OLS to see those fundamental causes. Obviously, these are not exhaustive cause, but definitely plays a role in migration decision of individual. Finally, this paper advocates for some policy prescription to cope with this problem.
    Date: 2022–09
  8. By: Mckenzie,David J.
    Abstract: Only one in seven of the world’s population has ever migrated, despite the enormous gains inincome possible through international and internal movement. This paper examines the evidence for different explanationsgiven in the economics literature for this lack of movement and their implications for policy. Incorrect informationabout the gains to migrating, liquidity constraints that prevent poor people paying the costs of moving, and highcosts of movement arising from both physical transportation costs and policy barriers all inhibit movement and offerscope for policy efforts to inform, provide credit, and lower moving costs. However, the economics literature haspaid less attention to the fears people have when faced with the uncertainty of moving to a new place, and to the reasonsbehind the tears they shed when moving. While these tears reveal the attachment people have to particular places, thisattachment is not fixed, but itself changes with migration experiences. Psychological factors such as a bias toward thestatus quo and the inability to picture what one is giving up by not migrating can result in people not moving, evenwhen they would benefit from movement and are not constrained by finances or policy barriers from doing so.This suggests new avenues for policy interventions that can help individuals better visualize the opportunity costs ofnot moving, alleviate their uncertainties, and help shift their default behavior from not migrating.
    Date: 2022–07–25
  9. By: Ferguson,Neil T. N.; Wolfe,Rebecca J.; Amine,Laila; Ramadi,Eric; Shahin,Lina
    Abstract: The resettlement of refugees in host communities increases (perceived) competition for scarceeconomic and non-economic resources, which can contribute to tensions between the communities. This study tests theimpact of a TVET program in Jordan and Lebanon that aims to tackle stresses associated with competition, particularly inthe labor market. The authors test the impact of the program on economic outcomes, economic and life optimism, experienceand perception of economic competition and ingroup-outgroup discrimination using a range of survey measures andbehavioral experiments. They also conduct heterogeneity analyses to assess whether the intervention affects host andrefugee communities similarly. The authors show that by the end of the training, the program has not yet achieved itsemployment aims for either hosts or refugees. However, for refugees, there are significant improvements in optimism anddecreases in the experience of short-term economic stress. There are also improvements in inter-group behavior forrefugees. These results provide insights on how to better tailor labor market programs to host and refugees whilebeing conflict sensitive.
    Date: 2022–06–22
  10. By: Munoz Saavedra,Ercio Andres
    Abstract: This paper studies whether the observed differences in intergenerational educationalmobility across regions in Latin America and the Caribbean are due to the sorting of families or the effect of growingup in these different places. The analysis exploits differences in the ages of children at the time theirfamilies moved across locations, to isolate regional childhood exposure effects from sorting. The findings show aconvergence rate of 3.5 percent per year of exposure between age 1 to 11, implying that children who moved at age of 1would pick up 35 percent of the observed differences in mobility between origin and destination. These results arerobust to using a specification that identifies the effect of place within households, the use of only anomalously highmigration outflows, instrumenting the choice of destination with historical migration, and a combination of both approaches.
    Date: 2022–05–06
  11. By: Conte,Bruno; Ianchovichina,Elena
    Abstract: Using fine-grained spatial data and a dynamic spatial general equilibrium model, this paperassesses the magnitude of mobility frictions in Latin America as well as the effects of their reduction on spatialdevelopment in the region. The results suggest that in most Latin American countries, migration frictions calibratedbased on spatially differentiated initial utility are on average smaller and less dispersed than those obtainedassuming uniform within-country initial utility. A reduction in trade costs due to optimal investments in roadinfrastructure in most Latin American countries increases the present discounted value of real per capita income onaverage in the region by 15.1 percent. This effect is larger than the effects obtained with static quantitative trademodels because of substantial dynamic gains. By contrast, a reduction in migration entry costs in the most productiveand more populous locations in the Latin American countries has a negligible effect on the present discounted value ofthe region’s real per capita income, reflecting the relatively small dispersion in domestic migration frictionsand their relatively low levels in top locations. In both counterfactuals, the welfare increases are significantlylarger than the increases in real per capita output because the reductions in mobility frictions allow people torelocate to areas with better amenities and therefore derive higher utility. These results suggest that trade costs, notmigration barriers, represent a major constraint to theefficient spatial distribution of economic activity and growth in Latin America.
    Date: 2022–05–31
  12. By: Gallagher,Allen William Andrew; Ruiz,Isabel; Vargas Silva,Carlos Ivan
    Abstract: What are the preferred policy responses of host country residents to large migrationinflows, and to what extent are these preferences driven by contact with migrants as well as values such ashumanitarianism This paper addresses these questions using new data on preferences of Colombians for responding to thelarge inflow of Venezuelans into their country. In a conjoint survey experiment, respondents selected and rateddifferent policy packages comprising variations in six policy dimensions: (1) labour market access, (2) locationrestrictions, (3) public service access, (4) family reunification, (5) numerical limits, and (6) length ofresidency. The results suggest support for the options of conditional access to the labour market (i.e., only incertain occupations) or full free access to the alternative of no access. There is support for unrestricted locationchoices and access to public services, as well as conditional rights to family reunification (i.e., only ifable to support dependants). Respondents also support the use of numerical limits and limiting the length of theresidency permit. The results show that those who have less contact with Venezuelans, those who put more weight oneconomic priorities, and those who see the situation in Venezuela as mainly an economic problem, tend to supportpolicies that are more restrictive.
    Date: 2022–05–18
  13. By: Bertinelli,Luisito; Comertpay,Rana; Maystadt,Jean-François
    Abstract: Despite mixed empirical evidence, refugees have been blamed for spreading conflict in thecountries that receive them. This paper hypothesizes that such a relationship largely depends on the resulting changein ethnic composition of refugee-hosting areas. To test this, this paper investigates changes in diversity inrefugee-hosting areas across 23 countries in sub-Saharan Africa between 2005 and 2016. The paper then assesses thelikelihood of conflict in relation to the changing level of ethnic fractionalization and ethnic polarization. Ethnicfractionalization measures the probability that two individuals drawn at random from a society will belong totwo different ethnic groups and thus increases with the number of ethnic groups present. Ethnic polarizationcaptures antagonism between individuals and is maximized when the society is divided into two equally sized anddistant ethnic groups. Refugee polarization is found to exacerbate the risk of conflict, with a one standarddeviation increase in the polarization index increasing the incidence of violent conflict by 5 percentage points. Suchan effect corresponds to a 10 percent increase at the mean. The opposite effect is found for the fractionalizationindex. Additional analyses are also conducted based on individual data. Ethnic polarization increases thelikelihood of experiencing physical assault by 2.1 percentage points. Inversely, the equivalent change in theethnic fractionalization index decreases the likelihood of experiencing physical assault by 1.9 percentage points.Similar effects are found for interpersonal crime. The results should not be interpreted as evidence that refugeesper se impact the likelihood of violence. Indeed, there is no evidence of a significant correlation between the numberof refugees and the occurrence of conflict. Instead, the analysis points to the risk of conflict when refugeesexacerbate ethnic polarization in the hosting communities. In contrast, a situation where refugee flows increase thelevel of ethnic fractionalization is likely to see an attenuated risk of violence. This certainly calls forspecific interventions in polarized refugee-hosting communities.
    Date: 2022–05–18
  14. By: Santamaria,Julieth; Hanmer,Lucia C.; Rubiano Matulevich,Eliana Carolina
    Abstract: This paper examines the influence of gender inequality on poverty among Syrian refugees in Jordanbetween 2013 and 2018. Two waves of Home-Visit surveys, collected by the United Nations High Commissioner forRefugees, are analyzed to track the evolution of poverty among Syrian refugees in Jordan. To compare changes inpoverty between female- and male-headed households, the paper uses relative comparisons of deciles in theexpenditure distribution and quantile regressions. The analysis adjusts the poverty measure for economies of scaleas the cost per person of maintaining a given standard of living may fall as household size rises. The findings showthat the spending distribution has shifted over time, negatively affecting female-headed households. In 2013,female-headed households below the median had lower expenditure than male-headed households. In 2018, thispattern occurs in all deciles. The findings also show small differences between poverty rates of female- and male-headedhouseholds whether the poverty measure is adjusted for economies of scale or not. Regardless of the povertymeasure, the poverty gender gap has increased over time, with female-headed households experiencing poverty moreintensely. Female single caregivers remain at the most risk of falling into poverty when compared with other types ofhouseholds and over time. This approach can help policy makers design more effective programs of assistance thatrespond to gender-based differences in vulnerability to poverty and find durable solutions for displaced populations.
    Date: 2022–09–28
  15. By: Phiri Kampanje, Brian
    Abstract: There is a long established history of migration of Malawians to South Africa to look for jobs and other economic opportunities dating back to precolonial era. The remittances from South Africa have been quite substantial and have uplifted livelihood of thousands of Malawians. The said remittances currently accounts to more than eighty percent of the annual inflows in that category yet there appears to be no concrete strategy to enhance the trade between Malawi and South Africa on the strength of those revenue streams in areas such as importation of official government vehicles, durable and original products, arrange for structured and trade finance based on the needs of Malawi while promoting indigenous traders to provide more goods and services to Government of Malawi. Malawi can be freed of USD obsession.
    Keywords: South; Malawi; Africa; Rand; Remittances
    JEL: I00 J00 J61 J62
    Date: 2022–08–15
  16. By: Ludolph,Lars; Šedová,Barbora; Talevi,Marta
    Abstract: This paper studies the security implications of internal displacement shocks for hostcommunities. It focuses on changes in wealth within host communities induced by the inflow of internally displacedpersons (IDPs) as a potential mechanism that triggers local conflicts. The sudden insurgency of the jihadist terroristorganization Boko Haram, which led to the internal displacement of over 2.5 million persons in northeasternNigeria, is used as a quasi-natural experiment. Applying both a two-way fixed effects analysis and an instrumentalvariable strategy based on historical ethnic ties between the areas of displacement and receiving areas, the resultsshow that the presence of IDPs is associated with a decrease in aggregate wealth and an increase in inequality withinhost communities, between 2010 and 2019. These effects are accompanied by an increased risk of conflict onset in theshort and long run. The inequality–conflict link is likely to be caused by grievances among low-wealth segments of thehost community towards new arrivals rather than by changes in social cohesion within host communities, which increasedin response to the inflow of IDPs. The analysis further indicates that an improvement in IDPs’ living conditions isaccompanied by a decrease in violence and improved relations between hosts and IDPs. Taken together, findings from thisstudy call for a two-pronged immediate relief and recovery approach that alleviates adverse economic effects onvulnerable segments of host communities and increases IDPs’ welfare in displacement settings.
    Date: 2022–05–18
  17. By: World Bank; Pham,Phuong; O’Mealia,Thomas; Wei,Carol; Bindu,Kennedy Kihangi; Makoond,Anupah; Vinck,Patrick Thierry
    Abstract: Situations of forced displacement create unique challenges for social cohesion because of themajor disruption of social dynamics among both displaced persons and host communities. This paper uses a sequentialmixed method approach to analyze the relationship between hosting displaced persons and perceptions of social cohesionin eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. First, participatory research methods in focus groups empoweredparticipants to produce a locally driven definition of social cohesion. The results from these exercises inform thequantitative assessment by dictating measurement strategies when analyzing original surveys. Combining almost 50,000 responses to 11 cross-sectional surveys between 2017 and2021, displacement is negatively associated with perceptions of social cohesion in aggregate. But at the individuallevel, those who report hosting displaced populations in their communities often have higher perceptions of socialcohesion. These results are strongest among respondents who self-report hosting IDPs as opposed to refugees, butimportant heterogeneity across indicators, local context, and gender should guide policy meant to promote socialcohesion in forced displacement.
    Date: 2022–06–22
  18. By: D'Souza,Anna; Favari,Eliana; Krishnaswamy,Siddharth; Tandon,Sharad Alan
    Abstract: This paper investigate the consequences of forced displacement using a panel ofhouseholds that were surveyed during the Republic of Yemen's conflict both before and after they becamedisplaced. It demonstrates that forced displacement resulted in an immediate but temporary decline in food access. Pre-and post-displacement food access outcomes were indistinguishable within four months of displacement and,for later months, there were no economically large declines in food access. The quick rebound is partially explained byan increase in assistance to displaced households that had worse food access prior to displacement. Households thatwere slightly better off prior to displacement did not receive an increase in assistance. These are the firstestimates that directly address how non-security dimensions of well-being change immediately following forceddisplacement and demonstrate that, in some contexts, forcibly displaced households are more resilient than istypically assumed.
    Date: 2022–09–14
  19. By: Bove,Vincenzo; Di Salvatore,Jessica; Elia,Leandro
    Abstract: Can the international community enable conditions for voluntary, safe and sustainable returnof displaced people As conflict is key in the decision to leave and to return, this paper investigates whether thedeployment of UN peacekeeping operations can reduce the insecurities driving displacement and delaying return. Itexplores the case of South Sudan, which hosts the second largest UN peace operation in the world. It combinesinformation on peacekeepers' subnational deployment with data on individuals' intention to move and hostcommunities' perceptions of returnees and internally displaced people (IDPs) using two surveys, one carried outbetween 2015 and 2017 and one in 2018. To mitigate concerns about non-random subnational assignment of peacekeepers, thepaper exploits variations in the presence of previous infrastructures and information on the total supply oftroops to African countries from each troop-contributing country. The paper finds that UN peacekeeping affects boththe magnitude and the quality of return. Displaced people are more likely to return home if peacekeepers are deployedin their county of destination. At the same time, the local presence of peacekeepers mitigates host communities'negative perception of IDPs; they also enable the delivery of support to communities that seem to improve attitudestoward returnees and IDPs.
    Date: 2022–06–23
  20. By: Agüero,Jorge M.; Fasola,Eniola
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of distributional policies on social cohesion. The focus is onSouth Africa, a country with the highest unemployment rate worldwide and a major destination hub for the forciblydisplaced. The paper uses a regression discontinuity design based on the eligibility rule of an unconditional cashtransfer program (Old Age Pension) together with multiple rounds of the country’s Social Attitudes Survey andestimates the impact of the cash transfer to the local population on over 100 variables capturing differentdimensions of social cohesion, while accounting for multiple hypothesis testing. Results show a limited impact of thetransfer on social cohesion. Transfer increases life satisfaction and views favorable towards racial diversity.However, it has only a marginal effect on interpersonal trust and a very small effect on attitudes towardsimmigration. These findings are consistent with theoretical models where anti-immigrant behaviors are not the result oflow-income but rather due to non-wage factors such as ethnic background or language barriers.
    Date: 2022–06–23
  21. By: Letta,Marco; Montalbano,Pierluigi; Paolantonio,Adriana
    Abstract: Over the past two decades, the causal relationship between climate change and migration has gainedincreasing prominence on the international political agenda. Despite recent advances in both conceptual frameworks andapplied techniques, the empirical evidence does not provide clear-cut conclusions, mainly due to the intrinsiccomplexity of the phenomena of interest, the irreducible heterogeneity of the transmission mechanisms, some commonmisconceptions, and, in particular, the paucity of adequate data. This data-oriented review first summarizes thefindings of the most recent empirical literature and identifies the main insights as well as the most importantmediating channels and contextual factors. Then, it discusses open issues and assesses the main data gaps thatcurrently prevent more robust quantifications. Finally, the paper highlights opportunities for exploring these researchquestions, exploiting the potential of the existing multi-topic and multi-purpose household survey data sets,such as those produced by the World Bank’s Living Standards Measurement Study. The paper focuses on the Living StandardsMeasurement Study–Integrated Surveys on Agriculture program to discuss potential improvements for integrating standardhousehold surveys with additional modules and data sources.
    Date: 2022–06–13
  22. By: Vasiliki Fouka; Alain Schläpfer
    Abstract: Under what conditions does intergroup contact lead to conflict? We provide a novel answer to this question by highlighting the role of reputation mechanisms in sustaining cooperation. Reputational concerns can deter defection in one-time interactions within a group, but the informational content of reputation can differ across groups. We consider two types of information. Punishment-based reputation (a "culture of honor") represents past sanctioning behavior of individuals, while a reputation based on image scoring captures past cooperative and uncooperative acts. While either type can successfully sustain cooperation within a group, we show theoretically that interactions of individuals from a punishment-based culture with those from a culture of image scoring can lead to widespread inter-group tensions. Mutual cooperation is a more likely outcome if both cultures use a similar reputation mechanism. We find empirical support for the model's predictions across phenomena related to the emergence of social tensions. Cross-cultural differences in the importance of retaliation predict patterns of host population discrimination against immigrants and variation in bilateral conflict across ethnic groups.
    JEL: P0 Z1
    Date: 2022–09

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