nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2022‒10‒24
six papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Integration policies and their effects on labour market outcomes and immigrant inflows By Céline Piton; Ilse Ruyssen
  2. Where Would Ukrainian Refugees Go if They Could Go Anywhere? By Elinder, Mikael; Erixson, Oscar; Hammar, Olle
  3. Climate Change and Migration: The Case of Africa By Bruno Conte
  4. Exposure to past Immigration Waves and Attitudes toward Newcomers By Gihleb, Rania; Giuntella, Osea; Stella, Luca
  5. Taxation and Migration by the Super-Rich By Advani, Arun; Burgherr, David; Summers, Andy
  6. COVID-19 and assimilation: an analysis of immigration from Venezuelan in Colombia By García-Suaza, A; Gallego, J. M.; Mayorga, J. D.; Mondragón-Mayo, A.; Sepúlveda, C.; Sarango, A.

  1. By: Céline Piton (: Economics and Research Department, National Bank of Belgium & Université libre de Bruxelles (SBS-EM, CEBRIG, DULBEA)); Ilse Ruyssen (Department of Economics—CESSMIR, Ghent University, UNU-CRIS, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium)
    Abstract: Throughout Europe, the labour market integration of immigrants tends to lag behind that of natives. This paper empirically analyses the role played by integration policies in closing this gap in EU countries, not only directly, through the employment rate but also indirectly by influencing the intensity and the composition of immigration flows. Relying on the Migration Integration Policy Indicator (MIPEX), we find that countries with more developed integration policies do not necessarily have higher immigrant employment rates. This finding is due to the fact that different types of policies have opposite effects: policies favouring family reunion, tackling discrimination and allowing for political participation seem to increase the labour market integration of immigrants, while the latter is negatively associated with a higher labour market mobility, as well as easier access to permanent residence and nationality. Only the positive effect of anti-discrimination policies survives the inclusion of country fixed effects though. Effects are found to vary across immigrants coming from EU versus non-EU countries, suggesting that there is no one-fits-all integration policy. Moreover, our results confirm that immigrants’ labour market integration varies with the skill composition of the migrant population, a higher level of qualification favouring employment. The composition of the immigrant population within a country in terms of skill levels, however, could also be influenced by integration policies in potential destination countries, a premise which we also test. We show that integration policies indeed act as a pull factor for migration in a gravity model that controls also for the restrictiveness and skill selectivity of migration policies. Yet, it seems that more elaborate integration policies affect primarily the number of high-skilled immigrants entering the territory, but not the number of medium or low skilled, and this only for those from EU countries. Different factors hence seem to be at play for the low and medium skilled, but once moved, our results show that low-skilled migrants are the ones benefitting the most from integration policies in terms of employment rate.
    Keywords: : Integration policies, Immigration, Labour market.
    JEL: J08 J15 J18 J21 J78
    Date: 2022–09
  2. By: Elinder, Mikael (Department of Economics, Uppsala University); Erixson, Oscar (Department of Economics, Uppsala University); Hammar, Olle (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: We present estimates of the number of refugees expected to flee Ukraine and to which countries they are expected to migrate based on migration preferences data from the Gallup World Poll. This is important in terms of both immediate refugee assistance efforts and long-term integration policies. Our key finding is that as many as twelve million people may want to leave Ukraine permanently and that refugee policies in potential destination countries are likely to have a substantial impact on the distribution of Ukrainian refugees between different countries. More specifically, international solidarity in response to the migration crisis would significantly reduce the refugee flows to EU countries, incur a limited burden on non-EU countries, and, at the same time, better take the preferences of the Ukrainians into account.
    Keywords: Ukraine; Refugees; Migration preferences
    JEL: F22 J15 O15
    Date: 2022–09–21
  3. By: Bruno Conte
    Abstract: This paper estimates the impacts of climate change in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) on migration and other economic outcomes. I develop a quantitative spatial model that captures the role of trade networks, migration barriers, and agricultural yields on the geography of the economy. I combine the model with forecasts of future crop yields to find that climate change, by the end of the century, reduces SSA real GDP per capita by 1.8 percent and displaces 4 million individuals. Migration barriers in SSA are very stringent: if absent, climate-induced migration exceeds 100 million individuals. Still, migration and trade are powerful adaptation mechanisms. Reducing migration barriers to the European Union (EU) standards eliminates the aggregate economic losses of climate change in SSA, but at the cost of more climate migration and higher regional inequality. Also reducing trade frictions to the EU levels attenuates this cost and makes SSA better off on aggregate and distributional terms.
    Keywords: climate change, migration, economic geography
    JEL: O15 Q54 R12
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Gihleb, Rania (University of Pittsburgh); Giuntella, Osea (University of Pittsburgh); Stella, Luca (Free University of Berlin)
    Abstract: How does previous exposure to massive immigrant inflows affect concerns about current immigration and the integration of refugees? To answer this question, we investigate attitudes toward newcomers among natives and previous immigrants. In areas that in the 1990s received higher inflows of immigrants of German origin—so-called ethnic Germans—native Germans are more likely to believe that refugees are a resource for the economy and the culture, viewing them as an opportunity rather than a risk. Refugees living in these areas report better health and feel less exposed to xenophobia.
    Keywords: immigration, refugees, birthplace diversity, public opinion
    JEL: A13 D64 J6 I31
    Date: 2022–09
  5. By: Advani, Arun (University of Warwick, CAGE, the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), and the LSE International Inequalities Institute (III)); Burgherr, David (LSE III.); Summers, Andy (London School of Economics, III, and CAGE)
    Abstract: Using administrative data on the globally connected super-rich in the UK, we study the effect of a large tax reform on migration behaviour. Prior to 2017, o shore investment returns for `non-doms' - individuals tax resident in the UK but with connections to other countries - were untaxed. Average off shore investment returns for these individuals exceeded £420,000; even without considering other types of income, this puts them in the top 0.2% of the population. A reform in 2017 brought long-stayers and UK-born non-doms into the standard tax system, reducing their effective net of average tax rate by between 8.8% and 13.0%. We nd that migration responses were limited : our central estimate of the migration elasticity is 0.02, and across a range of specifications we can rule out elasticities larger than 0.5. Using reforms for the UK-born super-rich who were living abroad, we find that migration elasticities are limited even for recent arrivals, for whom our central estimate is 0.18. Assuming similar elasticities for all non-doms, abolition of the preferential regime would increase tax revenue collected from non-doms by £3.2bn (84%).
    Keywords: taxation; migration; capital income; inequality; mobility JEL Codes: F22 ; H31 ; J61
  6. By: García-Suaza, A; Gallego, J. M.; Mayorga, J. D.; Mondragón-Mayo, A.; Sepúlveda, C.; Sarango, A.
    Abstract: The increase in global immigration phenomena has impacted local labor markets. The process of social and economic assimilation is crucial to ensure the well-being of both natives and immigrants. This article analyzes the impacts of immigration from Venezuela to Colombia, differentiating the effects of recent and long-term immigration on natives and immigrants. We find that immigration has decreased employment and hourly wages; and increased informality, while the impact on unemployment is null. These effects are higher among immigrants in comparison with the native population. Our results show that even when adverse effects on labor market outcomes are estimated, there is evidence of adaptability to the immigration shock and that an assimilation process is taking place.
    Keywords: Migration, labor market, assimilation, Colombia.
    JEL: F22 O15 R23 J61
    Date: 2022–09–26

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