nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2022‒07‒25
five papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. The Heterogeneous Labor Market Effects of the Venezuelan Exodus on Female Workers: Evidence from Colombia By Andrea Otero-Cortés; Tribín-Uribe, Ana María; Mojica, Tatiana
  2. Migration and public finances in the EU By Carlo V. Fiorio; Tommaso Frattini; Andrea Riganti; Michael Christl
  3. Trust towards migrants By Nestor Gandelman; Diego Lamé
  4. Country, culture or competition: What drives attitudes towards immigrants in Sub-Saharan Africa? By Becker, Malte; Krüger, Finja; Heidland, Tobias
  5. Malleability of Alcohol Consumption: Evidence from Migrants By Marit Hinnosaar; Elaine Liu

  1. By: Andrea Otero-Cortés; Tribín-Uribe, Ana María; Mojica, Tatiana
    Abstract: We study the labor market effects of the Venezuelan migration shock on female labor market outcomes in Colombia using a Bartik-instrument approach.For our identification strategy we leverage regional variation from pull factors and time variation from push factors. Our findings show that in the labor market, female immigrants can act as substitutes or complements for native-born women depending on native women’s education level; immigrant workers are substitutes in the labor market for native-born low-educated women as they compete for similar jobs. Hence, the low-educated native women’s labor force participation decreases. At the same time, time spent doing unpaid care increases for low-educated native women, possibly further preventing the job search for this group. On the other hand, we find an increase in labor force participation of 1.6 p.p. for highly educated women with minors at home and a 1 p.p. higher likelihood of becoming entrepreneurs due to the migratory shock, which supports the complementary-skill hypothesis. Finally, we don’t find evidence that the migratory shock induced households to outsource more home-production as a means for high-educated women to spend more time at paid work. **** RESUMEN: En este documento estudiamos los efectos que el choque migratorio venezolano tuvo sobre el mercado laboral y uso del tiempo para las mujeres de Colombia utilizando la metodología de instrumentos tipo Bartik. Para esto, usamos variación regional de un factor de atracción de migración, como lo son las redes migratorias previamente establecidas en cada ciudad receptora, y la variación temporal del IPC venezolano como factor de empuje de la migración para nuestra estrategia de identificación. Los resultados muestran que, en el mercado laboral, las mujeres migrantes pueden actuar como sustitutas o complementarias de las nativas dependiendo de la educación de estas últimas. Las trabajadoras inmigrantes son sustitutas en el mercado laboral de las mujeres nativas con baja escolaridad porque compiten por puestos de trabajo similares. Por lo tanto, la participación laboral disminuye para las mujeres nativas con bajo nivel educativo como consecuencia del choque migratorio y también aumenta el tiempo destinado al trabajo no remunerado, lo que posiblemente impide aún más la búsqueda de empleo para este grupo. De otra parte, encontramos que hay un aumento de la participación laboral de 1,6 p.p. para las mujeres con alta escolaridad y que viven con niños y niñas menores de 5 años en el hogar y una mayor probabilidad de convertirse en emprendedoras, lo que apoya la hipótesis de la complementariedad de las habilidades entre migrantes y nativas con alta escolaridad. Contrario a lo que ocurre en países desarrollados ante choques migratorios, no encontramos evidencia de que los hogares nativos contraten en mayor proporción mujeres migrantes para realizar trabajo domestico para facilitar que las mujeres con nivel alto educación dediquen más horas al trabajo remunerado.
    Keywords: Migration; Female labor market outcomes; Care economy; Entrepreneurship; Migración; Mercado laboral femenino; Economía del cuidado; Emprendimiento
    JEL: J16 J22 J61 L26 R23
    Date: 2022–07
  2. By: Carlo V. Fiorio (University of Milan, Irvapp-FBK and Dondena Centre); Tommaso Frattini (University of Milan, Centro Studi Luca D'Agliano, CEPR, CReAM and IZA); Andrea Riganti (University of Milan); Michael Christl (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: We provide novel and comprehensive evidence on the net fiscal contributions of natives and migrants to the governmental budgets of EU countries. We account for income taxes and cash benefits, along with indirect taxes and in-kind benefits, which are often missing in standard datasets. We find that on average, migrants were net contributors to public finances over the period of 2014-2018 in the EU and, moreover, that they contribute approximately EUR 1.5 thousand more per capita each year than natives. We also show that this difference is partly due to selection on characteristics that make migrants net fiscal contributors, such as demographic factors and employment probability.
    Keywords: Migration; EU; individual taxation; public benefits; individual fiscal contribution
    JEL: F22 H24 H50
    Date: 2022–06
  3. By: Nestor Gandelman (Universidad ORT Uruguay. Facultad de Administración y Ciencias Sociales. Departmento de Economía); Diego Lamé
    Abstract: Using a standard trust game, we elicit trust and reciprocity measures in a representative sample of adult players in Montevideo, the capital city of Uruguay, a country that exhibits relatively better levels of tolerance towards migrants than other Latin American countries. We find no statistically significant differences in trust levels of Uruguayans towards countrymen versus migrants. In reciprocity, we find only marginally significant differences attributable to the nationality of the players.
    Keywords: Trust, Reciprocity, Experimental games, Migrations
    JEL: C9 J15
    Date: 2021–09
  4. By: Becker, Malte; Krüger, Finja; Heidland, Tobias
    Abstract: Sub-Saharan Africa is becoming an increasingly important destination for international migration. The region hosts immigrants from other African countries and from other parts of the world, such as China. Given high poverty levels and weak social security systems in Sub-Saharan Africa, host populations might fear increasing competition for resources and labor, potentially resulting in negative attitudes towards immigrants. We provide the first systematic study of attitudes towards immigrants in Sub-Saharan African countries that uses a causal framework. Using a survey experiment in Uganda and Senegal, we study both attitudes towards immigrants in general and towards specific immigrant groups. In particular, we focus on Chinese immigrants, whose increasing presence in Africa is seen by many as the most important contemporary geopolitical shift involving the continent. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are mainly driven by sociotropic cultural and sociotropic economic concerns. Furthermore, immigrants from China are perceived less positively and economically more threatening than immigrants in general.
    Keywords: attitudes towards immigration,China in Africa,migration,experiment,conjoint
    JEL: F22 O15 O55
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Marit Hinnosaar (University of Nottingham); Elaine Liu (University of Houston)
    Abstract: How malleable is alcohol consumption? Specifically, how much is alcohol consumption driven by the current environment versus individual characteristics? To answer this question, we analyze changes in alcohol purchases when consumers move from one state to another in the United States. We find that if a household moves to a state with a higher (lower) average alcohol purchases than the origin state, the household is likely to increase (decrease) its alcohol purchases right after the move. The current environment explains about two-thirds of the differences in alcohol purchases. The adjustment takes place both on the extensive and intensive margins.
    Keywords: alcohol, geographic variation, migration, taxes, regulation
    JEL: I12 L66 D12
    Date: 2022–07

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