nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2022‒09‒12
seven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. No Place like Home: Place-Based Attachments and Regional Science By Winters, John V.
  2. Population Movements in Afghanistan: A Historical Overview, Migration Trends under the Taliban Regime, and Future Outlooks By Barlas, Ahmad Walid
  3. Covering Undocumented Immigrants: The Effects of a Large-Scale Prenatal Care Intervention By Sarah Miller; Laura Wherry
  4. Policy Uncertainty and Inventor Mobility By Jordan Bisset; Dirk Czarnitzki; Thorsten Doherr
  5. Impact of Population Ageing on Japan's Inter-Prefectural Migration: A Spatial Econometrics Analysis By SIMON CONSALVO
  6. Are Immigrants More Left-Leaning than Natives? By Simone Moriconi; Giovanni Peri; Riccardo Turati
  7. Migration policy and labor market integration By Kerstin Mitterbacher; Jürgen Fleiß; Stefan Palan

  1. By: Winters, John V. (Iowa State University)
    Abstract: Place-based attachments are important but often overlooked. Place-based attachments can be beneficial but often harm individuals tied to struggling areas. In this address, I discuss my own education and migration experiences and then more generally discuss sense of belonging as a friction to migration. I also present descriptive statistics related to place-based attachments. Most persons born in the U.S. live in their birth state as adults. Birth-state residence has increased over time, especially among the highly educated. I also present evidence that college graduates who reside in their birth state experience a wage penalty that is increasing over time.
    Keywords: location, place, regions, migration frictions, policy
    JEL: R10 R23 J61
    Date: 2022–07
  2. By: Barlas, Ahmad Walid
    Abstract: Afghanistan has experienced a major refugee crisis in the last four decades. The Afghan migration patterns are shaped by a mix of political, social, environmental, and economic factors, making it difficult to pinpoint Afghan migration decisions to a single determinant. This study reviews Afghanistan’s population movements, taking into account a historical overview of migration flows, the refugee trends under the Taliban regime, and future prospects. According to available studies and projections, Afghanistan’s migrant flow will continue, citing insecurity, economic crisis, natural disaster, a high population growth rate, and the Taliban’s imposition of restrictions on social, cultural and economic events as key reasons. The Afghan government could face numerous obstacles, including brain drain, high skilled labor force shortages, IDPs management, and facilitating reintegration of returnees in the future. Particularly, in dealing with migration issues, the Taliban could be confronted with three major constraints: a lack of national and inter-national legitimacy, a shortage of human capital and a scarcity of funds.
    Keywords: Conflict, drought, poverty, refugees, IDPs, and Afghanistan
    JEL: J6
    Date: 2022–08–12
  3. By: Sarah Miller; Laura Wherry
    Abstract: Undocumented immigrants are ineligible for public insurance coverage for prenatal care in most states, despite their children representing a large fraction of births and having U.S. citizenship. In this paper, we examine a policy that expanded Medicaid pregnancy coverage to undocumented immigrants. Using a novel dataset that links California birth records to Census surveys, we identify siblings born to immigrant mothers before and after the policy. Implementing a mothers' fixed effects design, we find that the policy increased coverage for and use of prenatal care among pregnant immigrant women, and increased average gestation length and birth weight among their children.
    JEL: H75 I13 I18
    Date: 2022–07
  4. By: Jordan Bisset; Dirk Czarnitzki; Thorsten Doherr
    Abstract: We follow the migration patterns of European inventors and find evidence of a novel emigration determinant: policy uncertainty. We find that policy uncertainty raises the rate of inventor emigration by a notable magnitude. With a one standard deviation in the policy uncertainty of the home country, relative to the possible destination countries, the rate of inventor emigration increases by nearly 40%. Migrating inventors are subsequently exposed to lower levels of policy uncertainty in the destination country emphasising that uncertainty motivated the move. We conclude that these effects may have strong welfare implications at the aggregate level.
    Keywords: Out-Migration, Brain Drain, Uncertainty, Inventors
    Date: 2022–08–22
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact that the decline in the Japanese population has had on its interprefectural migration flows over the last 15 years. The early 2000s saw the number of internal migrants consistently decrease, reaching all-time low records in both intra and inter-prefectural migration. Economic inequalities between cities and other regions began to shrink in the 1970s due to the indirect effects of the post Second World War's so-called "economic miracle". Also, after 2003, such disparities between metropolitan and rural areas further intensified due to an increase in the income gap, as Japan recorded the start of an aging society phenomenon. How the prefecture's socio-economical and healthcare characteristics are affecting the flow of migration will be examined through spatiotemporal autoregressive models.
    Date: 2022–08
  6. By: Simone Moriconi; Giovanni Peri; Riccardo Turati
    Abstract: We analyze whether second generation immigrants have different political preferences relative to observationally identical host country’s citizens. Using data on individual voting behavior in 22 European countries between 2001 and 2017 we characterize each vote on a left-right scale using ideological and policy position of the party from the Manifesto Project Database. In the first part of the paper we characterize the size of the "left-bias" in the vote of second generation immigrants, after controlling for a large set of individual characteristics and origin and destination country unobservable factors. We find a significant left-bias of second generation migrants relative to observationally identical natives, similar in magnitude to the association between left-bias and secondary education, or living in urban areas. We then show that this left-bias associates with stronger preferences for government intervention to reduce economic inequality, and for internationalism and multiculturalism.
    Keywords: immigration, elections, Europe
    JEL: D72 J61 P16 Z10
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Kerstin Mitterbacher (Institute of Banking and Finance, University of Graz); Jürgen Fleiß (Business Analytics and Data Science-Center, University of Graz); Stefan Palan (Institute of Banking and Finance, University of Graz)
    Abstract: We experimentally study economic migrants' willingness to relocate to, and take up work in, the destination country, and, in turn, destination country citizens' willingness to allow economic migrants to relocate to and pursue formal work in their country. In doing so, we focus on economic migrants coming from less developed countries and citizens of more developed destination countries. We find clear evidence for a reciprocal relationship between the individuals in these roles. The labor market participation of economic migrants co-moves with destination countries' openness to welcoming them. However, open migration polices without the threat of facing restrictive policies reduce migrants' willingness to work. At the same time, while the existence of such a threat gets migrants to work, the actual implementation of restrictive policies has the same effects as open migration policies. We conclude that supporting economic migrants in early labor market attachment is crucial to support mutually beneficial co-existence in society.
    Date: 2022–08–16

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